1
 
   
     AS FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON APRIL 29, 1998
    
                                                      REGISTRATION NO. 333-37235
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                       SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
                             WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
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                                AMENDMENT NO. 4
    
                                       TO
 
                                    FORM S-1
                             REGISTRATION STATEMENT
                                     UNDER
                           THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
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                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
             (EXACT NAME OF REGISTRANT AS SPECIFIED IN ITS CHARTER)
 
   
                                                                
             DELAWARE                             3674                           23-172-2724
 (STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION OF      (PRIMARY STANDARD INDUSTRIAL             (I.R.S. EMPLOYER
  INCORPORATION OR ORGANIZATION)      CLASSIFICATION CODE NUMBER)           IDENTIFICATION NUMBER)
AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. 1345 ENTERPRISE DRIVE WEST CHESTER, PA 19380 (610) 431-9600 (ADDRESS, INCLUDING ZIP CODE, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER, INCLUDING AREA CODE, OF REGISTRANT'S PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICES) FRANK J. MARCUCCI CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. 1345 ENTERPRISE DRIVE WEST CHESTER, PA 19380 (610) 431-9600 (NAME, ADDRESS, INCLUDING ZIP CODE, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER, INCLUDING AREA CODE, OF AGENT FOR SERVICE) Copies to: LARRY W. SONSINI, ESQ. ALAN L. BELLER, ESQ. DONNA M. PETKANICS, ESQ. YONG G. LEE, ESQ. BRUCE M. MCNAMARA, ESQ. CLEARY, GOTTLIEB, STEEN & HAMILTON WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI ONE LIBERTY PLAZA PROFESSIONAL CORPORATION NEW YORK, NY 10006 650 PAGE MILL ROAD (212) 225-2000 PALO ALTO, CA 94304 (650) 493-9300
APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement. If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. [ ] If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [ ] If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [ ] If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [ ] If delivery of the prospectus is expected to be made pursuant to Rule 434, please check the following box. [ ] THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE. ================================================================================ 2 EXPLANATORY NOTE This Registration Statement contains a Prospectus relating to an offering in the United States and Canada of an aggregate of 28,000,000 shares of Common Stock and $120,000,000 aggregate principal amount of % Subordinated Convertible Notes due 2003 (the "Convertible Notes") of Amkor Technology, Inc. (the "U.S. Offering"), together with separate Prospectus pages relating to a concurrent offering outside the United States and Canada of an aggregate of 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock and $30,000,000 aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes of Amkor Technology, Inc. (the "International Offering"), in each case excluding shares issuable upon exercise of the Underwriters' over-allotment options. The complete Prospectus for the U.S. Offering follows immediately. Following such Prospectus are the following alternate pages from the Prospectus for the International Offering: a front cover page, five pages comprising the "Underwriting" section and a back cover page. All of the other pages of the Prospectus for the U.S. Offering are to be used for both the U.S. Offering and the International Offering. If this Registration Statement becomes effective in accordance with Rule 430A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the complete Prospectus for each of the U.S. and International Offerings in the forms in which they are to be used will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. 3 Information contained herein is subject to completion or amendment. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These securities may not be sold nor may offers to buy be accepted prior to the time the registration statement becomes effective. This prospectus shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sale of these securities in any State in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to the registration or qualification under the securities laws of any such State. SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 29, 1998 PROSPECTUS 35,000,000 SHARES COMMON STOCK [AMKOR LOGO] $150,000,000 % CONVERTIBLE SUBORDINATED NOTES DUE 2003 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. ------------------ Amkor Technology, Inc. ("Amkor" or the "Company") hereby offers 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock, par value $.001 per share ("Common Stock"), and $150,000,000 aggregate principal amount of % Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2003 (the "Convertible Notes"). In addition, a stockholder of the Company (the "Selling Stockholder") is hereby offering 5,000,000 shares of Common Stock. The Convertible Notes will mature on , 2003. Interest on the Convertible Notes is payable on and of each year, commencing , 1998. The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of Common Stock at any time on or before the close of business on the last trading day prior to maturity, unless previously redeemed, at a conversion price of $ per share, subject to adjustment in certain events as described herein. The Convertible Notes are subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future Senior Debt (as defined) of the Company and effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of the Company's subsidiaries. The Convertible Notes are not redeemable by the Company prior to , 2001. On or after , 2001, the Convertible Notes are redeemable, in whole or from time to time in part, at the option of the Company, at the redemption prices set forth herein plus accrued interest, if the closing price of the Common Stock is at least 125% of the conversion price for at least 20 trading days within a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the fifth trading day prior to the notice of redemption. No sinking fund is provided for the Convertible Notes. In addition, following the occurrence of a Designated Event (i.e., a Change of Control or Termination of Trading (each as defined)), each holder has the right to cause the Company to purchase the Convertible Notes at 101% of their principal amount together with accrued and unpaid interest. See "Description of Convertible Notes." Of the 35,000,000 shares of Common Stock (the "Shares") and $150,000,000 aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes offered hereby, 28,000,000 Shares and $120,000,000 aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes are being offered by the U.S. Underwriters (as defined) in the United States and Canada (the "U.S. Offering") and 7,000,000 Shares and $30,000,000 aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes are being offered by the International Underwriters (as defined) in a concurrent offering outside the United States and Canada (the "International Offering" and, together with the U.S. Offering, the "Offerings"), subject to transfers between the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters (collectively, the "Underwriters"). The Price to the Public and Underwriting Discount per Share and per Convertible Note will be identical for the U.S. Offering and the International Offering. See "Underwriting." The closing of the U.S. Offering and International Offering are conditioned upon each other. Following the Offerings, certain members of management and their family will beneficially own approximately 68.9% of the Company's outstanding Common Stock. See "Principal and Selling Stockholders." Prior to the Offerings, there has not been a public market for the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price of the Common Stock will be between $10.00 and $12.00 per share. See "Underwriting" for information relating to the factors considered in determining the initial public offering price. The Common Stock has been approved for listing on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol "AMKR," subject to official notice of issuance. The Convertible Notes have been approved for quotation on the Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol "AMKRG." SEE "RISK FACTORS" BEGINNING ON PAGE 9 FOR A DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED BY PROSPECTIVE PURCHASERS OF THE SHARES AND THE CONVERTIBLE NOTES. ------------------ THESE SECURITIES HAVE NOT BEEN APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED BY THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION NOR HAS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION PASSED UPON THE ACCURACY OR ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE. ================================================================================
UNDERWRITING PROCEEDS TO PRICE TO DISCOUNTS AND PROCEEDS TO THE SELLING THE PUBLIC COMMISSIONS(1) THE COMPANY(2) STOCKHOLDERS(2) - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Per Share..................... $ $ $ $ Per Convertible Note.......... % % % -- Total Shares.................. $ $ $ $ Total Convertible Notes....... $ $ $ -- Total(3)...................... $ $ $ $ ======================================================================================================================
(1) For information regarding indemnification of the Underwriters, see "Underwriting." (2) Before deducting expenses payable by the Company, estimated at $5,000,000. (3) The Company has granted the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters 30-day options to purchase up to 4,200,000 and 1,050,000 additional shares of Common Stock, respectively, and $18,000,000 and $4,500,000 additional principal amount of Convertible Notes, respectively, solely to cover over-allotments, if any. If such options are exercised in full, the total Price to the Public, Underwriting Discounts and Proceeds to the Company will be $ , $ and $ , respectively. See "Underwriting." ------------------ The Shares and the Convertible Notes are offered subject to receipt and acceptance by the Underwriters, to prior sale and to the Underwriters' right to reject any order in whole or in part and to withdraw, cancel or modify the offer without notice. It is expected that delivery of the Shares and the Convertible Notes will be made at the office of Smith Barney Inc., 333 West 34th Street, New York, New York 10001 or through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, on or about , 1998. ------------------ SALOMON SMITH BARNEY BANCAMERICA ROBERTSON STEPHENS COWEN & COMPANY , 1998 4 [ARTWORK] [Photograph of manufacturing facilities; pictures of products; and diagram of wafer fabrication, packaging and test operations.] PowerQuad(R) and SuperBGA(R) are registered trademarks of the Company and ChipArray(TM), fleXBGA(TM) and PowerSOP(TM) are trademarks of the Company. MicroBGA(TM) is a trademark of Tessera, Inc. This Prospectus includes other trademarks and trade names of the Company and other entities. CERTAIN PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN THE OFFERINGS MAY ENGAGE IN TRANSACTIONS THAT STABILIZE, MAINTAIN OR OTHERWISE AFFECT THE PRICE OF THE SECURITIES OFFERED HEREBY, INCLUDING PURCHASES OF SUCH SECURITIES TO STABILIZE THEIR MARKET PRICE, PURCHASES OF SUCH SECURITIES TO COVER SOME OR ALL OF A SHORT POSITION IN SUCH SECURITIES MAINTAINED BY THE UNDERWRITERS AND THE IMPOSITION OF PENALTY BIDS. FOR A DESCRIPTION OF THESE ACTIVITIES, SEE "UNDERWRITING." 2 5 PROSPECTUS SUMMARY The following summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information found elsewhere in this Prospectus, including under "Risk Factors" and the Combined Financial Statements and Notes thereto. Certain statements contained in "Prospectus Summary," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business," including statements regarding the anticipated growth in the market for the Company's products, the Company's anticipated capital expenditures and financing needs, the Company's expected capacity utilization rates, the belief of the Company as to its future operating performance, and other statements contained in this Prospectus that are not historical facts, are "forward-looking" statements within the meaning of the U.S. federal securities laws. Because such statements include risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth in "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business." These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this Prospectus and the Company assumes no obligation to update such forward-looking statements or to update the reasons why actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. THE COMPANY Amkor is the world's largest independent provider of semiconductor packaging and test services. The Company believes that it is also one of the leading developers of advanced semiconductor packaging and test technology in the industry. The Company offers a complete and integrated set of packaging and test services including integrated circuit ("IC") package design, leadframe and substrate design, IC package assembly, final testing, burn-in, reliability testing, and thermal and electrical characterization. As of December 31, 1997, the Company had in excess of 150 customers, including many of the largest semiconductor companies in the world. Such customers include, among others, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., International Business Machines Corp., Intel Corporation, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Motorola, Inc., National Semiconductor Corp., Philips Electronics N.V., SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics N.V., Siemens AG and Texas Instruments, Inc. ("TI"). Today, nearly all of the world's major semiconductor companies outsource some or all of their packaging and test needs. The increasing complexities, investment requirements and time to market pressures associated with IC design and production, combined with the growth in the number of ICs being produced and sold, are driving increasing demand for independent packaging and test services. According to industry estimates, independent packaging foundry revenues are expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 16% over a period of five years from $5.6 billion in 1997 to $11.6 billion in 2002. The Company provides packaging and test services through its three factories in the Philippines as well as four factories of Anam Semiconductor, Inc. (formerly Anam Industrial Co., Ltd.) ("AICL") in Korea pursuant to a supply agreement between the Company and AICL. The Company and AICL have had a long- standing relationship. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. In addition, substantially all of the revenues of AICL in 1996 and 1997 were derived from services sold by the Company. Mr. James Kim, the Company's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is a director of AICL, and he and other members of his family beneficially own approximately 40.7% of AICL's outstanding common stock. The Company expects that the businesses of the Company and AICL will continue to remain highly interdependent by virtue of their supply relationship, overlaps and family ties between their respective shareholders and management, financial relationships, coordination of product and operation plans, joint research and development activities and shared intellectual property rights. The Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services through AICL's new deep submicron CMOS foundry capable of producing 15,000 8" wafers per month. Through a strategic relationship with TI, the Company and AICL have qualified .25 micron CMOS process technology, and TI has agreed to provide to AICL .18 micron CMOS process technology during 1998. AICL's foundry will primarily manufacture DSPs, ASICs and other logic devices. By leveraging the Company's leading position in semiconductor packaging and test services, the new wafer fabrication services have enabled the Company to become one of the first providers of a fully integrated, turnkey semiconductor fabrication, packaging and test service solution. 3 6 The Company's strategy is to: (i) maintain its product technology leadership by continuing to design and produce leading-edge packaging technology; (ii) maintain advanced manufacturing capabilities through continuous advancement and refinement of its process technology; (iii) leverage the scale and scope of its packaging and test capabilities to provide Amkor with several competitive advantages, including procurement of key materials and manufacturing equipment, the ability to capitalize on economies of scale and the ability to offer an industry-leading breadth of product offerings; (iv) establish industry packaging standards to bolster sales of leading-edge, high margin and high growth product lines; (v) enhance customer and supplier relationships; (vi) continue to focus on customer support; and (vii) provide an integrated, turnkey solution comprised of wafer fabrication, packaging and test services. The Company was organized under the laws of Delaware in September 1997 to consolidate the ownership of several affiliated entities in the same business and under common management. See "Reorganization." The Company's principal executive offices are located at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West Chester, PA 19380 and its telephone number at that address is (610) 431-9600. 4 7 THE COMMON STOCK OFFERINGS Common Stock offered by the Company U.S. Offering.................................... 24,000,000 shares International Offering........................... 6,000,000 shares ------------------- Total.................................... 30,000,000 shares Common Stock offered by Selling Stockholder U.S. Offering.................................... 4,000,000 shares International Offering........................... 1,000,000 shares ------------------- Total.................................... 5,000,000 shares Common Stock to be outstanding after the Offerings(1)..................................... 112,610,000 shares Proposed Nasdaq National Market symbol............. "AMKR"
- --------------- (1) Excludes 3,145,900 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of options to be granted immediately prior to the Offerings under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees and 1998 Director Option Plan. Also excludes an aggregate of shares reserved for future issuance upon conversion of the Convertible Notes and 3,404,100 additional shares reserved for future issuance under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees, 1998 Director Option Plan and 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. See "Management" and "Description of Capital Stock" and Notes 1 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. THE CONVERTIBLE NOTES OFFERINGS Convertible Notes offered by the Company U.S. Offering............ $120,000,000 aggregate principal amount International Offering... $ 30,000,000 aggregate principal amount ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Total............ $150,000,000 aggregate principal amount Maturity................... The Convertible Notes will mature on , 2003, unless earlier redeemed or converted. Payment of Interest........ Interest on the Convertible Notes at the rate of % per annum is payable semi-annually on and of each year, commencing , 1998. Conversion Rights.......... The Convertible Notes are convertible into Common Stock of the Company at the option of the holder at any time on or before the close of business on the last trading day prior to maturity, unless previously redeemed, at a conversion price of $ per share, subject to adjustment in certain events. The initial conversion price will be determined on the basis of the initial public offering price per share. See "Description of Convertible Notes -- Conversion." Redemption at the Option of the Company................ The Convertible Notes are not redeemable by the Company prior to , 2001. On or after , 2001, the Company may, upon at least 15 days' notice, redeem the Convertible Notes at the redemption prices set forth herein, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, if the closing price of the Common Stock is at least 125% of the conversion price for at least 20 trading days within a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the fifth trading day prior to the notice of redemption. See "Description of Convertible Notes -- Optional Redemption." 5 8 Repurchase Upon Designated Event.................... The Convertible Notes are required to be repurchased at 101% of their principal amount together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, at the option of the holder, upon the occurrence of a Designated Event (i.e., a Change of Control or a Termination of Trading (each as defined)). See "Risk Factors -- Limitations on Repurchase of Convertible Notes" and "Description of Convertible Notes -- Repurchase at Option of Holders Upon a Designated Event." Subordination.............. The Convertible Notes will be unsecured obligations of the Company and will be subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future Senior Debt of the Company and effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of the Company's subsidiaries. As of December 31, 1997 (after giving effect to the Reorganization (as defined)), the Company had approximately $32 million of outstanding indebtedness that would have constituted Senior Debt, and the indebtedness and other liabilities of the Company's subsidiaries (excluding intercompany liabilities and obligations of a type not required to be reflected on the balance sheet of such subsidiary in accordance with GAAP) that would effectively have been senior to the Convertible Notes were approximately $642 million. After giving effect to planned debt repayments by the Company prior to the Offerings and the application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings (assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock), such amounts will be approximately $32 million and $217 million, respectively. See "Risk Factors -- Subordination of Convertible Notes," "Use of Proceeds" and "Description of Convertible Notes -- Subordination." Proposed Nasdaq Stock Market Symbol............ "AMKRG" Securities Lending Arrangement.............. In connection with market-making activities in the Convertible Notes, Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time borrow, return and reborrow up to 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock from certain stockholders of the Company. The Underwriters are not obligated, however, to make a market in the Convertible Notes and any such market-making may be discontinued at any time at the sole discretion of the Underwriters. See "Underwriting." USE OF PROCEEDS The net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings, estimated to be approximately $450 million (assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock), will be used primarily to repay approximately $331 million of short-term and long-term debt, including $106 million of amounts due to Anam USA, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AICL ("AUSA"), and to repurchase AICL's minority interest in one of the Company's Philippine manufacturing subsidiaries for approximately $34 million. The remaining $85 million of such net proceeds will be used for capital expenditures and working capital. See "Use of Proceeds." RISK FACTORS See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 9 for a discussion of certain factors that should be considered by potential investors. 6 9 SUMMARY COMBINED FINANCIAL DATA (IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AND RATIO DATA)
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ------------------------------------------------------------ 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 -------- -------- -------- ---------- ---------- INCOME STATEMENT DATA: Net revenues............................. $442,101 $572,918 $932,382 $1,171,001 $1,455,761 Gross profit............................. 70,778 58,270 149,047 148,923 213,092 Operating income......................... 26,374 13,843 84,855 71,368 100,841 Net income(1)............................ 17,236 11,574 61,932 32,922 43,281 Pro forma adjustment for income taxes(2)............................... 2,900 200 10,400 2,900 3,613 Pro forma net income(2).................. 14,336 11,374 51,532 30,022 39,668 Basic and diluted pro forma net income per common share....................... .17 .14 .62 .36 .48 Shares used in per share calculation..... 82,610 82,610 82,610 82,610 82,610 OTHER DATA: EBITDA(3)................................ $ 37,437 $ 34,197 $103,434 $ 123,082 $ 175,111 Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(4) Actual................................. 3.7x 2.0x 4.6x 2.4x 2.5x Supplemental pro forma................. 3.1x
DECEMBER 31, 1997 ----------------------------------------- DECEMBER 31, 1996 ACTUAL PRO FORMA(5) AS ADJUSTED(6) ----------------- --------- ------------ -------------- BALANCE SHEET DATA: Cash and cash equivalents..................... $ 49,644 $ 90,917 $ 63,217 $ 68,191 Working capital (deficit)..................... 36,785 (196,870) (224,570) 52,704 Total assets.................................. 804,864 855,592 827,892 864,197 Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt.............................. 191,813 325,968 325,968 53,668 % Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2003... -- -- -- 150,000 Due to AUSA (non-current)..................... 234,894 149,776 149,776 -- Other long-term debt.......................... 167,444 38,283 38,283 35,283 Stockholders' equity.......................... 45,812 90,875 61,075 367,838
- --------------- (1) Net income for 1997 reflects a $17.3 million loss related primarily to the impairment of value of the Company's equity interest in AICL. This investment was sold in 1998. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (2) Prior to the reorganization of the Company, Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("AEI"), a predecessor of the Company, elected to be taxed as an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax laws. Accordingly, AEI did not recognize any provision for federal income tax expense during the periods presented herein. The pro forma adjustment for income taxes reflects the additional U.S. federal income taxes which would have been recorded by the Company if AEI had not been an S Corporation during these periods. See "Reorganization" and Note 1 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (3) EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest, taxes on income, depreciation and amortization. EBITDA is presented here to provide additional information about the Company's ability to meet its future debt service, capital expenditure, and working capital requirements and should not be construed as a substitute for or a better indicator of results of operations or liquidity than net income or cash flow from operating activities computed in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. (4) For purposes of calculating the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of income before income taxes less undistributed earnings in less than 50%-owned subsidiaries, plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense incurred and one-third of rental expense which amount is deemed by the Company to be representative of the interest factor of rental payments under operating leases. The supplemental pro forma ratio of earnings to fixed charges reflects the effect on the ratio of earnings to fixed charges if the Offerings had been completed and the estimated net proceeds to the Company applied as described in "Use of Proceeds" at the beginning of the period presented. (5) Pro forma balance sheet data reflects (i) the termination of AEI's S Corporation status which resulted in the recording of a deferred tax liability of $2.1 million and (ii) a distribution by the Company of undistributed earnings of AEI through December 31, 1997 of $27.7 million to stockholders of AEI prior to the reorganization of the Company. The amount actually distributed by the Company to such stockholders of AEI will increase to reflect any undistributed net income earned by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to such reorganization. See "Reorganization -- Termination of S Corporation Status and Distributions" and Notes 1, 16 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (6) As adjusted to give effect to the application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings based on an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock, including the purchase from AICL of its 40% interest in Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. for approximately $34 million and the related elimination of minority interest and recording of goodwill. The acquisition of the minority interest will result in additional amortization of approximately $2.5 million per year. Also reflects repayments made after December 31, 1997 and prior to the Offerings of $50.3 million of short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt and $30 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current), as well as the assumption by an affiliate of the Company of $13.9 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current), in February 1998. See "Reorganization," "Use of Proceeds" and Notes 1, 6 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 7 10 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS For the three months ended March 31, 1998, the Company recognized net revenues of $371.7 million, gross profit of $61.7 million and pro forma net income (after giving effect to the termination of AEI's S Corporation status) of $9.6 million or $0.12 per share. Capitalized terms used in this summary have the meanings ascribed to such terms elsewhere in this Prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this Prospectus to the "Company" or "Amkor" are to Amkor Technology, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Prior to the Reorganization (as defined under "Reorganization"), such subsidiaries were under common management and were in the same business. As a result, the financial statements presented herein have been prepared on a combined basis. Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this Prospectus (i) gives effect to the Reorganization, including the issuance of 82,610,000 shares of Common Stock in connection therewith, and (ii) assumes that the Underwriters have not exercised the over-allotment options. See "Reorganization," "Description of Capital Stock," "Underwriting," and Note 1 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. References in this Prospectus to "Korea" are to the Republic of Korea, and references to "won" or "W" are to the currency of the Republic of Korea. The won has depreciated significantly against the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies in recent months. On April 27, 1998, the base rate under the market average exchange rate system, as announced by the Korea Financial Telecommunications and Clearings Institute in Seoul, Korea (the "Market Average Exchange Rate"), was W1,367 to $1.00. No representation is made that the won or U.S. dollar amounts referred to herein could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or won, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. Financial information for AICL contained in this Prospectus has been prepared on the basis of Korean generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), which differ in certain significant respects from U.S. GAAP. Certain technical terms used throughout this Prospectus are defined in the Glossary appearing immediately prior to the Combined Financial Statements at the end of this Prospectus. 8 11 RISK FACTORS Prospective investors should consider carefully the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this Prospectus concerning the Company and its business, before purchasing the shares of Common Stock or the Convertible Notes offered hereby. Certain statements contained in "Prospectus Summary," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business," including statements regarding the anticipated growth in the market for the Company's products, the Company's anticipated capital expenditures and financing needs, the Company's expected capacity utilization rates, the belief of the Company as to its future operating performance and other statements contained in this Prospectus that are not historical facts, are "forward-looking" statements within the meaning of the U.S. federal securities laws. Because such statements include risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth herein and in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business." These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this Prospectus and the Company assumes no obligation to update such forward-looking statements or to update the reasons why actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. FLUCTUATIONS IN OPERATING RESULTS; DECLINES IN AVERAGE SELLING PRICES The Company's operating results have varied significantly from period to period. A variety of factors could materially and adversely affect the Company's revenues, gross profit and operating income, or lead to significant variability of quarterly or annual operating results. These factors include, among others, the cyclical nature of both the semiconductor industry and the markets addressed by end-users of semiconductors, the short-term nature of its customers' commitments, timing and volume of orders relative to the Company's production capacity, changes in capacity utilization, evolutions in the life cycles of customers' products, rescheduling and cancellation of large orders, rapid erosion of packaging selling prices, availability of manufacturing capacity, allocation of production capacity between the Company's facilities and those of AICL, fluctuations in package and test service charges paid to AICL, changes in costs, availability and delivery times of labor, raw materials and components, effectiveness in managing production processes, fluctuations in manufacturing yields, changes in product mix, product obsolescence, timing of expenditures in anticipation of future orders, availability of financing for expansion, changes in interest expense, the ability to develop and implement new technologies on a timely basis, competitive factors, changes in effective tax rates, the loss of key personnel or the shortage of available skilled workers, international political or economic events, currency and interest rate fluctuations, environmental events, and intellectual property transactions and disputes. Unfavorable changes in any of the above factors may adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the Company increases its level of operating expenses and investment in manufacturing capacity based on anticipated future growth in revenues. If the Company's revenues do not grow as anticipated and the Company is not able to decrease its expenses, the Company's business, financial condition and operating results would be materially and adversely affected. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Beginning in the third quarter of 1996, intense competition in the semiconductor industry worldwide resulted in decreases in the average selling prices of many of the Company's lead frame packages. The Company expects that average selling prices for its services will continue to decline in the future, principally due to intense competitive conditions. A decline in average selling prices of the Company's services, if not offset by reductions in the cost of producing those services or by a shift to higher margin products, would decrease the Company's gross margins and could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." DEPENDENCE ON THE HIGHLY CYCLICAL SEMICONDUCTOR AND PERSONAL COMPUTER INDUSTRIES The Company's business is substantially affected by market conditions in the semiconductor industry, which is highly cyclical and, at various times, has been subject to significant economic downturns character- 9 12 ized by reduced product demand, rapid erosion of average selling prices and production overcapacity. In addition, the markets for semiconductors are characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, intense competition and fluctuations in end-user demand. Because the Company's business will be dependent on the requirements of semiconductor companies for independent packaging, test and wafer fabrication services for the foreseeable future, any future downturn in the semiconductor industry could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company's operating results for 1996 and 1997 were adversely affected by a downturn in the semiconductor market. In addition, a significant portion of the Company's net revenues from packaging and test services depends on the packaging and testing of semiconductors used in personal computer ("PC") products. The PC industry is subject to intense competition, is highly volatile and is subject to significant shifts in demand. As a result, any deterioration of business conditions in the PC industry could have a material adverse effect on the Company. See "Business -- Industry Background" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LEVERAGE The Company has historically operated with significant amounts of debt relative to its equity. At December 31, 1997, the Company had outstanding $514.0 million in principal amount of indebtedness, including non-current amounts due to Anam USA, Inc. ("AUSA"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of AICL, and the Company intends to incur additional bank debt prior to and following the Offerings in addition to the Convertible Notes issued as part of the Offerings. In 1996 and 1997, the Company's payments under long-term debt agreements (excluding payments to AUSA as described in Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements) were $3.1 million and $43.5 million, respectively. Following the expected application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings and planned repayments of debt after December 31, 1997 and prior to the Offerings, the Company will continue to have at least $239 million in principal amount of indebtedness outstanding, including $54 million of short-term borrowings and current portions of long-term debt. The Company is not in compliance with certain covenants with respect to certain of its loans, the aggregate outstanding amount of which was $176 million at December 31, 1997 (the "Non-Compliant Loans"). Such non-compliance in turn triggered cross-defaults with respect to an additional $10 million of the Company's loans. These loan covenants include restrictions on the ability of one of the Company's subsidiaries to enter into transactions with affiliates, requirements that the subsidiary maintain certain debt-to-equity ratios and requirements that the subsidiary comply with certain notice requirements. The Company's obligation to repay these loans (including the cross-defaulted loans) may be accelerated by the lenders at any time. As a result of such non-compliance, these loans have been classified as current liabilities in the Company's financial statements included herein, and the report of the Company's independent public accountants with respect to such financial statements contains a paragraph stating that there is substantial doubt as to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern. The Company will eliminate such non-compliance and cross-defaults by repaying such loans using part of the net proceeds to the Company from the Offerings, as well as working capital. See "Use of Proceeds." At December 31, 1997, the Company had also guaranteed borrowing facilities available to companies affiliated with James Kim and other stockholders of the Company totalling $55.7 million, of which $38.2 million was outstanding at December 31, 1997. At December 31, 1997, the Company had $90.9 million of stockholders' equity and a working capital deficit of $196.9 million (which amounts were $61.1 million and $224.6 million, respectively, on a pro forma basis, after giving effect to the termination of AEI's S Corporation status and the distribution of undistributed net income of AEI through December 31, 1997). See "Reorganization -- Termination of S Corporation Status and Distributions." DEPENDENCE ON RELATIONSHIP WITH AICL; POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AICL was founded in 1956 by Mr. H. S. Kim, who currently serves as the honorary Chairman and a Representative Director of AICL. AICL is a member of the Anam group of companies (the "Anam Group"), consisting principally of companies in Korea in the electronics industries. The management of AICL and the other companies in the Anam Group are influenced to a significant degree by the family of H. S. Kim, which, 10 13 together with the Company, collectively owned approximately 40.7% of the outstanding common stock of AICL as of December 31, 1997. A significant portion of the shares owned by the Kim family are leveraged and as a result of this, or for other reasons, the family's ownership could be substantially reduced. James Kim, the founder of the Company and currently its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is the eldest son of H. S. Kim. Since January 1992, in addition to his other responsibilities, James Kim has been serving as acting Chairman of the Anam Group and a director of AICL. Mr. In-Kil Hwang, the President and a Representative Director of AICL, is the brother-in-law of James Kim. In addition, four other members of Mr. Kim's family are on the 13-member Board of Directors of AICL. After the Offerings, James Kim and members of his family will beneficially own approximately 68.9% of the outstanding Common Stock of the Company, and Mr. Kim and other members of his family will continue to exercise significant control over the Company. See "-- Benefits of the Offerings to Existing Stockholders; Continued Control by Existing Stockholders" and "Principal and Selling Stockholders." The businesses of the Company and AICL have been interdependent for many years. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. In addition, substantially all of the revenues of AICL in 1996 and 1997 were derived from services sold by the Company. The Company expects the proportion of its revenues derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL and the proportion of AICL's revenues from services sold by the Company to increase as the Company begins selling the wafer fabrication output of AICL's new wafer foundry and with the Company's assumption from AICL in January 1998 of substantially all of the marketing rights for the Japanese market. In the event the ability of AICL to supply the Company were disrupted for any reason, the Company's facilities in the Philippines would be able to fill only a small portion of the resulting shortfall in capacity. In addition, there are currently no significant third party suppliers of packaging and test services from which the Company could fill its orders. As a result, the Company's business, financial condition and operating results will continue to be significantly dependent on the ability of AICL to effectively provide contracted services on a cost-efficient and timely basis. The termination of the Company's relationship with AICL for any reason, or any material adverse change in AICL's business resulting from underutilization of its capacity, the level of its debt and its guarantees of affiliate debt, labor disruptions, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in governmental policies, economic or political conditions in Korea or any other change, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company has recently entered into new supply agreements with AICL (the "Supply Agreements"). Under the Supply Agreements, AICL has granted to the Company a first right to substantially all of the packaging and test services capacity of AICL and the exclusive right to all of the wafer output of its new wafer foundry. The Company expects to continue to purchase substantially all of AICL's packaging and test services, and to purchase all of AICL's wafer output, under the Supply Agreements. Under the Supply Agreements, pricing arrangements relating to packaging and test services provided by AICL to the Company are subject to quarterly review and adjustment, and such arrangements relating to the wafer output provided by AICL to the Company are subject to annual review and adjustment, in each case on the basis of factors such as changes in the semiconductor market, forecasted demand, product mix, capacity utilization and fluctuations in exchange rates, as well as the mutual long-term strategic interests of the Company and AICL. There can be no assurance that any new pricing arrangements resulting from such review and adjustment will be favorable to the Company. Pursuant to long-standing arrangements between AICL and the Company's operating subsidiaries, sales from AICL to the Company will continue to be made through AUSA, a wholly-owned financing subsidiary of AICL. Under the Supply Agreements, the Company will continue to reimburse AUSA for the financing costs incurred by it in connection with trade financing provided to the Company. The Supply Agreements also provide that Amkor-Anam, Inc., a subsidiary of the Company, will continue to provide raw material procurement and related services to AICL on a fee basis. The Supply Agreements have a five-year term and may be terminated by any party thereto upon five years' written notice at any time after the expiration of such initial five-year term. There can be no assurance that AICL will not terminate either Supply Agreement upon the expiration of such initial term or, if it does terminate a Supply Agreement, that the Company will be able to obtain a new agreement with AICL on terms that are favorable to the Company or at all. 11 14 AICL's ability to continue to provide services to the Company will depend on AICL's financial condition and performance. AICL currently has a significant amount of debt relative to its equity, which debt the Company expects will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The Company is advised that AICL, as a public company in Korea, has published its most recent consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 1997. These consolidated financial statements are prepared on the basis of Korean GAAP, which differs significantly from U.S. GAAP. U.S. GAAP financial statements are not available. The independent auditor's report regarding AICL, included elsewhere in this Prospectus, includes an explanatory paragraph regarding change in accounting principles, the impact of the Korean economic situation on AICL and its ability to continue as a going concern. The following is a summary of 1996 and 1997 consolidated financial information pertaining to AICL prepared in accordance with Korean GAAP which differs from U.S. GAAP in certain significant respects. See Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements.
1996 1997 ---------- -------------- (IN MILLIONS) INCOME STATEMENT DATA: Sales.................................................. W1,338,718 W1,786,457 Cost of sales.......................................... 1,096,117 1,507,271 ---------- ---------- Gross profit........................................... 242,601 279,186 Selling and administrative expenses.................... 77,754 103,158 ---------- ---------- Operating income....................................... 164,847 176,028 Non-operating income: Interest and dividend income........................ 38,569 47,592 Foreign exchange gains.............................. 10,420 122,507 Other............................................... 9,268 11,196 ---------- ---------- 58,257 181,295 ---------- ---------- Non-operating expenses: Interest expenses................................... 138,657 160,658 Amortization of deferred charges.................... 2,861 33,891 Foreign exchange losses............................. 39,792 339,204 Loss from forward contract.......................... -- 94,644 Other............................................... 9,962 20,639 ---------- ---------- 191,272 649,036 ---------- ---------- Ordinary income (loss)................................. 31,832 (291,713) Extraordinary gains.................................... 447 774 Extraordinary losses................................... 11,072 1,812 ---------- ---------- Net income (loss) before income taxes.................. 21,207 (292,751) Income taxes........................................... 17,363 7,922 ---------- ---------- Net income (loss) after income taxes................... 3,844 (300,673) Minority interests in losses (earnings) of consolidated subsidiaries, net................................... (8,569) 1,206 Amortization of consolidation adjustments, net......... (5,326) (3,009) Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated equity-method subsidiaries and investees, net....... 666 (46,253) ---------- ---------- Net loss............................................... W (9,385) W (348,729) ========== ==========
12 15
1996 1997 ---------- -------------- (IN MILLIONS) SUMMARY BALANCE SHEET DATA: Cash and bank deposits................................. W 324,139 W 215,024 Accounts and notes receivable, net..................... 170,724 189,522 Inventory.............................................. 214,494 260,302 Other current assets................................... 145,302 241,965 ---------- ---------- Total current assets................................ 854,659 906,813 ---------- ---------- Property, plant and equipment, net..................... 994,931 2,159,466 Investments............................................ 83,715 121,880 Long-term accounts receivable.......................... 198,251 203,739 Long-term loans........................................ 747 258,322 Other long-term assets................................. 92,985 285,810 ---------- ---------- Total long-term assets.............................. 1,370,629 3,029,217 ---------- ---------- Total assets................................... W2,225,288 W3,936,030 ========== ========== Short-term borrowings.................................. 1,050,405 1,720,916 Current maturities of long-term debt................... 85,252 120,913 Other current liabilities.............................. 190,989 282,653 ---------- ---------- Total current liabilities........................... 1,326,646 2,124,482 ---------- ---------- Long-term debt, net of current maturities.............. 475,045 736,784 Long-term capital lease obligations.................... 106,068 861,813 Other long-term liabilities............................ 67,672 111,017 ---------- ---------- Total long-term liabilities......................... 648,785 1,709,614 ---------- ---------- Total liabilities.............................. 1,975,431 3,834,096 ---------- ---------- Minority interests..................................... 21,600 25,160 Stockholders' equity................................... 228,257 76,774 ---------- ---------- Total liabilities and stockholders' equity..... W2,225,288 W3,936,030 ========== ==========
A significant amount of the current and long-term liabilities of AICL are denominated in U.S. dollars and other foreign currencies. At December 31, 1997, the amount of U.S. dollar and other foreign currency denominated short-term borrowings, current maturities of long-term debt, long-term debt (net of current maturities) and long-term capital lease obligations were W1,222 billion, W59 billion, W159 billion and W834 billion, respectively. Due in part to the significant depreciation of the won (for example, from a Market Average Exchange Rate of W884 to $1.00 on December 31, 1996 to W1,415 to $1.00 on December 31, 1997 and W1,367 to $1.00 on April 27, 1998) resulting from the recent economic crisis in Korea, AICL's liabilities in won terms and its leverage calculated in won have significantly increased in 1997. The effect of this depreciation on AICL, however, has been mitigated by the fact that substantial amounts of AICL's revenues are denominated in U.S. dollars. The increase in AICL's liabilities was also attributable in part to additional financing obtained in connection with the construction of its new wafer foundry. See "-- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business" and Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The recent economic crisis in Korea has also led to sharply higher interest rates in Korea and reduced opportunities for refinancing or refunding maturing debts as financial institutions in Korea, which are experiencing financial difficulties, are increasingly looking to limit their lending, particularly to highly leveraged companies, and to increase their reserves and provisions for non-performing assets. These developments will result in higher interest rates on loans to AICL and have otherwise made it more difficult for AICL to obtain new financing. Therefore, there can be no assurance that AICL will be able to refinance its existing loans or obtain new loans, or continue to make required interest and principal payments on such loans or otherwise comply with the terms of its loan agreements. Any inability of AICL to obtain financing or generate cash flow from operations sufficient to fund its capital expenditure, debt service and repayment and other working capital and liquidity requirements could have a material adverse effect on AICL's ability to continue to provide services and otherwise fulfill its obligations to the Company. See "-- Risks Associated with Leverage" and "-- Dependence on International Operations and Sales; Concentration of Operations in the Philippines and Korea." 13 16 As of December 31, 1997, AICL and its consolidated subsidiaries were contingently liable under guarantees in respect of debt of AICL's non-consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates in the Anam Group in the aggregate amount of approximately W857 billion. As of such date, AICL had provided guarantees for all of AUSA's debt of $319 million, the Non-Compliant Loans of $176 million and the Company's obligations under a receivables sales arrangement. The Company has met a significant portion of its financing needs through financing arrangements obtained by AUSA for the benefit of the Company based on guarantees provided by AICL. There can be no assurance that AUSA will be able to obtain additional guarantees, if necessary, from AICL. Further, a deterioration in AICL's financial condition could trigger defaults under AICL's guarantees, causing acceleration of such loans. In addition, as an overseas subsidiary of AICL, AUSA was formed with the approval of the Bank of Korea. If the Bank of Korea were to withdraw such approval, or if AUSA otherwise ceased operations for any reason, the Company and AICL would be required to meet their financing needs through alternative arrangements. Although the Company believes that after the Offerings alternative financing arrangements will be available, there can be no assurance that the Company or AICL will be able to obtain alternative financing on acceptable terms or at all. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Liquidity and Capital Resources" and Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. In addition, if any relevant subsidiaries or affiliates of AICL, certain of which may have greater exposure to domestic Korean economic conditions than AICL, were to fail to make interest or principal payments or otherwise default under their debt obligations guaranteed by AICL, AICL could be required under its guarantees to repay such debt, which event could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations. Historically, AICL has undertaken capacity expansion programs and other capital expenditures primarily on the basis of forecasts of the Company and business plans prepared jointly with the Company. The Supply Agreements generally provide for continued capital investment by AICL based on the Company's forecasts and operational plans prepared jointly by the Company and AICL reflecting such forecasts. However, as a result of the recent deterioration of the Korean economy, there can be no assurance that AICL will be able to fund future capacity expansions and other capital investments required to supply the Company with necessary packaging and test services and wafer output on a timely and cost-efficient basis. The Company and AICL have historically cooperated on the development of new package designs and packaging and testing processes and technologies. The Supply Agreements generally provide for continued cooperation between the Company and AICL in research and development, as well as the cross-licensing of intellectual property rights between the Company and AICL. If the Company's relationship with AICL were terminated for any reason, the Company's research and development capabilities and intellectual property position could be materially and adversely affected. After the Offerings, the Company will continue to be controlled to a significant degree by James Kim and members of his family, and Mr. Kim and other members of his family will also continue to exercise significant influence over the management of AICL and its affiliates. In addition, the Company and AICL will continue to have certain contractual and other business relationships, including under the Supply Agreements, and may engage in transactions from time to time that are material to the Company. Although any such material agreements and transactions would require approval of the Company's Board of Directors, such transactions generally will not require any additional approval by a separate committee comprised of the disinterested members of the Board of Directors and conflicts of interest may arise in certain circumstances. There can be no assurance that such conflicts will not from time to time be resolved against the interests of the Company. The Company currently has four directors, two of whom are disinterested. Under Delaware corporate law, each director owes a duty of loyalty and care to the Company, which if breached can result in personal liability for the directors. In addition, the Company may agree to certain changes in its contractual and other business relationships with AICL, including pricing, manufacturing allocation, capacity utilization and capacity expansion, among others, which in the judgment of the Company's management will result in reduced short-term profitability for the Company in favor of potential long-term benefits to the Company and AICL. There can be no assurance that the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations will not be adversely affected by any such decision. 14 17 DEPENDENCE ON INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS AND SALES; CONCENTRATION OF OPERATIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES AND KOREA All of the production facilities currently used to fill the Company's orders are located in the Philippines and Korea and many of the Company's customers' operations are located in countries outside of the United States. A substantial portion of the Company's revenues are derived from sales to customers located outside of the United States. In 1996 and 1997, sales to such customers accounted for 27% and 28%, respectively, of the Company's revenues. The Company expects sales outside of the United States to continue to represent a significant portion of its future revenues. As a result, the Company's business will continue to be subject to certain risks generally associated with doing business abroad, such as foreign governmental regulations, currency fluctuations, political unrest, disruptions or delays in shipments, currency controls and fluctuations, changes in local economic conditions and import and export controls, as well as changes in tax laws, tariffs and freight rates. The Company has structured its global operations to take advantage of lower tax rates in certain countries and tax incentives extended to encourage investment. The Company's tax returns through 1993 in the Philippines and through 1994 in the U.S. have been examined by the Philippine and U.S. tax authorities, respectively. The recorded provisions for subsequent open years are subject to changes upon examination by tax authorities of tax returns for these years. Changes in the mix of income from the Company's foreign subsidiaries, expiration of tax holidays and changes in tax laws and regulations could result in increased effective tax rates for the Company. See Notes 10 and 15 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Philippines The Company's results of operations and growth will be influenced by the political situation in the Philippines and by the general state of the Philippine economy. Although the political and economic situation in the Philippines has stabilized in recent years, it has historically been subject to significant instability. Most recently, the devaluation of the Philippine peso relative to the U.S. dollar beginning in July 1997 has led to instability in the Philippine economy. Any future economic or political disruptions or instability or low economic growth in the Philippines could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. Because the functional currency of the Company's Philippine operations is the U.S. dollar, the Company has recently benefitted from cost reductions relating to peso denominated expenditures, primarily payroll costs. The Company believes that such devaluation of the Philippine peso will eventually lead to inflation in the Philippines, which could offset any savings achieved to date. Korea In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. The operations of AICL are subject to certain risks. Relations between Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea ("North Korea") have been tense over most of Korea's history. Incidents affecting relations between the two Koreas continually occur. No assurance can be given that the level of tensions with North Korea will not increase or change abruptly as a result of current or future events, which could have a material adverse effect on AICL's, and as a result the Company's, business, financial condition and results of operations. Since the beginning of 1997, Korea has experienced a significant increase in the number and size of companies filing for corporate reorganization and protection from their creditors. Such failures were caused by, among other factors, excessive investments, high levels of indebtedness, weak export prices and the Korean government's greater willingness to allow troubled corporations to fail. As a result of such corporate failures, Korea's financial institutions have experienced a sharp increase in non-performing loans. In addition, declines in domestic stock prices have reduced the value of Korean banks' assets. These developments have led international credit rating agencies to downgrade the credit ratings of Korea, as well as various companies (including AICL) and financial institutions in Korea. During the same period, the value of the won relative to the U.S. dollar has depreciated significantly. The Market Average Exchange Rate as of April 27, 1998, was W1,367 to $1.00, or approximately 65% lower than on December 31, 1996, when the Market Average Exchange Rate was W884 to $1.00. Such depreciation of the won relative to the U.S. dollar has increased the cost of imported goods and services, and the value in won 15 18 of Korea's public and private sector debt denominated in U.S. dollars and other foreign currencies has also increased significantly. Korea's foreign currency reserves also have declined significantly. Such developments have also led to sharply higher domestic interest rates and reduced opportunities for refinancing or refunding maturing debts as financial institutions in Korea, which are experiencing financial difficulties, are increasingly looking to limit their lending, in particular to highly leveraged companies, and to increase their reserves and provisions for non-performing assets. In order to address the liquidity crisis and the deteriorating economic situation in Korea, the Korean government concluded an agreement with the International Monetary Fund on December 3, 1997 pursuant to which Korea is eligible to receive loans and other financial support reported to amount to an aggregate of approximately $58 billion (the "IMF Financial Aid Package"). Because there are conditions on the availability of loans and other financial support under the IMF Financial Aid Package, there can be no assurance that such conditions will be satisfied or that such loans and other financial support will be available. In connection with the IMF Financial Aid Package, the Korean government announced a comprehensive policy package (the "Reform Policy") intended to address the structural weaknesses in the Korean economy and the financial sector. While the Reform Policy is intended to alleviate the current economic crisis in Korea and improve the Korean economy over time, the immediate effects could include, among others, slower economic growth, a reduction in the availability of credit to Korean companies, an increase in interest rates, an increase in taxes, an increased rate of inflation due to the depreciation of the won, an increase in the number of bankruptcies of Korean companies, labor unrest and labor strikes resulting from a possible increase in unemployment, and political unrest. These events could have a material adverse effect on the Korean economy. Moreover, there can be no assurance that either the IMF Financial Aid Package or the Reform Policy will be successful. In addition, there can be no assurance that political pressure will not force the Korean government to retreat from some or all of its announced Reform Policy or that the Reform Policy will be implemented as currently contemplated. The Korean government has stated that as of December 31, 1997 the total amount of Korea's private and governmental external liabilities was $154.4 billion under IMF standards. As of December 31, 1997, the total amount of foreign currency reserves held by Korea was $20.4 billion, of which the usable portion (the total less amounts on deposit with overseas branches of Korean financial institutions and swap positions between the Korean central bank and other central banks) was $8.9 billion. Pursuant to an exchange offer concluded in April 1998, Korean financial institutions exchanged approximately $21.8 billion of their short-term foreign currency debt for longer-term floating rate loans guaranteed by the Korean government. In addition, the Korean government raised approximately $4 billion through an international offering of its debt securities in April 1998. Korean financial institutions and the Korean corporate and public sectors continue to carry substantial amounts of debt denominated in currencies other than the won, including short-term debt, and there can be no assurance that there will be sufficient foreign currency reserves to repay this debt or that this debt can be extended or refinanced. Such recent and potential future developments relating to Korea, including the continued deterioration of the Korean economy, could have a material adverse effect on AICL's and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "-- Dependence on Relationship with AICL; Potential Conflicts of Interest," "Business -- Marketing and Sales" and "-- Facilities and Manufacturing" and Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. CUSTOMER CONCENTRATION; ABSENCE OF BACKLOG Due to the concentration of market share in the semiconductor industry, the Company has been largely dependent on a small group of customers for a substantial portion of its business. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, 34.1%, 39.2% and 40.1%, respectively, of the Company's net revenues were derived from sales to the Company's top five customers, with 13.3%, 23.5% and 23.4% of the Company's net revenues, respectively, derived from sales to Intel Corporation ("Intel"). The ability of the Company to maintain close, satisfactory relationships with such customers is important to the ongoing success and profitability of its business. The Company expects that it will continue to be dependent upon a relatively limited number of customers for a significant portion of its net revenues in future periods. None of the Company's customers is presently 16 19 obligated to purchase any amount of packaging or test services or to provide the Company with binding forecasts of product purchases for any period. In addition, the Company's new wafer fabrication business will be significantly dependent upon TI. The reduction, delay, or cancellation of orders from one of the Company's significant customers, including Intel for packaging and test services or TI for wafer fabrication services, could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. Although the Company has received forecasts from TI which indicate that TI will meet its minimum purchase obligation during the second half of 1998, during the first quarter of 1998 TI's orders were below such minimum purchase commitment due to market conditions and issues encountered by TI in the transition of its products to .18 micron technology. There can be no assurance that such customers will not reduce, cancel or delay orders. See "-- Dependence on the Highly Cyclical Semiconductor and Personal Computer Industries" and "-- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business." All of the Company's customers operate in the cyclical semiconductor business and may vary order levels significantly from period to period. In addition, there can be no assurance that such customers or any other customers will continue to place orders with the Company in the future at the same levels as in prior periods. From time to time, semiconductor companies have experienced reduced prices for some products, as well as delays or cancellations in orders. There can be no assurance that, should these circumstances occur in the future, they will not adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The loss of one or more of the Company's customers, or reduced orders by any of its key customers, could adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company's packaging and test business does not typically operate with any material backlog, and the Company expects that in the future the Company's packaging and test revenues in any quarter will continue to be substantially dependent upon orders received in that quarter. The Company's expense levels are based in part on its expectations of future revenues and the Company may be unable to adjust costs in a timely manner to compensate for any revenue shortfall. See "Business -- Marketing and Sales." EXPANSION OF MANUFACTURING CAPACITY; PROFITABILITY AFFECTED BY CAPACITY UTILIZATION RATES The Company believes that its competitive position depends substantially on its ability to expand its manufacturing capacity. Accordingly, although the Company currently has available manufacturing capacity, the Company expects to continue to make significant investments to expand such capacity, particularly through the acquisition of capital equipment and the training of new personnel. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to utilize such capacity or to continue to expand its manufacturing capacity in a timely manner, that the cost of such expansion will not exceed management's current estimates or that such capacity will not exceed the demand for the Company's services. In addition, expansion of the Company's manufacturing capacity will continue to significantly increase its fixed costs, and the Company expects to continue to incur substantial additional depreciation and other expenses in connection with the acquisition of new equipment and the construction of new facilities. Increases or decreases in capacity utilization rates can have a significant effect on gross margins since the unit cost of packaging and test services generally decreases as fixed charges are allocated over a larger number of units produced. Therefore, the Company's ability to maintain or enhance its gross margins will continue to be dependent, in part, on its ability to maintain high capacity utilization rates. Capacity utilization rates may be affected by a number of factors and circumstances, including overall industry conditions, operating efficiencies, the level of customer orders, mechanical failure, disruption of operations due to expansion of operations or relocation of equipment, fire or natural disasters, employee strikes or work stoppages or other circumstances. Although the Company has been able to maintain a high rate of capacity utilization in recent years as a result of its close association with its customers, its knowledge of the semiconductor market conditions, and its continued improvements in operating efficiencies and equipment maintenance, there can be no assurance that this high utilization rate will be sustained in the future. The Company's inability to generate the additional orders necessary to fully utilize its capacity would have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in 1996 the Company's capacity utilization rates were negatively affected by an unexpected downturn in the semiconductor industry. There can be no assurance that the Company's utilization rates will not be adversely 17 20 affected by future declines in the semiconductor industry or for any other reason. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business -- Manufacturing and Facilities." LIQUIDITY AND FUTURE CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS The Company plans to continue to incur substantial costs to fund its equipment and facilities expansion plans and its packaging technology development. The Company believes that following the application of the net proceeds from the sale of the Common Stock and the Convertible Notes in the Offerings, its existing cash balances, cash flow from operations, available equipment lease financing, bank borrowings and financing obtained through AUSA, will be sufficient to meet its projected capital expenditures, working capital and other cash requirements for at least the next twelve months. There can be no assurance, however, that lower than expected revenues, increased expenses, increased costs associated with the purchase or maintenance of capital equipment, decisions to increase planned capacity or other events will not cause the Company to seek more capital, or capital sooner than currently expected. The timing and amount of the Company's actual capital requirements cannot be precisely determined and will depend on a number of factors, including demand for the Company's services, availability of capital equipment, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, changes in semiconductor industry conditions and competitive factors. There can be no assurance that additional financing will be available when needed or, if available, will be available on satisfactory terms. Failure to obtain any such financing could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, if the Company obtains such financing by selling equity securities of the Company, the Company's stockholders may experience significant dilution. See "-- Risks Associated with Leverage," "Dilution" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Liquidity and Capital Resources." RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE; PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT The semiconductor packaging and test industry is characterized by rapid increases in the diversity and complexity of semiconductor packaging products. As a result, the Company expects that it will need to offer, on an ongoing basis, more advanced package designs in order to respond to competitive industry conditions and customer requirements. The requirement to develop and maintain advanced packaging capabilities and equipment could require significant research and development and capital expenditures in future years. In addition, advances in technology also typically lead to rapid and significant price erosion and decreased margins for older package types and may lead to products currently being offered by the Company becoming less competitive or inventories held by the Company becoming obsolete. The failure by the Company to achieve advances in package design or to obtain access to advanced package designs developed by others could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." The Company's success is also dependent upon the ability of it and AICL to develop and implement new manufacturing process and package design technologies. Semiconductor package design and process methodologies have become increasingly subject to technological change, requiring large expenditures for research and development. Converting to new package designs or process methodologies could result in delays in producing new package types which could adversely affect the Company's ability to meet customer orders. MANUFACTURING RISKS; PRODUCTION YIELDS The semiconductor packaging process is complex and involves a number of precise steps. Defective packaging can result from a number of factors, including the level of contaminants in the manufacturing environment, human error, equipment malfunction, use of defective raw materials, defective plating services and inadequate sample testing. From time to time, the Company expects to experience lower than anticipated production yields as a result of such factors, particularly in connection with any expansion of its capacity or change in its processing steps. In addition, the Company's yield on new products will be lower during the period necessary for the Company to develop the requisite expertise and experience in producing such products and using such processes. The failure of the Company or AICL to maintain high quality production 18 21 standards or acceptable production yields, if significant and sustained, could result in loss of customers, delays in shipments, increased costs, cancellation of orders and product returns for rework, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "Business -- Facilities and Manufacturing." RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH NEW WAFER FABRICATION BUSINESS The Company recently began providing wafer fabrication services, with delivery of the first products from AICL's new foundry in January 1998. Neither the Company nor AICL has significant experience in providing wafer fabrication services, and there can be no assurance that the Company will not experience difficulties in marketing and selling these services or that AICL will not encounter operational difficulties such as lower than expected yields or longer than anticipated production ramp-up, unexpected costs and other problems in providing these services. If the Company or AICL encounters these or similar difficulties, the Company's and AICL's businesses, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, TI has transferred certain of its CMOS processes to AICL and AICL is dependent upon TI's assistance for developing other state-of-the-art wafer manufacturing processes. If AICL's relationship with TI is disrupted for any reason, AICL's ability to produce wafers would be adversely affected, thus negatively impacting the Company's ability to fulfill its customers' orders for fabrication services, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, AICL's technology agreements with TI (the "TI Technology Agreements") only cover .25 micron and .18 micron CMOS technology and TI is not under any obligation to transfer any next-generation technology. If AICL is not able to obtain such technology on commercially reasonable terms or at all, the Company's ability to market AICL's wafer fabrication services could be materially and adversely affected which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's and AICL's business, results of operations and financial condition. The Company's right to the supply of wafers from AICL's foundry is subject to an agreement (the "TI Manufacturing and Purchasing Agreement") among AICL, the Company and TI, pursuant to which TI has agreed to purchase from the Company at least 40% of the capacity of this foundry and under certain circumstances has the right to purchase up to 70% of this capacity. As a result, the Company's wafer fabrication business will be significantly dependent upon TI, which may adversely affect the Company's ability to obtain additional customers. If the Company is unable to sell substantially all of the output of AICL's wafer foundry, its business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Although the Company has received forecasts from TI which indicate that TI will meet its minimum purchase obligation during the second half of 1998, during the first quarter of 1998 TI's orders were below such minimum purchase commitment and it is uncertain whether TI will meet its purchase obligation in the second quarter of 1998 due to market conditions and issues encountered by TI in the transition of its products to .18 micron technology. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that TI will place orders representing at least 40% of the capacity of this foundry during this period or in the future. A failure by TI to comply with its minimum purchase obligations or the cancellation of a significant wafer fabrication order by TI or any other customer could have a material adverse effect on AICL's and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The TI Manufacturing and Purchasing Agreement terminates on December 31, 2007, unless terminated sooner. The TI Manufacturing and Purchasing Agreement may be terminated upon two years' prior notice by either AICL or TI if AICL and TI are unable to successfully negotiate prior to June 30, 2000 an amendment to the TI Technology Agreements or a new agreement with respect to AICL's use of TI's next-generation CMOS technology. During such two-year period, TI would be obligated to purchase a minimum of only 20% of the capacity of AICL's wafer fabrication facility. In addition, the TI Manufacturing and Purchasing Agreement may be terminated sooner upon, among other events, mutual written consent, material breach of the agreement by either party, the inability of either party to obtain any necessary government approvals, the failure of AICL to protect TI's intellectual property and a change of control, bankruptcy, liquidation or dissolution of AICL. See "Business -- Competition." 19 22 DEPENDENCE ON RAW MATERIALS SUPPLIERS AND SUBCONTRACTORS The Company obtains the direct materials for the packaging and test services of its factories and for the packaging and test services provided by AICL to fill the Company's orders directly from vendors. To maintain competitive manufacturing operations, the Company must obtain from its vendors, in a timely manner, sufficient quantities of acceptable materials at expected prices. The Company sources most of its raw materials, including critical materials such as lead frames and laminate substrates, from a limited group of suppliers. The Company purchases all of its materials on a purchase order basis and has no long-term contracts with any of its suppliers. From time to time, vendors have extended lead times or limited the supply of required materials to the Company because of vendor capacity constraints and, consequently, the Company has experienced difficulty in obtaining acceptable raw materials on a timely basis. In addition, from time to time, the Company may reject materials that do not meet its specifications, resulting in declines in output or yield. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain sufficient quantities of raw materials and other supplies of an acceptable quality. The Company's business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected if its ability to obtain sufficient quantities of raw materials and other supplies in a timely manner were substantially diminished or if there were significant increases in the costs of raw materials that the Company could not pass on to its customers. See "Business -- Facilities and Manufacturing." INABILITY TO OBTAIN PACKAGING AND TEST EQUIPMENT IN A TIMELY FASHION In connection with its future expansion plans, the Company and AICL expect to purchase a significant amount of new packaging and test equipment. From time to time, increased demand for some of this equipment causes lead times to extend beyond those normally met by the equipment vendors. The unavailability of such equipment or the failure of such equipment, or other equipment acquired by the Company or AICL, to operate in accordance with the Company's or AICL's specifications or requirements, or delays in the delivery of such equipment could delay implementation of the Company's or AICL's expansion plans and impair the ability of the Company to meet customer orders or otherwise have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business -- Facilities and Manufacturing." MANAGEMENT OF GROWTH The Company has experienced and may continue to experience growth in the scope and complexity of its operations and in the number of its employees. For example, the Company is expanding its scope of operations to include wafer fabrication services and is hiring new personnel in connection with such expansion. This growth is expected to continue to strain the Company's managerial, financial, manufacturing and other resources. In addition, although the Company believes its current controls are adequate, in order to manage its growth, the Company must continue to implement additional operating and financial controls and hire and train additional personnel. Although the Company has been successful in hiring and properly training sufficient numbers of qualified personnel and in effectively managing its growth in the past, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to do so in the future, and its failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any failure to improve the Company's operational, financial and management systems could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "-- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business -- Employees." COMPETITION The independent semiconductor packaging and test industry is very competitive, being comprised of approximately 50 companies with about 15 of those companies having sales of $100 million per year or more. The Company faces substantial competition from established packaging companies primarily located in Asia, such as Advanced Semiconductor Engineering, Inc. (Taiwan), ASE Test Limited (Taiwan and Malaysia), 20 23 ASAT, Ltd. (Hong Kong), Hana Microelectronics Public Co. Ltd. (Hong Kong and Thailand), Astra International (Indonesia), Carsem Bhd. (Malaysia), ChipPAC Incorporated (Korea), Siliconware Precision Industries Co., Ltd. (Taiwan), and Shinko Electric Industries Co., Ltd. (Japan). Each of these companies has significant manufacturing capacity, financial resources, research and development operations, marketing and other capabilities, and have been operating for some time. Such companies have also established relationships with many large semiconductor companies which are current or potential customers of the Company. The principal elements of competition in the independent semiconductor packaging market include time to market, breadth of package offering, technical competence, design services, quality, production yields, responsiveness and customer service and price. On a larger scale, the Company also competes with the internal manufacturing capabilities of many of its largest customers. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to compete successfully in the future against existing or potential competitors or that the Company's operating results will not be adversely affected by increased price competition. The independent wafer fabrication business is also highly competitive. The Company expects its wafer fabrication services to compete primarily with independent wafer foundries such as Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd. and United Microelectronics Corporation, as well as with integrated device manufacturers such as LG Semicon Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ltd., Toshiba Corp. and Winbond Electronics Corporation, which provide foundry services for other semiconductor companies. Each of these companies has significant manufacturing capacity, financial resources, research and development operations, marketing and other capabilities and have been operating for some time. Many of these companies have also established relationships with many large semiconductor companies which are current or potential customers of the Company. The principal elements of competition in the wafer foundry market include technology, delivery cycle times, price, product performance, quality, production yield, responsiveness and flexibility, reliability and the ability to design and incorporate product improvements. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to compete successfully in the future against such companies. See "Business -- Competition." DEPENDENCE ON KEY PERSONNEL AND AVAILABILITY OF SKILLED WORKFORCE The Company's success depends to a significant extent upon the continued service of its key senior management and its technical personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace. Competition for qualified employees is intense, and the loss of the services of any of its existing key personnel without adequate replacement, or the inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified new personnel could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, in connection with its expansion plans, the Company and AICL will be required to increase the number of qualified engineers and other employees at their respective facilities in the Philippines and Korea. Competition for such employees in the Philippines and Korea is intense and the inability to attract new qualified personnel or to retain such personnel could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and financial condition. See "Management." ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS The semiconductor packaging process involves a significant amount of chemicals and gases which are subject to extensive governmental regulations. For example, liquid waste is produced at the stage at which silicon wafers are diced into chips with the aid of diamond saws and cooled with running water. In addition, excess materials on leads and moldings are removed from packaged semiconductors in the trim and form process. The Company has installed equipment to collect certain solvents used in connection with its manufacturing process and has contracted with independent waste disposal companies to remove such hazardous material. Federal, state and local regulations in the United States, as well as environmental regulations in Korea and the Philippines, impose various controls on the storage, handling, discharge and disposal of chemicals used in the Company's and AICL's manufacturing process and on the facilities occupied by the Company and AICL. The Company believes that its activities, as well as those of AICL, conform to present environmental and land use regulations applicable to their respective operations and current facilities. Increasing public 21 24 attention has, however, been focused on the environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing operations and the risk to neighbors of chemical releases from such operations. There can be no assurance that applicable land use and environmental regulations will not in the future impose the need for additional capital equipment or other process requirements upon the Company or AICL or restrict the Company's or AICL's ability to expand their respective operations. The adoption of new ordinances or similar measures or any failure by the Company or AICL to comply with applicable environmental and land use regulations or to restrict the discharge of hazardous substances could subject the Company or AICL to future liability or cause their respective manufacturing operations to be curtailed or suspended. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The Company currently holds 24 United States patents, five of which are jointly held with AICL, related to various IC packaging technologies, in addition to other pending patents. These patents will expire at various dates from 2012 through 2016. With respect to development work undertaken jointly with AICL, the Company and AICL share intellectual property rights under the terms of the Supply Agreements between the Company and AICL. Such Supply Agreements also provide for the cross-licensing of intellectual property rights between the Company and AICL. In addition, the Company enters into agreements with other developers of packaging technology to license or otherwise obtain certain process or package technologies. The Company expects to continue to file patent applications when appropriate to protect its proprietary technologies; however, the Company believes that its continued success depends primarily on factors such as the technological skills and innovation of its personnel rather than on its patents. The process of seeking patent protection can be expensive and time consuming. There can be no assurance that patents will be issued from pending or future applications or that, if patents are issued, they will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that rights granted thereunder will provide meaningful protection or other commercial advantage to the Company. Moreover, there can be no assurance that any patent rights will be upheld in the future or that the Company will be able to preserve any of its other intellectual property rights. Although the Company is not currently a party to any material litigation, the semiconductor industry is characterized by frequent claims regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. As is typical in the semiconductor industry, the Company may receive communications from third parties asserting patents on certain of the Company's technologies. In the event any third party were to make a valid claim against the Company or AICL, the Company or AICL could be required to discontinue the use of certain processes or cease the manufacture, use, import and sale of infringing products, to pay substantial damages and to develop non-infringing technologies or to acquire licenses to the alleged infringed technology. The Company's business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by such developments. Litigation, which could result in substantial cost to and diversion of resources of the Company, may also be necessary to enforce patents or other intellectual property rights of the Company or to defend the Company against claimed infringement of the rights of others. The failure to obtain necessary licenses or the occurrence of litigation relating to patent infringement or other intellectual property matters could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, AICL has obtained intellectual property for wafer manufacturing primarily from TI. The licenses granted to AICL by TI under the TI Technology Agreements are very limited. Although TI has granted to AICL a license under TI's trade secret rights to use TI's technology in connection with AICL's provision of wafer fabrication services, TI has not granted AICL a license under its patents, copyrights and mask works to manufacture semiconductors for third parties. Although TI has agreed that TI will not assert a claim for patent, copyright or mask work right infringement against AICL or the Company in connection with AICL's manufacture of semiconductor products for third parties, TI has reserved the right to bring such infringement claims against AICL's or the Company's customers with respect to semiconductor products purchased from AICL or the Company. As a result, AICL's and the Company's customers could be subject to patent litigation by TI and others, and AICL and the Company could in turn be subject to litigation by such customers and others, in connection with the sale of wafers produced by AICL. Any such litigation could materially and adversely affect AICL's ability to continue to manufacture wafers and AICL's and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. 22 25 SUBORDINATION OF CONVERTIBLE NOTES The Convertible Notes will be unsecured and subordinated in right of payment in full to all existing and future Senior Debt (as defined) of the Company. As a result of such subordination, in the event of bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of the Company, or upon the acceleration of any Senior Debt, the assets of the Company will be available to pay obligations on the Convertible Notes only after all Senior Debt has been paid in full, and there may not be sufficient assets remaining to pay amounts due on any or all of the Convertible Notes then outstanding. The Convertible Notes are also effectively subordinated to the liabilities, including trade payables, of the Company's subsidiaries. The Indenture relating to the Convertible Notes does not prohibit or limit the incurrence of additional indebtedness, including Senior Debt, by the Company or its subsidiaries. The incurrence of additional indebtedness by the Company or its subsidiaries could adversely affect the Company's ability to pay its obligations on the Convertible Notes. As of December 31, 1997 (after giving effect to the Reorganization), the Company had approximately $32 million of outstanding indebtedness that would have constituted Senior Debt, and the indebtedness and other liabilities of the Company's subsidiaries (excluding intercompany liabilities and obligations of a type not required to be reflected on the balance sheet of such subsidiaries in accordance with GAAP) that would effectively have been senior to the Convertible Notes were approximately $642 million. The incurrence of additional indebtedness by the Company or its subsidiaries could adversely affect the Company's ability to pay its obligations on the Convertible Notes. The Indenture relating to the Convertible Notes will not limit the amount of additional indebtedness, including Senior Debt, that the Company can create, incur, assume or guarantee, nor will the Indenture limit the amount of indebtedness and other liabilities that any subsidiary of the Company can create, incur, assume or guarantee. The Company anticipates that from time to time it will incur additional indebtedness and other liabilities, including Senior Debt, and that from time to time the Company's subsidiaries will incur additional indebtedness and other liabilities. The Convertible Notes are obligations exclusively of the Company. However, since the operations of the Company are primarily conducted through its subsidiaries, the cash flow and the consequent ability of the Company to service its debt, including the Convertible Notes, are primarily dependent upon the earnings of its subsidiaries and the distribution of those earnings to, or upon loans or other payments of funds by those subsidiaries to, the Company. The payment of dividends and the making of loans and advances to the Company by its subsidiaries may be subject to statutory or contractual restrictions, are dependent upon the earnings of those subsidiaries and are subject to various business considerations. The Indenture does not contain any financial performance covenants. Consequently, the Company is not required under the Indenture to meet any financial tests such as those that measure the Company's working capital, interest coverage, fixed charge coverage or net worth in order to maintain compliance with the terms of the Indenture. See "Description of Convertible Notes -- Subordination." LIMITATIONS ON REPURCHASE OF CONVERTIBLE NOTES Upon a Designated Event, which includes a Change of Control and a Termination of Trading (each as defined), each holder of Convertible Notes will have certain rights, at the holder's option, to require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of such holder's Convertible Notes. If a Designated Event were to occur, there can be no assurance that the Company would have sufficient funds to pay the repurchase price for all Convertible Notes tendered by the holders thereof. In addition, the terms of the Company's existing or future credit or other agreements relating to indebtedness (including Senior Debt) may prohibit the Company from purchasing any Convertible Notes and may also provide that a Designated Event, as well as certain other change-of-control events with respect to the Company, would constitute an event of default thereunder. In the event a Designated Event occurs at a time when the Company is prohibited from purchasing Convertible Notes, the Company could seek the consent of its lenders to the purchase of Convertible Notes or could attempt to refinance the borrowings that contain such prohibition. If the Company does not obtain such a consent or repay such borrowings, the Company would remain prohibited from purchasing Convertible Notes. In such case, the Company's failure to purchase tendered Convertible Notes would constitute an Event of Default under the Indenture, which may, in turn, constitute a further default under the terms of other indebtedness that the Company has entered into or may enter into from time to time. In such circumstances, 23 26 the subordination provisions in the Indenture would likely restrict payments to the holders of Convertible Notes. See "Description of Convertible Notes -- Repurchase at Option of Holders Upon a Designated Event." NO PRIOR MARKET; LIQUIDITY; STOCK PRICE VOLATILITY; DILUTION Prior to the Offerings, there has been no public market for the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes. Consequently, the initial public offering price will be determined by negotiations among the Company and the representatives of the Underwriters. Although the Underwriters have advised the Company that they currently intend to make a market in the Common Stock and Convertible Notes, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue such market-making at any time without notice. There can be no assurance that an active public market for the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes will develop or be sustained after the Offerings or that the market price of the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes will not decline below the initial public offering price. The trading price of the Common Stock and Convertible Notes could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to quarter-to-quarter variations in operating results, announcements of technological innovations or new products by the Company or its competitors, general conditions in the semiconductor industry, changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by analysts, or other events or factors. In addition, the public stock markets have experienced extreme price and trading volume volatility in recent months. This volatility has significantly affected the market prices of securities of many high technology companies for reasons frequently unrelated to the operating performance of the specific companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of the Common Stock and Convertible Notes. Moreover, purchasers of Common Stock in the Offerings will incur immediate, substantial book value dilution. See "Dilution" and "Underwriting." BENEFITS OF THE OFFERINGS TO EXISTING STOCKHOLDERS; CONTINUED CONTROL BY EXISTING STOCKHOLDERS Immediately after the closing of the Offerings, based upon shares outstanding as of the date hereof, James Kim and members of his family will, in the aggregate, beneficially own 77,610,000 shares of Common Stock, which shares represent all of the outstanding Common Stock not offered hereby and approximately 68.9% of the total number of shares of Common Stock outstanding following the Offerings. The Offerings will create a public market for the resale of shares held by these existing stockholders. Such stockholders, acting together, will be able to effectively control substantially all matters requiring approval by the stockholders of the Company. Such matters could include the election of a majority of the members of the Board of Directors, proxy contests, mergers involving the Company, tender offers, open market purchase programs or other purchases of Common Stock that could give stockholders of the Company the opportunity to realize a premium over the then prevailing market price for their shares of Common Stock. In addition, such continued control could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company, may discourage bids for the Common Stock at a premium over the market price and may adversely affect the market price of the Common Stock. See "Principal and Selling Stockholders." ANTI-TAKEOVER EFFECTS OF DELAWARE LAW AND CERTAIN CHARTER PROVISIONS The Company's Board of Directors has the authority to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock $.001 par value ("Preferred Stock") and to determine the price, rights, preferences and privileges of those shares without any further vote or action by the Company's stockholders. The rights of the holders of Common Stock will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any Preferred Stock that may be issued in the future. While the Company has no present intention to issue shares of Preferred Stock, such issuance, while providing desirable flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire a majority of the outstanding voting stock of the Company. In addition, the Company is subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits the Company from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. The application of Section 203 could have the effect of 24 27 delaying or preventing a change of control of the Company. The Company's Certificate of Incorporation (the "Certificate of Incorporation") does not permit cumulative voting. This provision, and other provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Company's bylaws (the "Bylaws") and Delaware corporate law, may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying or preventing changes in control or management of the Company, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over then current market prices. SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE Sales of substantial amounts of Common Stock in the public market after the Offerings could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the Common Stock. In addition to the 35,000,000 shares of Common Stock offered hereby (assuming no exercise of the Underwriters' over-allotment options), upon the closing of the Offerings, there will be shares issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, all of which shares will be freely tradeable. In addition, up to 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock may be borrowed from James Kim and his wife Agnes Kim ("Mr. and Mrs. Kim") and resold in the public market in connection with the Underwriters' market-making activities with respect to the Convertible Notes. Excluding the shares described above, there will be approximately 70,610,000 additional shares of Common Stock outstanding, all of which are "restricted" shares (the "Restricted Shares") under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"). Beginning April 29, 1999, all such Restricted Shares will first become eligible for sale in the public market pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act, subject to certain volume and other resale restrictions pursuant to Rule 144. See "Shares Eligible for Future Sale." 25 28 REORGANIZATION In March 1970, Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("AEI") was incorporated in Pennsylvania to design semiconductor packages and provide semiconductor packaging services through a supply relationship with AICL. Since that time, Mr. James Kim (the founder of AEI) and members of his family have acquired a majority interest in a number of other companies which support or engage in various aspects of the semiconductor packaging and test business (the "Amkor Companies"). Prior to the reorganization described below, the Amkor Companies consisted of: - AEI and its subsidiaries Amkor Receivables Corp., which purchases the Company's accounts receivable under an accounts receivable financing arrangement, and Amkor Wafer Fabrication Services SARL, which provides various technical support for CIL's wafer fabrication services customers in Europe and Asia; - T.L. Limited ("TLL") and its subsidiary C.I.L. Limited ("CIL"), which markets the Company's services to semiconductor companies in Europe and Asia; - Amkor/Anam EuroServices S.A.R.L. ("AAES"), which provides various technical and support services for CIL's packaging and test customers; - Amkor/Anam Advanced Packaging, Inc. ("AAAP"), Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. ("AAP") and AAP's subsidiary Automated MicroElectronics Inc. ("AMI"), each of which provides manufacturing services; and - AK Industries, Inc. ("AKI") and its subsidiary, Amkor-Anam, Inc., which provides raw material purchasing and inventory management services. All of the Amkor Companies are substantially wholly owned beneficially by Mr. and Mrs. Kim or entities beneficially owned by members of Mr. James Kim's immediate family (the "Founding Stockholders"), except for 40% of AAP owned by AICL and one-third of AEI and all of AKI which are owned by certain trusts established for the benefit of other members of Mr. Kim's family (the "Kim Family Trusts"). The Company (Amkor Technology, Inc.) was formed in September 1997 to consolidate the ownership of the Amkor Companies. Prior to the reorganization described below, Amkor Technology, Inc. conducted no business and held no assets or liabilities. Prior to the Offerings, the following transactions were effected to consolidate the operations of the Amkor Companies under the Company (such transactions are referred to collectively as the "Reorganization"): - AEI was merged into Amkor Technology, Inc. - Amkor International Holdings ("AIH"), a newly formed Cayman Islands holding company, became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Amkor Technology, Inc. holding the following entities: - First Amkor Cayman Islands, Ltd., a newly formed Cayman Islands holding company, and its subsidiaries AAAP, AAP and AMI; - TLL and its subsidiary CIL; and - AAES. - In addition, the Company acquired all of the stock of AKI from the Kim Family Trusts for $3 million. Except for the acquisition of AKI, which has been accounted for as a purchase transaction, the accounting for the Reorganization is similar to the accounting for a pooling of interests as it represents an exchange of equity interests among companies under common control. All of the Amkor Companies are wholly owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company (except for AAP, which is 40% owned by AICL). An aggregate of 82,610,000 shares of Common Stock have been issued by the Company in connection with the Reorganization. The relative number of shares of Common Stock issued by the Company in connection with each of the transactions comprising the Reorganization was based upon relative amounts of stockholders' equity of each of the Amkor Companies as of December 31, 1997. Accordingly, the Company issued an aggregate of 14,620,140 shares of Common Stock in connection with the merger of AEI into Amkor Technology, Inc., two-thirds of which shares (9,746,760 shares) were received by Mr. and Mrs. Kim and one- 26 29 third of which shares (4,873,380 shares) were received by the Kim Family Trusts. The Company then issued an aggregate of 67,989,851 shares of Common Stock, representing approximately 82% of its shares immediately after the Reorganization, in exchange for all of the outstanding shares of AIH and its subsidiaries. Of such shares, 27,528,234 shares and 36,376,617 shares were gifted to Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts, respectively, such that Mr. and Mrs. James Kim and the Kim Family Trusts own 45.1% and 49.9%, respectively, of the Common Stock outstanding after the Reorganization. Following the Reorganization, the Founding Stockholders beneficially own a majority of the outstanding shares of Common Stock. Following the Offerings, the Founding Stockholders and the Kim Family Trusts will beneficially own 77,610,000 shares of Common Stock, representing approximately 68.9% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock. See "Certain Transactions" and "Principal and Selling Stockholder." The Company has entered into an agreement with AICL pursuant to which the Company will purchase, immediately following the Offerings, AICL's 40% interest in AAP for approximately $34 million. See "Use of Proceeds." The Offerings are conditioned upon, among other things, the consummation of the Reorganization. TERMINATION OF S CORPORATION STATUS AND DISTRIBUTIONS Prior to the consummation of the Reorganization, AEI had elected to be treated for U.S. federal and certain state tax purposes as an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax laws. As a result, AEI did not recognize federal corporate income taxes. Instead, up until the termination of AEI's S Corporation status on April 28, 1998 (the "Termination Date"), Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts had been obligated to pay U.S. federal and certain state income taxes on their allocable portion of the income of AEI. The Company, Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts have entered into tax indemnification agreements providing that the Company will be indemnified by such stockholders, with respect to their proportionate share of any U.S. federal or state corporate income taxes attributable to the failure of AEI to qualify as an S Corporation for any period or in any jurisdiction for which S Corporation status was claimed through the Termination Date. The tax indemnification agreements also provide that under certain circumstances the Company will indemnify Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts if such stockholders are required to pay additional taxes or other amounts attributable to taxable years on or before the Termination Date as to which AEI filed or files tax returns claiming status as an S Corporation. AEI has made various distributions to such stockholders which have enabled them to pay their income taxes on their allocable portions of the income of AEI. Such distributions totaled approximately $19.8 million, $13.0 million and $5.0 million in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company declared additional distributions to such stockholders prior to the consummation of the Reorganization in an amount equal to $27.7 million, as adjusted for net income (loss) recognized by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to the consummation of the Reorganization and less a distribution of $8.1 million to such stockholders in March 1998, which distributions represented AEI's cumulative net income in all periods prior to the Termination Date less the aggregate amount of distributions previously made to such stockholders. These final distributions are intended to provide such stockholders with the balance of AEI's net income for which they have already recognized taxable income. Through December 31, 1997, the amount of such undistributed net earnings was $27.7 million. See Notes 1, 10 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 27 30 RELATIONSHIP WITH AICL AICL is a Korean company engaged primarily in providing semiconductor packaging and test services to the Company, which in turn sells such services to its customers. AICL also currently markets its services directly in Korea. In addition, AICL manufactures and sells electric wiring devices and watches. AICL operates four semiconductor packaging and test facilities in Korea, and has recently qualified a new deep submicron CMOS wafer foundry in Korea which is currently capable of producing 15,000 8" wafers per month. In March 1998, AICL changed its name to Anam Semiconductor, Inc. AICL was founded in 1956 by Mr. H. S. Kim, who currently serves as the honorary Chairman and a Representative Director of AICL. AICL is a member of the Anam Group, consisting principally of companies in Korea in the electronics industries. The businesses of AICL and the other companies in the Anam Group are influenced to a significant degree by the family of H. S. Kim, which, together with the Company, collectively owned approximately 40.7% of the outstanding common stock of AICL as of December 31, 1997. A significant portion of the shares owned by the Kim family are leveraged and as a result of this, or for other reasons, the family's ownership could be substantially reduced. James Kim, the founder of the Company and currently its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is the eldest son of H. S. Kim. Since January 1992, in addition to his other responsibilities, James Kim has been serving as acting Chairman of the Anam Group and a director of AICL. Mr. In-Kil Hwang, the President and a Representative Director of AICL, is the brother-in-law of James Kim. In addition, four other members of Mr. Kim's family are on the 13 member Board of Directors of AICL. After the Offerings, James Kim and members of his family will beneficially own approximately 68.9% of the outstanding Common Stock of the Company, and Mr. Kim and other members of his family will continue to exercise significant control over the Company. See "Risk Factors -- Benefits of the Offerings to Existing Stockholders; Continued Control by Existing Stockholders" and "Principal and Selling Stockholders." The businesses of the Company and AICL have been interdependent for many years. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. In addition, substantially all of the revenues of AICL in 1996 and 1997 were derived from services sold by the Company. The Company expects the proportion of its revenues derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL and the proportion of AICL's revenues from services sold by the Company to increase as the Company begins selling the wafer fabrication output of AICL's new wafer foundry and with the Company's assumption from AICL in January 1998 of substantially all of the marketing rights for the Japanese market. In the event the ability of AICL to supply the Company were disrupted for any reason, the Company's facilities in the Philippines would be able to fill only a small portion of the resulting shortfall in capacity. In addition, there are currently no significant third party suppliers of packaging and test services from which the Company could fill its orders. As a result, the Company's business, financial condition and operating results will continue to be significantly dependent on the ability of AICL to effectively provide contracted services on a cost-efficient and timely basis. The Company expects that the businesses of the Company and AICL will continue to remain highly interdependent by virtue of their supply relationship, family ties between their respective shareholders and management, financial relationships, coordination of product and operation plans, joint research and development activities and shared intellectual property rights. The termination of the Company's relationship with AICL for any reason, or any material adverse change in AICL's business resulting from underutilization of its capacity, the level of its debt and its guarantees of affiliate debt, labor disruptions, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in governmental policies, economic or political conditions in Korea or any other change, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company has recently entered into the Supply Agreements with AICL. Under the Supply Agreements, AICL has granted to the Company a first right to substantially all of the packaging and test services of AICL and the exclusive right to all of the wafer output of its new wafer foundry. The Company expects to continue to purchase substantially all of AICL's packaging and test services, and to purchase all of AICL's wafer output, under the Supply Agreements. Under the Supply Agreements, pricing arrangements relating to packaging and test services provided by AICL to the Company are subject to quarterly review and adjustment, and such arrangements relating to the wafer output provided by AICL to the Company are 28 31 subject to annual review and adjustment, in each case on the basis of factors such as changes in the semiconductor market, forecasted demand, product mix and capacity utilization and fluctuations in exchange rates, as well as the mutual long-term strategic interests of the Company and AICL. There can be no assurance that any new pricing arrangements resulting from such review and adjustment will be favorable to the Company. Pursuant to long-standing arrangements between AICL and the Company's operating subsidiaries, sales from AICL to the Company will continue to be made through AUSA, a wholly-owned financing subsidiary of AICL. Under the Supply Agreements, the Company will continue to reimburse AUSA for the financing costs incurred by it in connection with trade financing provided to the Company. The Supply Agreements also provide that Amkor-Anam, Inc., a subsidiary of the Company, will continue to provide raw material procurement and related services to AICL on a fee basis. The Supply Agreements have a five-year term, and may be terminated by any party thereto upon five years' written notice at any time after the expiration of such initial five-year term. There can be no assurance that AICL will not terminate either Supply Agreement upon the expiration of such initial term or that if it does terminate a Supply Agreement, that the Company will be able to obtain a new agreement with AICL on terms that are favorable to the Company or at all. AICL's ability to continue to provide services to the Company will depend on AICL's financial condition and performance. AICL currently has a significant amount of debt relative to its equity, which debt the Company expects will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The Company is advised that AICL, as a public company in Korea, has published its most recent consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 1997. These consolidated financial statements are prepared on the basis of Korean GAAP, which differs significantly from U.S. GAAP. U.S. GAAP financial statements are not available. The independent auditors' report regarding AICL, included elsewhere in this Prospectus, includes an explanatory paragraph regarding change in accounting principles, the impact of the Korean economic situation on AICL and its ability to continue as a going concern. 29 32 The following is a summary of 1996 and 1997 consolidated financial information pertaining to AICL prepared in accordance with Korean GAAP which differs from U.S. GAAP. See Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements.
1996 1997 ----------- -------------- (IN MILLIONS) INCOME STATEMENT DATA: Sales................................................. W 1,338,718 W 1,786,457 Cost of sales......................................... 1,096,117 1,507,271 ----------- ----------- Gross profit.......................................... 242,601 279,186 Selling and administrative expenses................... 77,754 103,158 ----------- ----------- Operating income...................................... 164,847 176,028 Non-operating income: Interest and dividend income....................... 38,569 47,592 Foreign exchange gains............................. 10,420 122,507 Other.............................................. 9,268 11,196 ----------- ----------- 58,257 181,295 ----------- ----------- Non-operating expenses: Interest expenses.................................. 138,657 160,658 Amortization of deferred charges................... 2,861 33,891 Foreign exchange losses............................ 39,792 339,204 Loss from forward contract......................... -- 94,644 Other.............................................. 9,962 20,639 ----------- ----------- 191,272 649,036 ----------- ----------- Ordinary income (loss)................................ 31,832 (291,713) Extraordinary gains................................... 447 774 Extraordinary losses.................................. 11,072 1,812 ----------- ----------- Net income (loss) before income taxes................. 21,207 (292,751) Income taxes.......................................... 17,363 7,922 ----------- ----------- Net income (loss) after income taxes.................. 3,844 (300,673) Minority interests in losses (earnings) of consolidated subsidiaries, net..................... (8,569) 1,206 Amortization of consolidation adjustments, net........ (5,326) (3,009) Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated equity-method subsidiaries and investees, net...... 666 (46,253) ----------- ----------- Net loss.............................................. W (9,385) W (348,729) =========== ===========
30 33
1996 1997 ----------- -------------- (IN MILLIONS) SUMMARY BALANCE SHEET DATA: Cash and bank deposits................................ W 324,139 W 215,024 Accounts and notes receivable, net.................... 170,724 189,522 Inventories........................................... 214,494 260,302 Other current assets.................................. 145,302 241,965 ----------- ----------- Total current assets............................... 854,659 906,813 ----------- ----------- Property, plant and equipment, net.................... 994,931 2,159,466 Investments........................................... 83,715 121,880 Long-term accounts receivable......................... 198,251 203,739 Long-term loans....................................... 747 258,322 Other long-term assets................................ 92,985 285,810 ----------- ----------- Total long-term assets............................. 1,370,629 3,029,217 ----------- ----------- Total assets.................................. W2,225,288 W3,936,030 =========== =========== Short-term borrowings................................. 1,050,405 1,720,916 Current maturities of long-term debt.................. 85,252 120,913 Other current liabilities............................. 190,989 282,653 ----------- ----------- Total current liabilities.......................... 1,326,646 2,124,482 ----------- ----------- Long-term debt, net of current maturities............. 475,045 736,784 Long-term capital lease obligations................... 106,068 861,813 Other long-term liabilities........................... 67,672 111,017 ----------- ----------- Total long-term liabilities................... 648,785 1,709,614 ----------- ----------- Total liabilities............................. 1,975,431 3,834,096 ----------- ----------- Minority interests.................................... 21,600 25,160 Stockholders' equity.................................. 228,257 76,774 ----------- ----------- Total liabilities and stockholders' equity.... W2,225,288 W3,936,030 =========== ===========
A significant amount of the current and long-term liabilities of AICL are denominated in U.S. dollars and other foreign currencies. At December 31, 1997, the amount of U.S. dollar and other foreign currency denominated short-term borrowings, current maturities of long-term debt, long-term debt (net of current maturities) and long-term capital lease obligations were W1,222 billion, W59 billion, W159 billion and W834 billion, respectively. Due in part to the significant depreciation of the won (for example, from a Market Average Exchange Rate of W884 to $1.00 on December 31, 1996 to W1,415 to $1.00 on December 31, 1997 and W1,367 to $1.00 on April 27, 1998) resulting from the recent economic crisis in Korea, AICL's liabilities in won terms and its leverage calculated in won have significantly increased in 1997. The effect of this depreciation on AICL, however, has been mitigated by the fact that substantial amounts of AICL's revenues are denominated in U.S. dollars. The increase in AICL's liabilities was also attributable in part to additional financing obtained in connection with the constitution of its new wafer foundry. See "-- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business" and Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The recent economic crisis in Korea has also led to sharply higher domestic interest rates in Korea and reduced opportunities for refinancing or refunding maturing debts as financial institutions in Korea, which are experiencing financial difficulties, are increasingly looking to limit their lending, particularly to highly leveraged companies, and to increase their reserves and provisions for non-performing assets. These developments will result in higher interest rates on loans to AICL and have otherwise made it more difficult for AICL to obtain new financing. Therefore, there can be no assurance that AICL will be able to refinance its existing loans or obtain new loans, or continue to make required interest and principal payments on such loans or otherwise comply with the terms of its loan agreements. Any inability of AICL to obtain financing or generate cash flow from operations sufficient to fund its capital expenditure, debt service and repayment and other working capital and liquidity requirements could have a material adverse effect on AICL's ability to 31 34 continue to provide services and otherwise fulfill its obligations to the Company. See "Risk Factors -- Risks Associated With Leverage" and " -- Dependence On International Operations and Sales; Concentration of Operations in the Philippines and Korea." As of December 31, 1997, AICL and its consolidated subsidiaries were contingently liable under guarantees in respect of debt of AICL's non-consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates in the Anam Group in the aggregate amount of approximately W857 billion. As of such date, AICL had provided guarantees for all of AUSA's debt of $319 million, the Non-Compliant Loans of $176 million and the Company's obligations under a receivables sales arrangement. The Company has met a significant portion of its financing needs through financing arrangements obtained by AUSA for the benefit of the Company, based on guarantees provided by AICL. There can be no assurance that AUSA will be able to obtain additional guarantees, if necessary, from AICL. Further, a deterioration in AICL's financial condition could trigger defaults under AICL's guarantees, causing acceleration of such loans. In addition, as an overseas subsidiary of AICL, AUSA was formed with the approval of the Bank of Korea. If the Bank of Korea were to withdraw such approval, or if AUSA otherwise ceased operations for any reason, the Company and AICL would be required to meet their financing needs through alternative arrangements. Although the Company believes that after the Offerings alternative financing arrangements will be available, there can be no assurance that the Company or AICL will be able to obtain alternative financing on acceptable terms or at all. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Liquidity and Capital Resources" and Note 11 of Notes to Combined Fianacial Statements. In addition, if any relevant subsidiaries or affiliates of AICL, certain of which may have greater exposure to domestic Korean economic conditions than AICL, were to fail to make interest or principal payments or otherwise default under their debt obligations guaranteed by AICL, AICL could be required under its guarantees to repay such debt, which event could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations. Historically, AICL has undertaken capacity expansion programs and other capital expenditures primarily on the basis of forecasts of the Company and business plans prepared jointly with the Company. The Supply Agreements generally provide for continued capital investment by AICL based on the Company's forecasts and operational plans prepared jointly by the Company and AICL reflecting such forecasts. However, as a result of the recent deterioration of the Korean economy, there can be no assurance that AICL will be able to fund future capacity expansions and other capital investments required to supply the Company with necessary packaging and test services and wafer output on a timely and cost-efficient basis. The Company and AICL have historically cooperated on the development of new package designs and packaging and testing processes and technologies. The Supply Agreements generally provide for continued cooperation between the Company and AICL in research and development, as well as the cross-licensing of intellectual property rights between the Company and AICL. If the Company's relationship with AICL were terminated for any reason, the Company's research and development capabilities and intellectual property position could be materially and adversely affected. After the Offerings, the Company will continue to be controlled to a significant degree by James Kim and members of his family, and Mr. Kim and other members of his family will continue to exercise significant influence over the management of AICL and its affiliates. In addition, the Company and AICL will continue to have certain contractual and other business relationships, including under the Supply Agreements, and may engage in transactions from time to time that are material to the Company. Although any such material agreements and transactions would require approval of the Company's Board of Directors, such transactions generally will not require any additional approval by a separate committee comprised of the disinterested members of the Board of Directors and conflicts of interest may arise in certain circumstances. There can be no assurance that such conflicts will not from time to time be resolved against the interests of the Company. The Company currently has four directors, two of whom are disinterested. Under Delaware corporate law, each director owes a duty of loyalty and care to the Company, which if breached can result in personal liability for the directors. In addition, the Company may agree to certain changes in its contractual and other business relationships with AICL, including pricing, manufacturing allocation, capacity utilization and capacity expansion, among others, which in the judgment of the Company's management will result in reduced short-term profitability for the Company in favor of potential long-term benefits to the Company and AICL. 32 35 There can be no assurance that the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations will not be adversely affected by any such decision. USE OF PROCEEDS The net proceeds to the Company from the sale of the 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock and the $150,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes offered by the Company hereby are estimated to be approximately $449,950,000 (approximately $525,452,500 if the Underwriters' over-allotment options are exercised in full), assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses. The Company will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares of Common Stock offered hereby by the Selling Stockholder. Approximately $154 million of the net proceeds to the Company from the Offerings will be used to repay the Non-Compliant Loans, which, following planned repayments of portions thereof prior to the Offerings, will have outstanding balances of $43 million, $50 million and $61 million. These loans are due May 1998, October 2000 and April 2001, respectively, and accrue interest annually at rates equal to 7.16%, 6.78% and 6.68%, respectively, at December 31, 1997, which rates represent LIBOR plus a spread. The $43 million loan was incurred in August 1997 in order to redeem $40 million of Floating Rate Notes issued by AAP and to repay certain short-term debt. The Company is not in compliance with certain covenants under the above-described loans and, as a result, the Company's obligation to repay these loans may be accelerated by the lenders at any time. These loan covenants include restrictions on the ability of one of the Company's subsidiaries to enter into transactions with affiliates, requirements that the subsidiary maintain certain debt-to-equity ratios and requirements that the subsidiary comply with certain notice requirements. As a result of such non-compliance, these loans have been classified as current liabilities in the Company's financial statements included herein, and the report of the Company's independent public accountants with respect to such financial statements contains a paragraph stating that there is substantial doubt as to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern. Repayment of such loans from the proceeds of the Offerings will eliminate these events of non-compliance. Approximately $63 million of the net proceeds to the Company from the Offerings will be used to repay numerous short-term bank loans incurred primarily to finance capital expenditures for the Company's P1 factory in the Philippines and for working capital. All of these loans are due within 12 months of December 31, 1997 and bear interest at rates ranging from 8.0% to 12.2%. In addition, approximately $8 million of the net proceeds will be used to repay two term loans of approximately $3 million and $5 million. These loans are due September 1999 and January 2001, respectively, and accrue interest annually at rates equal to 9.09% and 11.88%, respectively, at December 31, 1997, which rates represent LIBOR plus a spread. An additional approximately $34 million of the net proceeds to the Company will be used to purchase AICL's 40% interest in AAP. Approximately $106 million of the net proceeds will be used to repay all of the amounts that will remain due to AUSA following planned repayments of portions thereof prior to the Offerings. The remaining $85 million of such net proceeds ($160 million if the Underwriters' over-allotment options are exercised in full) will be used for capital expenditures and working capital. Pending such uses, the net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings will be invested in investment grade, interest-bearing securities. DIVIDEND POLICY The Company currently anticipates that, following the completion of the Offerings, all future earnings will be retained for use in the Company's business and that the Company will not pay any cash dividends on its Common Stock in the foreseeable future. The payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of the Company's Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, future earnings, operations, capital requirements, the general financial condition of the Company and general business conditions. As an S Corporation, AEI made substantial cash distributions to its stockholders to pay income taxes on their allocable portions of AEI's net income. See "Reorganization." 33 36 CAPITALIZATION The following table sets forth as of December 31, 1997 (i) the actual capitalization of the Company derived from the Combined Financial Statements after giving effect to the Reorganization, (ii) the pro forma capitalization of the Company reflecting the termination of AEI's S Corporation status which occured in connection with the Reorganization, and (iii) the pro forma capitalization of the Company as adjusted principally to reflect the sale by the Company, pursuant to the Offerings, of 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share and $150.0 million of the Convertible Notes, and the receipt and application by the Company of the estimated net proceeds to it therefrom (after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses), as well as planned debt repayments by the Company after December 31, 1997 and prior to the Offerings. The capitalization information set forth in the table below is qualified by the more detailed Combined Financial Statements and Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Prospectus and should be read in conjunction with such Combined Financial Statements and the Notes thereto.
DECEMBER 31, 1997 ------------------------------------------ PRO FORMA ACTUAL PRO FORMA(1) AS ADJUSTED(2) -------- ------------ -------------- (IN THOUSANDS) Short term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt.............................. $325,968 $325,968 $ 53,668 Long-term debt: % Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2003..................................... -- -- 150,000 Due to AUSA (non-current)(3)................ 149,776 149,776 -- Other long-term debt........................ 38,283 38,283 35,283 -------- -------- -------- Total long-term debt..................... 188,059 188,059 185,283 -------- -------- -------- Stockholders' equity: Common Stock, $.001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 82,610,000 shares issued and outstanding, actual and pro forma; 112,610,000 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted(4).... 46 46 76 Additional paid-in capital.................. 20,871 20,871 327,604 Retained earnings........................... 70,621 40,821 40,821 Cumulative translation adjustment........... (663) (663) (663) -------- -------- -------- Total stockholders' equity............... 90,875 61,075 367,838 -------- -------- -------- Total capitalization................ $278,934 $249,134 $553,121 ======== ======== ========
- --------------- (1) Pro forma balance sheet data reflects (i) the termination of AEI's S Corporation status which resulted in the recording of a deferred tax liability of $2.1 million and (ii) a distribution by the Company of undistributed earnings of AEI through December 31, 1997 of $27.7 million to stockholders of AEI prior to the Reorganization. The amount actually distributed by the Company to such stockholders of AEI will reflect the amount of undistributed net income earned (loss) recognized by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to the Reorganization. See "Reorganization -- Termination of S Corporation Status and Distributions" and Notes 1, 16 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (2) As adjusted to give effect to the application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings based on an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock, including the purchase from AICL of its 40% interest in AAP for approximately $34 million and the related elimination of minority interest and recording of goodwill. The acquisition of the minority interest will result in additional amortization of approximately $2.5 million per year. Also reflects repayments made after December 31, 1997 and prior to the Offerings of $50.3 million of short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt and $30 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current), as well as the assumption by an affiliate of the Company of $13.9 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current) in 34 37 February 1998. See "Reorganization," "Use of Proceeds" and Notes 1, 6 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (3) See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Liquidity and Capital Resources." (4) Excludes 3,145,900 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of options to be granted immediately prior to the Offerings under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees and 1998 Director Option Plan. Also excludes an aggregate of shares reserved for issuance upon conversion of the Convertible Notes and an additional 3,404,100 shares reserved for issuance under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees, 1998 Director Option Plan and 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. See "Management" and "Description of Capital Stock" and Notes 1 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 35 38 DILUTION The pro forma net tangible book value of the Company as of December 31, 1997 was approximately $58 million or $.71 per share of Common Stock, after giving effect to the distribution of accumulated previously taxed earnings of $27.7 million, the recording of deferred tax liabilities of $2.1 million and the Reorganization. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the Company's total pro forma tangible assets less total liabilities as reflected in the Combined Financial Statements, divided by the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock. After giving effect to the sale by the Company of 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock and $150.0 million of Convertible Notes offered hereby (assuming no exercise of the Underwriters' over-allotment options) at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock and the use by the Company of the estimated net proceeds therefrom (after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and offering expenses payable by the Company), as described in "Use of Proceeds," the Company's net tangible book value at December 31, 1997 would have been $341 million or $3.03 per share of Common Stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.32 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $7.97 per share to new public stockholders. The following table illustrates this per share dilution: Assumed initial public offering price per share........ $ 11.00 -------- Net tangible book value per share before the Offerings....................................... $ .71 -------- Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new public stockholders......... 2.32 -------- Net tangible book value per share after the Offerings............................................ 3.03 -------- Dilution per share to new public stockholders.......... $ 7.97 ========
The following table summarizes, as of December 31, 1997 (after giving effect to the Reorganization), the number of shares of Common Stock purchased from the Company, the total consideration paid and the average price per share paid by the existing stockholders and by new public stockholders purchasing shares in the Offerings (at an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share and before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and offering expenses payable by the Company).
SHARES PURCHASED TOTAL CONSIDERATION AVERAGE ---------------------- ----------------------- PRICE NUMBER PERCENT AMOUNT PERCENT PER SHARE ----------- ------- ------------ ------- ------------- Existing stockholders(1)......... 82,610,000 73.4% $ 20,917,000 6.0% $ .25 New public stockholders(1)....... 30,000,000 26.6 330,000,000 94.0 $ 11.00 ----------- ----- ------------ ----- Total.................. 112,610,000 100.0% $350,917,000 100.0% =========== ===== ============ =====
- --------------- (1) Sales by the Selling Stockholder will reduce the number of shares of Common Stock held by existing stockholders to 77,610,000 shares or 68.9% of the total number of shares of Common Stock outstanding after the Offerings (65.8% assuming the Underwriters' over-allotment options are exercised in full), and will increase the number of shares of Common Stock held by new public stockholders to 35,000,000 shares or 31.1% of the total number of shares of Common Stock outstanding after the Offerings (40,250,000 shares or 34.2% assuming the Underwriters' over-allotment options are exercised in full). See "Principal and Selling Stockholders." 36 39 SELECTED COMBINED FINANCIAL DATA The selected combined financial data presented below for, and as of the end of, each of the years in the five-year period ended December 31, 1997 are derived from the combined financial statements of Amkor. The combined financial statements as of December 31, 1995, 1996 and 1997 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 1997 have been audited by Arthur Andersen LLP, independent public accountants, and their report thereon, together with such combined financial statements, are included elsewhere in this Prospectus. Reference is made to said report which includes an explanatory paragraph with respect to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern as discussed in Note 1 of the Notes to the Combined Financial Statements. Reference is made to said reports which include an explanatory paragraph with respect to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern as discussed in Note 1 of Notes to the Combined Financial Statements. The selected combined financial data presented below as of and for the year ended December 31, 1994 are derived from audited financial statements which are not presented herein. The selected combined financial data presented below as of and for the year ended December 31, 1993 are derived from unaudited combined financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited combined financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited combined financial statements and contain all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of the Company's results of operations for such period and financial condition at such date. The selected combined financial data set forth below is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the Combined Financial Statements and Notes thereto.
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ------------------------------------------------------------- 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- (IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AND RATIO DATA) INCOME STATEMENT DATA: Net revenues.............................................. $ 442,101 $ 572,918 $ 932,382 $ 1,171,001 $ 1,455,761 Cost of revenues.......................................... 371,323 514,648 783,335 1,022,078 1,242,669 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Gross profit....................................... 70,778 58,270 149,047 148,923 213,092 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Operating expenses: Selling, general and administrative..................... 42,649 41,337 55,459 66,625 103,726 Research and development................................ 1,755 3,090 8,733 10,930 8,525 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Total operating expenses........................... 44,404 44,427 64,192 77,555 112,251 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Operating income.......................................... 26,374 13,843 84,855 71,368 100,841 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Other (income) expense: Interest expense, net................................... 5,116 5,752 9,797 22,245 32,241 Foreign currency (gain) loss............................ 2,809 (4,865) 1,512 2,961 (835) Other (income) expense, net............................. (1,725) (877) 6,523 3,150 8,429 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Total other expense................................ 6,200 10 17,832 28,356 39,835 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest.............................. 20,174 13,833 67,023 43,012 61,006 Provision for income taxes................................ 2,445 2,977 6,384 7,876 7,078 Equity in income (loss) of AICL........................... 1,776 1,762 2,808 (1,266) (17,291) Minority interest......................................... 2,269 1,044 1,515 948 (6,644) --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Net income................................................ $ 17,236 $ 11,574 $ 61,932 $ 32,922 $ 43,281 ========= ========= ========= =========== =========== PRO FORMA DATA (UNAUDITED): Historical income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest.................... $ 20,174 $ 13,833 $ 67,023 $ 43,012 $ 61,006 Pro forma provision for income taxes(1)................... 5,345 3,177 16,784 10,776 10,691 --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Pro forma income before equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest(1)................................ 14,829 10,656 50,239 32,236 50,315 Historical equity in income (loss) of AICL................ 1,776 1,762 2,808 (1,266) (17,291) Historical minority interest.............................. 2,269 1,044 1,515 948 (6,644) --------- --------- --------- ----------- ----------- Pro forma net income (1).................................. $ 14,336 $ 11,374 $ 51,532 $ 30,022 $ 39,668 ========= ========= ========= =========== =========== Basic and diluted pro forma net income per common share(1)................................................ $ .17 $ .14 $ .62 $ .36 $ .48 ========= ========= ========= =========== =========== Shares used in computing pro forma net income per common share................................................... 82,610 82,610 82,610 82,610 82,610 ========= ========= ========= =========== =========== OTHER DATA: EBITDA(2)................................................. $ 37,437 $ 34,197 $ 103,434 $ 123,082 $ 175,111 ========= ========= ========= =========== =========== Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(3): Actual.................................................. 3.7x 2.0x 4.6x 2.4x 2.5x Supplemental pro forma.................................. 3.1x
37 40 - --------------- (1) Prior to the Reorganization, AEI, a predecessor of the Company, elected to be taxed as an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax laws. Accordingly, AEI did not recognize any provision for federal income tax expense during the periods presented. The pro forma provision for income taxes reflects the additional U.S. federal income taxes which would have been recorded if AEI had not been an S Corporation during these periods. See "Reorganization" and Note 1 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (2) EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest income, interest expense, taxes on income, depreciation and amortization. EBITDA is presented here to provide additional information about the Company's ability to meet its future debt service, capital expenditure, and working capital requirements and should not be construed as a substitute for or a better indicator of results of operations or liquidity than net income or cash flow from operating activities computed in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. (3) For purposes of computing the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of income before income taxes less undistributed earnings in less than 50%-owned subsidiaries, plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense incurred and one-third of rental expense which amount is deemed by the Company to be representative of the interest factor of rental payments under operating leases. The supplemental pro forma ratio of earnings to fixed charges reflects the effect on the ratio of earnings to fixed charges if the Offerings had been completed and the estimated net proceeds to the Company applied as described in "Use of Proceeds" at the beginning of the period presented.
DECEMBER 31, DECEMBER 31, 1997 --------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- 1993 1994 1995 1996 ACTUAL PRO FORMA(1) AS ADJUSTED(2) -------- -------- ------- ------- --------- ------------ -------------- (IN THOUSANDS) BALANCE SHEET DATA: Cash and cash equivalents... $ 8,929 $114,930 $91,151 $49,664 $ 90,917 $ 63,217 $ 68,191 Working capital (deficit)... (13,073) 134,798 111,192 36,785 (196,870) (224,570) 52,704 Total assets................ 191,754 426,522 626,379 804,864 855,592 827,892 864,197 Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt............ 76,051 52,526 85,120 191,813 325,968 325,968 53,668 % Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2003.................... -- -- -- -- -- -- 150,000 Due to AUSA (non-current)... 18,823 211,693 219,037 234,894 149,776 149,776 -- Other long-term debt........ 29,917 62,215 107,385 167,444 38,283 38,283 35,283 Stockholders' equity........ 8,070 9,617 45,289 45,812 90,875 61,075 367,838
- --------------- (1) Pro forma balance sheet data reflects (i) the termination of AEI's S Corporation status which resulted in the recording of a deferred tax liability of $2.1 million and (ii) a distribution by the Company of undistributed earnings of AEI through December 31, 1997 of $27.7 million to stockholders of AEI prior to the Reorganization. The amount actually distributed by the Company to such stockholders of AEI will reflect the amount of undistributed net income earned (loss) recognized by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to the Reorganization. See "Reorganization -- Termination of S Corporation Status and Distributions" and Notes 1, 16 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. (2) As adjusted to give effect to the application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings based on an assumed initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock, including the purchase from AICL of its 40% interest in AAP for approximately $34 million and the related elimination of minority interest and recording of goodwill. The acquisition of the minority interest will result in additional amortization of approximately $2.5 million per year. Also reflects repayments made after December 31, 1997 and prior to the Offerings of $50.3 million of short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt and $30 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current), as well as the assumption by an affiliate of the Company of $13.9 million of amounts due to AUSA (non-current) in February 1998. See "Reorganization," "Use of Proceeds" and Notes 1, 6 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 38 41 MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS The following discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including statements regarding the anticipated growth in the market for the Company's products, the Company's anticipated capital expenditures and financing needs, the Company's expected capacity utilization rates, the belief of the Company as to its future operating performance and other statements that are not historical facts. Because such statements include risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth in the following discussion as well as in "Risk Factors" and "Business." The following discussion provides information and analysis of the Company's results of operations from 1995 through 1997 and its liquidity and capital resources and should be read in conjunction with the Combined Financial Statements and Notes thereto and the selected combined financial data included elsewhere in this Prospectus. The operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for any subsequent period. OVERVIEW Background. The Company is the world's largest independent provider of semiconductor packaging and test services. The Company believes that it is also one of the leading developers of advanced semiconductor packaging and test technology in the industry. The Company offers a complete and integrated set of packaging and test services including IC package design, leadframe and substrate design, IC package assembly, final testing, burn-in, reliability testing, and thermal and electrical characterization. The Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services. The Company provides packaging and test services through its three factories in the Philippines (P1, P2 and P3) as well as the four factories of AICL in Korea, and wafer fabrication services through AICL's new wafer foundry, pursuant to the Supply Agreements between the Company and AICL. As of December 31, 1997, the Company had in excess of 150 customers, including many of the largest semiconductor companies in the world. The Company was formed in September 1997 to consolidate the operations of the Amkor Companies, including AEI which was incorporated in 1970. These companies were under common management and in the same business prior to the Company's formation. As a result of the Reorganization, the financial statements included in this Prospectus are presented on a combined basis. See "Reorganization" and "Certain Transactions" and Notes 1 and 16 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Prior to the Reorganization, AEI elected to be taxed as an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax laws. Accordingly, AEI did not recognize any provision for federal income tax expense during the periods presented in the Combined Financial Statements. The Combined Financial Statements include a pro forma provision for income taxes which reflects the U.S. federal income taxes which would have been recorded by the Company if AEI had not been an S Corporation during these periods. See Notes 1, 10 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. General. From 1995 to 1997, the Company's revenues increased from approximately $932.4 million to $1.456 billion. This increase occurred primarily as a result of increases in unit volumes, together with the shift in the Company's product mix from traditional leadframe products to advanced leadframe and laminate products, which were offset in part by decreasing average selling prices. See "Business -- Products." In order to meet customer demand, the Company has invested significant resources to expand its capacity in the Philippines. In 1996 and the first six months of 1997, the Company incurred and expensed $15.5 million and $16.6 million, respectively, of pre-operating and start-up costs and initial operating losses in connection with its newest factory, P3, in the Philippines. This facility operated at substantially less than full capacity during these periods while customers were completing qualification procedures for BGA packages to be produced at the facility. The Company significantly increased utilization of P3 during the last six months of 1997 and expects to operate the facility with positive gross margins during 1998. See "Risk Factors -- Expansion of Manufacturing Capacity; Profitability Affected by Capacity Utilization Rates" and "Business -- Facilities and Manufacturing." 39 42 The Company's results of operations are generally affected by the capital-intensive nature of its business. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, the Company invested $123.6 million, $185.1 million and $179.0 million, respectively, in property, plant and equipment. Increases or decreases in capacity utilization rates can have a significant effect on gross margins since the unit cost of packaging and test services generally decrease as fixed charges, such as depreciation expense for the equipment, are allocated over a larger number of units produced. In addition, the Company's gross margin is significantly affected by fluctuations in service charges paid to AICL pursuant to the Supply Agreements. Pricing arrangements relating to packaging and test services provided by AICL to the Company are subject to quarterly review and adjustment, and pricing arrangements relating to wafer fabrication services provided by AICL are subject to annual review and adjustment, in each case on the basis of factors such as changes in the semiconductor market, forecasted demand, product mix and capacity utilization and fluctuations in exchange rates, as well as the mutual long-term strategic interest of the Company and AICL. The Company's results of operations are also affected by declines over time in the average selling prices for particular products. At times in the past the Company has been able to offset, at least in part, the effect of such decline on its margins by successfully developing and marketing new products with higher margins, such as advanced leadframe and laminate products, and by taking advantage of economies of scale and higher productivity resulting from volume production. However, there can be no assurance that the Company will be successful at offsetting any such declines in the future. See "Risk Factors -- Expansion of Manufacturing Capacity; Profitability Affected by Capacity Utilization Rates" and "-- Competition." Due to the concentration of market share in the semiconductor industry, the Company has been largely dependent upon a small group of customers for a substantial portion of its business. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, 34.1%, 39.2% and 40.1%, respectively, of the Company's net revenues were derived from sales to the Company's top five customers, with 13.3%, 23.5% and 23.4%, respectively, derived from sales to Intel. See "Risk Factors -- Customer Concentration; Absence of Backlog." Relationship with AICL. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. In addition, substantially all of the revenues of AICL in 1996 and 1997 were derived from services sold by the Company. Historically, AICL has directly sold packaging and test services in Japan and Korea. The Company assumed substantially all of the marketing rights for services in Japan in January 1998. Also, the Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services through AICL's new deep submicron CMOS foundry which is capable of producing up to 15,000 8" wafers per month. See "Risk Factors -- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business." The Company expects the proportion of its net revenues derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL and the percentage of AICL's revenues from services sold by the Company to increase as the Company begins selling the wafer fabrication output of AICL's new wafer foundry and with the Company's assumption from AICL of substantially all of the marketing rights for Japan. The Company has a first right to substantially all of the packaging and test service capacity of AICL and the exclusive right to all of the wafer output of AICL's new wafer foundry. The Supply Agreements between the Company and AICL generally provide, among other things, for periodic price reviews and adjustments and coordination of research and development efforts regarding package design and packaging and testing processes and technologies. The Supply Agreements have a five year initial term and thereafter may be terminated upon five years' notice. There can be no assurance that AICL will not terminate either Supply Agreement upon the expiration of such initial term, or that if it does terminate a Supply Agreement, that the Company will be able to enter into a new agreement with AICL on terms favorable to the Company or at all. See "Relationship with AICL." The Company expects that the businesses of the Company and AICL will continue to remain highly interdependent by virtue of their supply relationship, overlaps and family ties between their respective shareholders and management, financial relationships, coordination of product and operation plans, joint research and development activities and shared intellectual property rights. As a result, the Company's business, financial condition and operating results will continue to be significantly dependent on AICL, including without limitation AICL's ability to effectively provide the contracted services on a cost-efficient and timely basis as well as AICL's financial condition and results of operations. The Company will continue to be controlled to a significant degree by James Kim and members of his family, and Mr. Kim and other 40 43 members of his family will also continue to exercise significant influence over the management of AICL and its affiliates. In addition, the Company and AICL will continue to have certain contractual and other business relationships and may engage in transactions from time to time that are material to the Company. Although any such material agreements and transactions would require approval of the Company's Board of Directors, such transactions will generally not require any additional approval by a separate committee comprised of the disinterested members of the Board of Directors and conflicts of interest may arise in certain circumstances. There can be no assurance that such conflicts will not from time to time be resolved against the interests of the Company. The Company currently has four directors, two of whom are disinterested. Under Delaware corporate law, each director owes a duty of loyalty and care to the Company, which if breached can result in personal liability for the directors. In addition, the Company may agree to certain changes in its contractual and other business relationships with AICL, including pricing, manufacturing allocation, capacity utilization and capacity expansion, among others, which in the judgment of the Company's management will result in reduced short-term profitability for the Company in favor of potential long-term benefits to the Company and AICL. There can be no assurance that the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations will not be adversely affected by any such decision. See "-- Liquidity and Capital Resources" and "Risk Factors -- Dependence on Relationship with AICL; Potential Conflicts of Interest." RECENT DEVELOPMENTS For the three months ended March 31, 1998, the Company recognized net revenues of $371.7 million, gross profit of $61.7 million and pro forma net income (after giving effect to the termination of AEI's S Corporation status) of $9.6 million or $0.12 per share. RESULTS OF OPERATIONS The following table sets forth certain operating data as a percentage of net revenues for the periods indicated:
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ----------------------- 1995 1996 1997 ----- ----- ----- Net revenues........................................ 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Cost of revenues.................................... 84.0 87.3 85.4 ----- ----- ----- Gross profit...................................... 16.0 12.7 14.6 Operating expenses: Selling, general and administrative .............. 6.0 5.7 7.1 Research and development.......................... 0.9 0.9 0.6 ----- ----- ----- Total operating expenses....................... 6.9 6.6 7.7 ----- ----- ----- Operating income.................................... 9.1 6.1 6.9 ----- ----- ----- Other (income) expense: Interest expense, net............................. 1.0 1.9 2.2 Foreign currency (gain) loss...................... 0.2 0.2 (0.1) Other expense, net................................ 0.7 0.3 0.6 ----- ----- ----- Total other expense............................ 1.9 2.4 2.7 ----- ----- ----- Income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest..................... 7.2 3.7 4.2 Provision for income taxes.......................... 0.7 0.7 0.5 Equity in income (loss) of AICL..................... 0.3 (0.1) (1.2) Minority interest................................... 0.2 0.1 (0.5) ----- ----- ----- Net income.......................................... 6.6 2.8 3.0 Pro forma provision for income taxes ............... 1.1 0.2 0.3 ----- ----- ----- Pro forma net income................................ 5.5% 2.6% 2.7% ===== ===== =====
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1997 COMPARED TO YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1996 Net Revenues. The Company's net revenues consist of fees for the packaging and testing of ICs which are consigned by customers to the Company's or AICL's factories. Net revenues for 1997 increased 24.3% to 41 44 $1,455.8 million from $1,171.0 million for 1996 primarily due to an increase in unit volumes of semiconductors packaged and tested by the Company, offset in part by declines in average selling prices for many of the Company's leadframe products. In addition, the opening of P3, the Company's newest factory, and K4, AICL's newest factory, in September 1996 enabled the Company to begin to expand sales of BGA packages in 1997. Gross Profit. Gross profit increased 43.1% to $213.1 million in 1997 from $148.9 million in 1996, resulting in a gross margin of 14.6% for 1997 as compared to 12.7% for 1996. Cost of revenues consists principally of packaging and test service charges from AICL, costs of direct material for both the Philippine factories and AICL and labor and other costs at the Philippine factories. Gross margin increased primarily due to improved operating results at P1 and P2 during the second half of 1997, which more than offset initial operating losses and start-up costs incurred in connection with P3 during the first half of 1997. Product mix changes toward more profitable product lines and decreased labor costs from the devaluation of the Philippine peso were the primary factors resulting in improved margins at the P1 and P2 factories. Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 55.7% to $103.7 million, or 7.1% of net revenues, in 1997 from $66.6 million, or 5.7% of net revenues, in 1996 primarily due to increases in personnel in marketing and support to sustain the Company's growth. The number of employees in the Company's marketing and sales support groups increased during 1997 by approximately 21% over 1996. Such increase resulted in an overall increase in personnel-related costs including salaries, benefits and payroll taxes. The Company also incurred increased costs for office rental, depreciation and other occupancy-related expenses. The Company does not expect this level of growth in employees to continue in 1998. In addition to the increased costs from its marketing and sales support groups, the Company incurred approximately $8.0 million and $3.6 million in general and administrative expenses in connection with its P3 operations and wafer fabrication services group, respectively, during 1997. No similar costs were incurred in 1996 as these groups represented start-up operations in 1997. Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses decreased 22.0% to $8.5 million, or 0.6% of net revenues, in 1997, from $10.9 million, or 0.9% of net revenues, in 1996. The decrease in research and development costs principally reflected the termination in late 1996 of the Company's efforts to develop its own laminate substrate manufacturing capability. Other (Income) Expense. Other (income) expense consists of interest expense, net, foreign currency (gain) loss and other (income) expense, net. Other expense increased 40.5% to $39.8 million in 1997 from $28.4 million in 1996 primarily as a result of increased interest expense and increased other expenses. Interest expense for 1997 increased to $38.6 million from $27.7 million in 1996 as the Company significantly increased its borrowing to finance capacity expansion. See "-- Liquidity and Capital Resources." Interest expense in each of the periods was offset in part by interest income of $6.4 million and $5.5 million, respectively. Other expenses increased primarily due to $2.4 million in costs relating to the Company's trade receivables securitization transactions. See "-- Liquidity and Capital Resources" and Note 2 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Income Taxes. The Company's effective tax rate (after giving effect to the pro forma adjustment for income taxes) for 1997 was 18% as compared to 25% for 1996. The decrease in the Company's effective tax rate in 1997 compared to 1996 was primarily attributable to income not taxed due to a tax holiday and foreign exchange effects described below. The Company's subsidiary that owns P3 operates under a tax holiday from Philippine income taxes until the end of 2002. To the extent P3 is profitable, the Company's effective tax rate related to its Philippine operations during the tax holiday will be less than the Philippine statutory rate of 35%. Additionally, the Company recognized deferred tax benefits for unrealized foreign exchange losses in 1997 which are recognized in the Philippines for tax reporting purposes and relate to unrecognized net foreign exchange losses on U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities. See Note 10 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. These losses are not recognized for financial reporting purposes as the U.S. dollar is the functional currency. These losses will be realized for Philippine tax reporting purposes upon settlement of the related asset or liability. The benefit derived from unrealized foreign exchange losses was partially offset by an increase in the valuation allowance as the Company concluded that it was more likely than not that their tax benefits could be 42 45 realized in the Philippines within the three year loss carryforward period. The Company has structured its global operations to take advantage of lower tax rates in certain countries and tax incentives extended to encourage investment. The recorded provisions for income taxes are subject to changes upon examination of the Company's tax returns by tax authorities in the United States, the Philippines and elsewhere. Changes in the mix of income from the Company's foreign subsidiaries, expiration of tax holidays and changes in tax laws and regulations could result in increased effective tax rates for the Company. Equity in Income (Loss) of AICL. Equity in income (loss) of AICL represents the Company's ownership interest in AICL during the periods presented. In 1997, the Company recognized a loss of $17.3 million resulting principally from the impairment of value in its investment in AICL. In February 1998, the Company disposed of its investment in AICL's common stock. See "Certain Transactions" and Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Minority Interest. Minority interest represents AICL's ownership interest in the consolidated net income of AAP. During 1997, as a result of a settlement of an intercompany loan, which otherwise had no effect on the combined pretax income of the Company, AAP reported a net loss as a separate entity. Accordingly, the Company recorded a minority interest benefit in its combined financial statements relating to the minority interest in the net loss. Following the Offerings, the Company intends to purchase AICL's 40% interest in AAP and, as a result, the Company will own substantially all of the common stock of AAP. See "Use of Proceeds." The acquisition of the minority interest will result in the elimination of the minority interest liability and additional amortization of approximately $2.5 million per year. YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1996 COMPARED TO YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1995 Net Revenues. Net revenues in 1996 increased 25.6% to $1.17 billion from $932.4 million in 1995. The increase was primarily due to an increase in units sold together with an increase in sales of newer products, such as advanced leadframe and laminate packages. This increase in sales of newer products offset declines in average selling prices for many of the Company's other products. Gross Profit. Gross profit in 1996 and 1995 was approximately $149 million representing a decrease in gross margin to 12.7% in 1996 from 16.0% in 1995. The decrease in gross margin was primarily attributable to increases in cost of revenues due to $15.5 million in pre-operating and start-up costs associated with P3, as well as increased packaging and test service charges paid to AICL. Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 20.1% to $66.6 million, or 5.7% of net revenues, in 1996 from $55.5 million, or 6.0% of net revenues, in 1995 as a result of the addition of personnel and infrastructure to service increases in customer demand. In addition, the Company continued its investments in new information systems in order to enhance operating efficiencies and improve customer service and support. Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses increased 25.2% to $10.9 million, or 0.9% of net revenues, in 1996 from $8.7 million, or 0.9% of net revenues, in 1995 as a result of increased staffing and funding for the Company's efforts to develop laminate substrate manufacturing capabilities, prior to termination of such efforts in late 1996. Other (Income) Expense. Other expense increased 59.0% to $28.4 million in 1996 from $17.8 million in 1995 primarily as a result of increases in interest expense, net, offset in part by a decrease in other expense, net. Interest expense, net in 1996 increased to $22.2 million from $9.8 million in 1995 as the Company significantly increased its borrowing to finance capacity expansion. See "-- Liquidity and Capital Resources." As a result of this increase in debt, the Company's interest expense increased to $27.7 million in 1996 from $17.3 million in 1995. Income Taxes. The Company's effective tax rate (after giving effect to the pro forma provision for income taxes) for 1996 and 1995 was 25%. These rates were different from the United States statutory rate primarily due to the impact of lower tax rates, including tax holidays, in certain of the countries in which the Company's subsidiaries are located. See Note 10 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 43 46 QUARTERLY RESULTS The following table sets forth certain unaudited combined financial information, including as a percentage of net revenues, for the eight fiscal quarters ended December 31, 1997. The Company disposed of its investment in AICL common stock in February 1998. Also, the Company has entered into an agreement with AICL pursuant to which the Company will purchase, immediately following the Offerings, AICL's 40% interest in AAP. After the Offerings, there will be no equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest related to AAP. Consequently, this information is not presented below. The amounts of equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest have historically varied significantly by quarter depending on the income (loss) of AICL and AAP. See "Reorganization" and Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The Company believes that all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, have been included in the amounts stated below to present fairly the selected quarterly information when read in conjunction with the Combined Financial Statements and the Notes thereto included elsewhere herein. The Company's results of operations have varied and may continue to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are not necessarily indicative of the results of any future period. In addition, in light of the Company's recent growth, the Company believes that period-to-period comparisons should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance.
QUARTER ENDED --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MAR. 31, JUNE 30, SEPT. 30, DEC. 31, MAR. 31, JUNE 30, SEPT. 30, DEC. 31, 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 -------- -------- --------- -------- -------- -------- --------- -------- (IN THOUSANDS) Net revenues.......................... $270,327 $272,262 $285,784 $342,628 $313,019 $350,471 $380,130 $412,141 Cost of revenues...................... 230,387 231,959 250,898 308,834 287,449 299,093 314,246 341,881 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- Gross profit........................ 39,940 40,303 34,886 33,794 25,570 51,378 65,884 70,260 Operating expenses: Selling, general and administrative.................... 13,752 15,948 16,716 20,209 20,608 26,657 26,829 29,632 Research and development............ 2,100 2,757 3,071 3,002 1,485 2,030 2,236 2,774 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- Total operating expenses.......... 15,852 18,705 19,787 23,211 22,093 28,687 29,065 32,406 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- Operating income...................... 24,088 21,598 15,099 10,583 3,477 22,691 36,819 37,854 Total other expense, net.............. 3,316 6,052 9,853 9,135 8,165 9,577 11,242 10,851 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- Income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest............................ 20,772 15,546 5,246 1,448 (4,688) 13,114 25,577 27,003 Provision for income taxes............ 3,803 2,847 961 265 (1,497) 4,186 842 3,547 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- Income before equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest....... $ 16,969 $ 12,699 $ 4,285 $ 1,183 $ (3,191) $ 8,928 $ 24,735 $ 23,456 ======== ======== ======== ======== ======== ======== ======== ========
QUARTER ENDED ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- MAR. 31, JUNE 30, SEPT. 30, DEC. 31, MAR. 31, JUNE 30, 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ---------- Net revenues.......................... 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Cost of revenues...................... 85.2 85.2 87.8 90.1 91.8 85.3 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Gross profit........................ 14.8 14.8 12.2 9.9 8.2 14.7 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Operating expenses: Selling, general and administrative.................... 5.1 5.9 5.8 5.9 6.6 7.6 Research and development............ 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Total operating expenses.......... 5.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 7.1 8.2 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Operating income...................... 8.9 7.9 5.3 3.1 1.1 6.5 Total other expense, net.............. 1.2 2.2 3.5 2.7 2.6 2.8 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest............................ 7.7 5.7 1.8 0.4 (1.5) 3.7 Provision for income taxes............ 1.4 1.0 0.3 0.1 (0.5) 1.2 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- Income before equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest....... 6.3% 4.7% 1.5% 0.3% (1.0)% 2.5% ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== QUARTER ENDED ------------------------ SEPT. 30, DEC. 31, 1997 1997 ----------- ---------- Net revenues.......................... 100.0% 100.0% Cost of revenues...................... 82.7 83.0 ----- ----- Gross profit........................ 17.3 17.0 ----- ----- Operating expenses: Selling, general and administrative.................... 7.1 7.2 Research and development............ 0.5 0.6 ----- ----- Total operating expenses.......... 7.6 7.8 ----- ----- Operating income...................... 9.7 9.2 Total other expense, net.............. 3.0 2.6 ----- ----- Income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest............................ 6.7 6.6 Provision for income taxes............ 0.2 0.9 ----- ----- Income before equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest....... 6.5% 5.7% ===== =====
44 47 The Company's revenues, gross profit and operating profit are generally lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year primarily due to the combined effect of holidays in the United States, the Philippines and Korea. Semiconductor companies in the United States generally reduce their production during the holidays at the end of December which results in a significant decrease in orders for packaging and testing services during the first two weeks of January. In addition, the Company typically closes its factories in the Philippines for holidays in January, and AICL closes its factories in Korea for holidays in February. As a result of these factors, the Company's net revenues are significantly reduced during the months of January and February. The Company currently anticipates that its operating results for the first quarter of 1998 will follow its historical seasonality, with revenues, gross profit and operating profit declining as compared to the fourth quarter of 1997. Beginning in the third quarter of 1996, intense competition in the semiconductor industry worldwide led to decreases in the average selling prices of many of the Company's leadframe packages. These decreases were partially offset by increases in sales of advanced leadframe and laminate packages, which carry higher prices and gross margins. In addition, the Company's cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues increased significantly during the three quarters ended March 31, 1997 primarily as a result of initial operating losses and start-up costs associated with P3. Cost of revenues was also affected in the two quarters ended June 30, 1997, as the Company recognized a $2.2 million write-off for custom laminate raw materials which were purchased to meet customer orders which were subsequently cancelled. The combined effect of these factors was to decrease the levels of profitability in the third and fourth quarters of 1996 and the first quarter of 1997. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased during the second, third and fourth quarters of 1997 primarily due to increased staffing levels at the Company's marketing and sales support groups, as well as at its P3 factory and wafer fabrication services group, which resulted in increased employee-related costs. See "-- Results of Operations -- Year Ended December 31, 1997 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 1996 -- Selling, General and Administrative Expenses." Income tax rates in the third quarter of 1997 were lower compared to prior periods as the Company recognized deferred tax benefits for unrealized foreign exchange losses during the quarter, which are recognized for Philippine tax reporting purposes but are not recognized for financial reporting purposes since the U.S. dollar is the functional currency. Although similar circumstances during the fourth quarter of 1997 resulted in the recognition of additional deferred tax assets, their effect on the overall tax rates were mitigated by a valuation allowance also recorded during the fourth quarter of approximately $22 million. See "-- Results of Operations -- Year End December 31, 1997 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 1996 -- Income Taxes." As the majority of these tax assets relate to fluctuations in the value of the Philippine peso, management is unable to determine the impact to the effective tax rates which may occur as a result of future exchange rate fluctuations. The Company's quarterly operating results may vary significantly due to a variety of factors including, among others, the cyclical nature of both the semiconductor industry and the markets addressed by end-users of semiconductors, the short-term nature of its customers' commitments, timing and volume of orders relative to the Company's production capacity, changes in capacity utilization, evolutions in the life cycles of customers' products, rescheduling and cancellation of large orders, rapid erosion of packaging selling prices, availability of manufacturing capacity, allocation of production capacity between the Company's facilities and AICL's facilities, fluctuations in packaging and test service charges paid to AICL, changes in costs, availability and delivery times of labor, raw materials and components, effectiveness in managing production processes, fluctuations in manufacturing yields, changes in product mix, product obsolescence, timing of expenditures in anticipation of future orders, availability of financing for expansion, changes in interest expense, the ability to develop and implement new technologies, competitive factors, changes in effective tax rates, the loss of key personnel or the shortage of available skilled workers, international political or economic events, currency and interest rate fluctuations, environmental events, and intellectual property transactions and disputes. Unfavorable changes in any of the above factors may adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the Company increases its level of operating expenses and investment in manufacturing capacity in anticipation of future growth in revenues. To the extent the Company's revenues do not grow as anticipated, the Company's financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected. See "Risk Factors -- Fluctuations in Operating Results; Declines in Average Selling Price." 45 48 LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES At December 31, 1997, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $90.9 million and a working capital deficit of $196.9 million ($63.2 and $224.6 million, respectively, on a pro forma basis, after giving effect to the termination of AEI's S Corporation status and the distribution of undistributed earnings through December 31, 1997). The Company's working capital deficit resulted primarily from the significant amount of its short-term debt, primarily incurred in connection with the expansion of its Philippine operations, together with approximately $105 million of term loans which have been reclassified as current liabilities as a result of the non-compliance by the Company with certain covenants thereunder. The Company's non-compliance with certain covenants with respect to the Non-Compliant Loans, the aggregate outstanding amount of which was $176 million as of December 31, 1997, triggered cross-defaults with respect to an additional $10 million of the Company's loans. These loan covenants include restrictions on the ability of one of the Company's subsidiaries to enter into transactions with affiliates, requirements that the subsidiary maintain certain debt-to-equity ratios and requirements that the subsidiary comply with certain notice requirements. The Company's obligation to repay these loans (including the cross-defaulted loans) may be accelerated by the lenders at any time. As a result of such non-compliance, the report of the Company's independent public accountants with respect to the Company's financial statements included herein contains a paragraph stating that there is substantial doubt as to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern. The Company will eliminate such non-compliance and cross-defaults by repaying such loans using part of the net proceeds to the Company from the Offerings as well as working capital. See "Use of Proceeds" and "Risk Factors -- Risks Associated with Leverage." The Company will use the net proceeds received from the Offerings primarily to repay an aggregate of approximately $331 million of short-term and long-term debt, including the Non-Compliant Loans (which, following planned repayments of portions thereof prior to the Offerings, will have an aggregate outstanding balance of $154 million), $63 million of short-term loans, $8 million of term loans and $106 million of amounts due to AUSA. In addition, the Company will use approximately $34 million of such net proceeds to repurchase AICL's 40% interest in AAP. See "Use of Proceeds." Following the expected application of the estimated net proceeds of the Offerings to the Company together with planned repayments of debt prior to the Offerings, the Company will have $54 million of short-term borrowing and current portion of long-term debt, $185 million of long-term debt and no amounts then due to AUSA. In addition, the remaining $85 million of such net proceeds will be available for capital expenditures and working capital. The Company has been investing significant amounts of capital to increase its packaging and test services capacity, including the construction of P3, the addition of capacity in the Company's other Philippine facilities and the construction of a new manufacturing facility in the United States. Advanced packaging processes are being developed at the U.S. facility and full scale operations are expected to begin in 1999. In 1995, 1996, and 1997, the Company made capital expenditures of $123.6 million, $185.1 million and $179.0 million, respectively. Because the Company and AICL have added a significant amount of packaging and test capacity in recent years, the Company intends to decrease its level of capital expenditures in 1998. The Company currently intends to spend approximately $60 million in capital expenditures in 1998, including for the new factory in the U.S. and moderate capacity expansion at the Company's existing facilities in the Philippines to meet expected demand. The Company believes that expenditure levels could increase substantially in 1999 to provide the Company with adequate capacity. The Company believes that following the application of the net proceeds from the Offerings, its existing cash balances, cash flow from operations, available equipment lease financing, bank borrowings and financing obtained through AUSA will be sufficient to meet its anticipated cash requirements including working capital and capital expenditures, for at least the next 12 months. In addition, the Company intends to seek out strategic long-term financing arrangements to fund part of its capital expansion plans in 1998. There can be no assurance, however, that lower than expected revenues, increased expenses, increased costs associated with the purchase or maintenance of capital equipment, decisions to increase planned capacity or other events will not cause the Company to seek more capital, or to seek capital sooner than currently expected. The timing and amount of the Company's actual capital requirements cannot be precisely determined and will depend on a number of factors, including demand for the Company's services, availability of capital equipment, fluctua- 46 49 tions in foreign currency exchange rates, changes in semiconductor industry conditions and competitive factors. There can be no assurance that such additional financing will be available when needed or, if available, will be available on satisfactory terms. Failure to obtain any such financing could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, if the Company obtains such financing by selling equity securities of the Company, the Company's stockholders may experience significant dilution. The Company historically has met a significant portion of its cash requirements for working capital and capital expenditures from a combination of cash from operating activities, short-term and long-term bank loans and financing obtained for the benefit of the Company by AUSA, a wholly-owned financing subsidiary of AICL, as well as financing from a trade receivables securitization agreement. Cash provided by operating activities in 1995, 1996 and 1997 was $53.3 million, $8.6 million, and $250.1 million, respectively. Cash provided (used) by financing activities was $71.2 million, $148.0 million and $(16.0) million for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. At December 31, 1997, the Company's debt consisted of $326.0 million of borrowings classified as current liabilities, $38.3 million of long-term debt and capital lease obligations and $149.8 million of amounts due to AUSA. The Company plans to repay prior to the Offerings approximately $50.3 million of its short-term debt and $30 million of amounts due to AUSA. In addition, $13.9 million of amounts due to AUSA was assumed by AK Investments, Inc., an affiliate of the Company, in February 1998. As of December 31, 1997, the Company had extended guarantees in respect of bank debt of affiliates in the amount of $31 million and in respect of vendor obligations of an affiliate in the amount of $24.7 million, which amount may vary over time. At December 31, 1997, the Company had $223.9 million in borrowing facilities with a number of domestic and foreign banks, of which $36.2 million remained unused. Certain of these agreements require compliance with certain financial covenants and restrictions, and are collateralized by assets of the Company. These facilities are typically revolving lines of credit and working capital facilities for one-year renewable periods and generally bear interest at rates ranging from 7.2% to 13%. Long-term debt and capital lease obligations outstanding at December 31, 1997 have various expiration dates through April 2004, and accrue interest at rates ranging from 6.7% to 12.5%. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The Company has met a significant portion of its financing needs through financing arrangements obtained by AUSA, AICL's wholly-owned financing subsidiary. A majority of the amount due to AUSA represents outstanding amounts under financing obtained by AUSA for the benefit of the Company, with the balance representing payables to AUSA for packaging and service charges paid to AICL. Based on guarantees provided by AICL, AUSA obtains for the benefit of the Company a continuous series of short-term financing arrangements which generally are less than six months in duration, and typically are less than two months in duration. Because of the short term nature of these loans, the flows of cash to and from AUSA under this arrangement are significant. At December 31, 1997, the Company had fully utilized $149.8 million of the credit facilities available to the Company through AUSA. These credit facilities are with U.S. branches of a number of banks located in Korea and have interest rates ranging from approximately 6.9% to prime plus 8.5% (17% at December 31, 1997). Because of the recent deterioration of the Korean economy, Korean banks have begun to raise interest rates applicable to their lending. See "Risk Factors -- Dependence on International Operations and Sales; Concentration of Operations in the Philippines and Korea -- Korea." As its credit lines have been renewed, AUSA has experienced a significant increase in interest rates, and there can be no assurance that such increases will not continue. The Company reimburses AUSA for certain of the interest charges incurred by AUSA under these credit facilities. As an overseas subsidiary of AICL, AUSA was formed with the approval of the Bank of Korea. If the Bank of Korea were to withdraw such approval, or if AUSA otherwise ceased operations for any reason, the Company and AICL would be required to meet their financing needs through alternative arrangements. Although the Company believes that after the Offerings alternative financing arrangements will be available, there can be no assurance that the Company or AICL will be able to obtain alternative financing on acceptable terms or at all. AUSA has received commitments from its banks indicating that they intend to renew the facilities when they expire through at least April 1, 1999. AUSA has extended similar terms to the Company with respect to amounts due to AUSA by the Company. Accordingly, amounts due to AUSA are classified as non-current liabilities on the Company's balance sheet at December 31, 1997. See Notes 2 and 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 47 50 At December 31, 1997, all of AUSA's debt of $319 million, the Non-Compliant Loans of $176 million and the Company's obligations under the Receivables Sale (as defined below) were guaranteed by AICL. AICL currently has a significant amount of debt relative to its equity and is contingently liable under guarantees in respect of debt of its subsidiaries and affiliates, including AUSA. As of December 31, 1997, AICL and its consolidated subsidiaries had guarantees outstanding in respect of debt of its non-consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates in the Anam Group in the aggregate amount of approximately W857 billion, including the guarantees of the Company's loans. As a result of its relationship with AICL, the Company's business, financial condition and operating results are significantly dependent on AICL. There can be no assurance that AUSA will be able to obtain additional guarantees, if necessary, from AICL. In addition, a deterioration in AICL's financial condition could trigger defaults under AICL's guarantees, causing acceleration of such loans. See "-- Overview -- Relationship with AICL," "Risk Factors -- Dependence on Relationship with AICL; Potential Conflicts of Interest" and "Relationship with AICL." In July 1997, the Company entered into a trade receivables securitization agreement with a commercial financial institution. Under the terms of the agreement, the financial institution has committed to purchase, with limited recourse, all right, title and interest in eligible receivables, as defined in the agreement, up to $100 million (the "Receivables Sale"). Funds received pursuant to the agreement reflect a discount of LIBOR plus 0.375% from accounts receivable sold. The Company applied approximately $83.4 million of the initial Receivables Sale proceeds together with approximately $17 million of working capital to reduce the Company's indebtedness to AUSA, which amounts were advanced by AUSA to entities controlled by members of James Kim's family. See Note 2 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Prior to the consummation of the Reorganization, AEI was treated for U.S. federal and certain state tax purposes as an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax laws. As a result, AEI did not recognize U.S. federal corporate income taxes. Instead, up until the Termination Date, Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts had been obligated to pay U.S. federal and certain state income taxes on their allocable portion of the income of AEI. The Company, Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts have entered into tax indemnification agreements providing that the Company will be indemnified by such stockholders, with respect to their proportionate share of any U.S. federal or state corporate income taxes attributable to the failure of AEI to qualify as an S Corporation for any period or in any jurisdiction for which S Corporation status was claimed through the Termination Date. The tax indemnification agreements also provide that under certain circumstances the Company will indemnify Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts if such stockholders are required to pay additional taxes or other amounts attributable to taxable years on or before the Termination Date as to which AEI filed or files tax returns claiming status as an S Corporation. AEI has made various distributions to Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts which have enabled them to pay their income taxes on their allocable portions of the income of AEI. Such distributions totaled approximately $19.8 million, $13.0 million and $5.0 million in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company declared additional distributions to such stockholders prior to the consummation of the Reorganization in an amount equal to $27.7 million, as adjusted for net income (loss) recognized by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to the consummation of the Reorganization and less a distribution of $8.1 million to such stockholders in March 1998, which distributions represented AEI's cumulative net income in all periods prior to the Termination Date less the aggregate amount of distributions previously made to such stockholders. These final distributions are intended to provide such stockholders with the balance of AEI's net income for which they have already recognized taxable income. Through December 31, 1997, the amount of such undistributed net earnings was $27.7 million. See "Reorganization" and Notes 1, 10 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION GAINS AND LOSSES The Company's subsidiaries in the Philippines maintain their accounting records in U.S. dollars. This is due to the fact that all sales, the majority of all bank debt and all significant material and fixed asset purchases of such subsidiaries are denominated in U.S. dollars. As a result, the Philippine subsidiaries' exposure to changes in the Philippine peso/U.S. dollar exchange rate relates primarily to certain receivables and advances and other assets offset by payroll, pension and local liabilities. To minimize its foreign exchange risk, the Company selectively hedges its net foreign currency exposure through short-term (generally not more than 30 to 60 days) forward exchange contracts. To date, the Company's hedging activity has been immaterial. 48 51 BUSINESS The following discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the U.S. federal securities laws, including statements regarding the anticipated growth in the market for the Company's products, the Company's anticipated capital expenditures and financing needs, the Company's expected capacity utilization rates, the belief of the Company as to its future operating performance and other statements that are not historical facts. Because such statements include risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth herein, in "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Amkor is the world's largest independent provider of semiconductor packaging and test services. The Company believes that it is also one of the leading developers of advanced semiconductor packaging and test technology in the industry. The Company offers a complete and integrated set of packaging and test services including IC package design, leadframe and substrate design, IC package assembly, final testing, burn-in, reliability testing, and thermal and electrical characterization. As of December 31, 1997, the Company had in excess of 150 customers, including many of the largest semiconductor companies in the world. Such customers include, among others, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., International Business Machines Corp., Intel, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Motorola, Inc., National Semiconductor Corp., Philips Electronics N.V., SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics N.V., Siemens AG and TI. The Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services through AICL's new deep submicron CMOS foundry. This foundry is currently capable of producing up to 15,000 8" wafers per month. Through a strategic relationship with TI, the Company and AICL have qualified .25 micron CMOS process technology, and TI has agreed to provide to AICL .18 micron CMOS process technology during 1998. This foundry will primarily manufacture digital signal processors ("DSPs"), application specific integrated circuits ("ASICs") and other logic devices. By leveraging the Company's leading position in semiconductor packaging and test services, the new wafer fabrication services have enabled the Company to become one of the first providers of a fully integrated, turnkey semiconductor fabrication, packaging and test service solution. The Company provides packaging and test services through its three factories in the Philippines as well as the four factories of AICL in Korea pursuant to a Supply Agreement between the Company and AICL, under which AICL provides packaging and test services to the Company. In 1996 and 1997, AICL provided packaging and test services representing approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's net revenues. INDUSTRY BACKGROUND Manufacturing Process The production of a semiconductor is a complex process that requires increasingly sophisticated engineering and manufacturing expertise. The production process can be broadly divided into three primary stages: (i) wafer fabrication, (ii) assembly of die into finished devices (referred to as "packaging") and (iii) testing of finished devices and other back-end processes. 49 52 [ORGANIZATIONAL CHART] The wafer fabrication process begins with the generation of a mask that defines the circuit patterns for the transistors and interconnect layers that will be formed on the raw silicon wafer. The transistors and other circuit elements are formed by repeating a series of process steps wherein a photosensitive material is first deposited on the wafer, the material is exposed to light through the mask in a photolithography process, and finally, the unwanted material is etched away, leaving only the desired circuit pattern on the wafer. By stacking up the various patterns, the individual elements of the semiconductor are defined. The final step in the wafer fabrication process is to electrically test each individual chip in a wafer probe process in order to identify the good chip for packaging. The fabricated wafers are then transferred to packaging facilities. Semiconductor packaging serves to protect the chip, facilitate integration into electronic systems, and enable the dissipation of heat from the devices. In the packaging process, the wafer is diced into its individual die which are then separated from the wafer and attached to a substrate via an epoxy adhesive. Leads on the substrate are then connected by extremely fine gold wires to the input/output ("I/O") terminals on the chips through the use of automated machines known as "wire bonders". Each die is then encapsulated in a plastic molding compound, thus forming the package, which then goes through several additional finishing steps to prepare it for testing. Following packaging, each packaged device is then tested utilizing a sophisticated test platform and program which tests the many different operating specifications of the IC, including functionality, voltage, current and timing. The completed devices are either shipped back to the customer or shipped directly to their final destination. Trends Toward Outsourcing Historically, semiconductor companies manufactured semiconductors primarily in their own factories. Independent packagers of semiconductors were used solely to handle the overflow volume requirements of semiconductor companies. Outsourcing of final testing and wafer fabrication was virtually non-existent in the 50 53 early days of the industry. Over the past fifteen years, however, the need for independent semiconductor packaging and test services has grown dramatically for several reasons. First, semiconductor companies are facing ever-increasing demands for miniaturization, higher lead counts and improved thermal and electrical performance in IC packages. As a result of this trend, semiconductor packaging is now viewed as an enabling technology requiring sophisticated expertise and technological innovation. Independent providers of packaging and test services have developed substantial expertise in packaging and test technology and new package innovation. Semiconductor companies, having found it difficult to keep pace using their internal resources, have come to rely increasingly on the independent packaging and test services providers as a key source for new technology development and innovation. Second, semiconductor companies are increasingly seeking to shorten their time to market for new products. Having the right packaging technology and capacity in place is a critical factor in reducing time to market. As packaging solutions are identified for a specific product, semiconductor companies frequently do not have the equipment or expertise to implement such solutions in the volumes required, nor sufficient time to develop these capabilities before introducing a new product into the market. For this reason, semiconductor companies are increasingly leveraging the resources and capabilities of independent packaging and test companies to deliver their new products to market more quickly. Third, the packaging and testing of ICs has evolved into an increasingly complex process that requires substantial investment in specialized equipment and facilities. For example, the investment in facilities and equipment necessary for a processing line capable of packaging 100 million ball grid array ("BGA") packages per year can be as much as $200 million. As a result of the substantial cost of this manufacturing equipment, the equipment must be utilized at a high capacity level for an extended period of time in order to be cost effective. With semiconductor companies facing increasingly shorter product life cycles, faster new product introductions and the need to continuously update or replace packaging equipment to accommodate new products, it has become increasingly difficult for semiconductor companies to sustain such high levels of capacity utilization. Independent providers of packaging and test services, on the other hand, can use existing equipment at high utilization levels over a longer period of time for a broad range of customers, effectively extending the life of the equipment. Fourth, as the cost to build a new wafer fabrication facility has increased to over $1 billion, semiconductor companies have been forced to concentrate their capital resources on core wafer manufacturing activities. As a result, semiconductor companies are increasingly seeking to use independent packaging and test providers who have the ability to invest the capital to develop new packaging and test capacity. The Company believes that as the cost to construct new wafer fabrication facilities continues to increase, semiconductor manufacturers will increasingly seek to outsource packaging and test services. Fifth, there has been a recent growth of "fabless" semiconductor companies whose core competency and focus is entirely on the semiconductor design process. According to industry estimates, sales by fabless semiconductor companies have grown from $3.2 billion in 1993 to $6.8 billion in 1996, representing 3.7% and 4.8%, respectively, of the worldwide market for semiconductors. The significant growth in the number of fabless semiconductor companies has been driven in large part by the ability of such companies to effectively outsource virtually every significant step of the semiconductor manufacturing process. This development has allowed fabless semiconductor companies to introduce new semiconductors very quickly without committing significant amounts of capital and other resources. The Company believes that increases in the number of fabless semiconductor companies will continue to be a significant driver of growth in the independent semiconductor manufacturing industry. These trends, combined with the growth in the number of ICs being produced and sold, are driving increasing demand for independent packaging and test services. According to industry estimates, independent packaging revenues are expected to grow at a compound annual rate of approximately 16% over a period of five years from $5.6 billion in 1997 to $11.6 billion in 2002. Today, nearly all of the world's major semiconductor companies use independent packaging and test service providers for at least a portion, if not all, of their packaging and test needs. 51 54 Many of the same forces that have driven the growth of independent packaging and test have also been driving increasing demand for independent wafer fabrication services. Moreover, because the cost of new wafer fabrication facilities has been rising steadily, many semiconductor companies are seeking to leverage their capital resources by outsourcing some or all of their wafer fabrication needs. This is particularly true for newer, smaller geometry technologies that are necessary for producing the newest, leading edge ICs, because they cannot be produced in many semiconductor companies' existing wafer fabrication facilities. As the demand for ICs with smaller geometries increases, the Company believes semiconductor companies will increasingly utilize independent wafer manufacturers. The Need for Turnkey Solutions The growing demand for independent wafer fabrication, packaging, and test services has generally been served by separate wafer fabrication, packaging or test companies. This creates inefficiencies for semiconductor companies which must manage the delays, complex logistics and uncertainty inherent in utilizing a different service provider for each step of the semiconductor manufacturing process. Only a very few, if any, independent service providers have the capability of providing a combination of wafer fabrication, packaging and test services. THE AMKOR SOLUTION Amkor is the largest independent provider of semiconductor packaging and test services in the world. With its leading edge process technology and package design expertise, the Company is able to provide its customers with a broad range of new packaging solutions that enable faster, smaller and more powerful ICs. Due to its size and industry-leading position, the Company is capable of implementing and utilizing the capital equipment necessary for both new and mature packages, thereby affording its customers an attractive alternative in their capital allocation decisions. In addition, with AICL's new wafer fabrication capabilities, the Company is able to offer a fully integrated, turnkey semiconductor manufacturing solution. STRATEGY Principal elements of the Company's strategy include: Maintain Product Technology Leadership. The Company believes that it is one of the world's leading designers and developers of new semiconductor packaging technology. The Company has designed and developed such leading edge leadframe and laminate products as its PowerQuad(R), SuperBGA(R), fleXBGA(TM) and ChipArray(TM) BGA packages. The Company is focusing additional design and development efforts on new generations of the BGA packaging format and on "flip chip" die attach technologies where the I/O pads on the chip are attached directly to the package's substrate rather than with wire-bonded connections. The Company employs a staff of leading semiconductor packaging technologists and undertakes significant research and development activities in its Chandler, Arizona and Philippines locations, as well as through joint development activities with AICL's development staff in Korea. The Company intends to continue to maintain its leading packaging technology position. Maintain Advanced Manufacturing Capabilities. The Company believes that its tradition of manufacturing excellence has been a key factor in its success in attracting and retaining customers, and it is committed to maintaining that high level of excellence. Key to this effort is the Company's commitment to continuous advancement of its process technology. The Company's development teams work with its customers, suppliers, and others to develop new processing technologies as well as pursue continuous improvements in the Company's existing processing capabilities. These efforts have directly resulted in reduced time to market, increased quality, and lower manufacturing costs. Leverage Scale and Scope of the Company's Packaging and Test Capabilities. The Company believes that its scale of operations and its breadth of product offerings provide it with several competitive advantages. First, the Company believes that its size and position in the industry allow it certain advantages in procuring key materials and manufacturing equipment. Second, the Company is able to capitalize on the substantial economies of scale that result from high utilization rates of its capital equipment, thereby lowering the 52 55 Company's per unit manufacturing costs and facilitating cost-effective solutions for its customers. The Company's scale also allows it to offer an industry-leading breadth of product offerings and to be a single source for many of its customers' packaging requirements. The Company offers over 450 different package formats and sizes with a variety of processing and materials options. The Company added 175 and 139 new packaging options, respectively, in 1996 and 1997. The Company is committed to continued expansion of both its size of operations and its scope of product and service offerings. Establish Industry Packaging Standards. The Company believes that by bringing new package designs to market early, its designs are more likely to become industry standards, which in turn will allow the Company to obtain higher margins than its competitors for such new designs. The Company also seeks to capture substantial market share and to spur the industry-wide adoption of its new packages by investing aggressively in expanding its manufacturing capacity for these packages. As a result, it is one of the leading providers of advanced packaging solutions such as thin package formats and BGA packages. The Company believes these package types will comprise some of the highest growth and more profitable segments of the packaging market in coming years. Enhance Customer and Supplier Relationships. As the world's largest independent provider of semiconductor packaging and test services, the Company has developed long-standing strategic relationships with leading semiconductor and electronics companies, its suppliers, and other developers of new semiconductor technologies. The Company believes that these relationships have allowed it to stay ahead of the constantly advancing demand curve for independent packaging services. The Company has repeatedly developed leading-edge packaging technologies that have met the requirements of newer IC devices and that have been quickly accepted in the marketplace. The Company's alliances with certain of its key equipment and material suppliers have enabled the Company to achieve packaging and manufacturing process innovation and cost reduction. Developing and maintaining these relationships within the industry will continue to be an integral part of the Company's overall strategic direction. Focus on Customer Service and Support. The Company believes that its focus on customer service and support has been crucial in attracting and retaining leading semiconductor companies as its customers. The Company has a firmly established customer-oriented culture. To provide a dedicated customer support infrastructure and to stay abreast of customers' expectations, the Company has strategically established technical and sales teams near major customer facilities and in acknowledged technology centers. In addition, the Company has implemented direct electronic links with its customers to enhance communication and facilitate real-time engineering data and order information flow. Provide an Integrated, Turnkey Solution. The Company seeks to provide a complete turnkey solution comprising wafer fabrication, packaging and test services. The Company recently began providing wafer fabrication services through AICL's new deep submicron CMOS foundry. With the addition of wafer fabrication, the Company is able to provide all stages of IC production for its customers from the fabrication of wafers through the shipment of finished ICs. The Company believes this integration will enable customers to improve the cost and performance of their ICs and achieve faster time to market for both new product introductions and production lead times. 53 56 PRODUCTS Packaging The Company offers a broad range of package formats designed to provide customers with a full array of packaging solutions for both commodity and advanced products. The Company's products are divided into three product families: traditional leadframe, advanced leadframe, and laminate products as shown in the following tables.
- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRADITIONAL LEADFRAME PRODUCTS - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------ PACKAGE TYPE NUMBER OF LEADS APPLICATIONS - ------------------------------------------ --------------- -------------------------------------- PDIP (Plastic Dual In-line Packages) 8-48 General purpose plastic IC package for SPDIP (Shrink DIP) 28-64 consumer electronic products such as games, telephones, TV, audio equipment and computer peripherals. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hermetic Custom A line of mature, ceramic predominant packages used especially for high-reliability applications (military, space and commercial aviation). - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier) 20-84 Used for logic, gate arrays, DAC, processors and chip sets used in larger form-factor items (copiers, printers, scanners, desktop PCs, electronic games and monitors). - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOIC (Small Outline Integrated Circuit) 8-44 Designed for needs of lower lead devices. End uses include consumer audio/video and entertainment products, pagers, cordless telephones, fax machines, copiers, printers, PC peripherals and automotive parts. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MQFP (Metric Quad Flat Package) 44-304 Adapted to meet the increasing challenges of advanced processors/controllers, DSPs, ASICs, video-DAC, PC chip sets, gate arrays, logic devices, multimedia and other technologies for consumer, commercial, office, automotive, PC and industrial products. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PowerQuad(R) 100-304 Higher performance thermally enhanced QFP package. Used for DSPs, programmable logic devices, microprocessors and micro-controllers, high-speed and field programmable gate array logic devices, ASIC and other technologies requiring more thermal performance than offered by standard QFP packages. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PowerSOP(TM) 8-36 Higher performance thermally enhanced SOIC package. Used for wireless RF telecom devices, automotive, industrial, disk drive, pagers, and other technologies requiring more thermal performance than offered by standard SOIC packages.
================================================================================ 54 57
- ------------------------------------------ ADVANCED LEADFRAME PRODUCTS - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------ PACKAGE TYPE NUMBER OF LEADS APPLICATIONS - ------------------------------------------ --------------- -------------------------------------- TQFP (Thin Quad Flat Package) 32-256 Designed for lightweight, portable electronics requiring broad performance characteristics, including notebook computers, desktop PCs, audio/video and telecommunications products, cordless/RF devices, office equipment, disk drives and communication boards (e.g., Ethernet and ISDN). - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package) 32-48 Primary application is for SRAM, DRAM, FLASH and FSRAM memory devices. End uses include PC cards, PCMCIA form-factor products, cameras (still/video) and notebook computers. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TSSOP (Thin Shrink Small Outline Package) 8-80 Designed for gate drivers, controllers, logic, analog, memory (SRAM, DRAM, EPROM, E2PROM), comparators and optoelectronics. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SSOP (Shrink Small Outline Package) 8-64 Designed to enable end-products such as pagers, portable audio/video products, disk drives, and wireless applications to be reduced in size and weight. - --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
55 58
- ------------------------------------------ LAMINATE PRODUCTS - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------ PACKAGE TYPE NUMBER OF BALLS APPLICATIONS - ------------------------------------------ --------------- -------------------------------------- PBGA (Plastic Ball Grid Array) 119-544 Semiconductors for end users which require the enhanced performance provided by the integrated design of PBGA, including microprocessors/ controllers, ASICs, gate arrays, memory, DSPs and PC chip sets. Designed for applications where improved portability, form-factor and high-performance are necessary, including wireless products, cellular, GPS, notebook computers, video cameras and disk drives. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SuperBGA(R) 64-600 Designed for high-speed, high-power semiconductors such as ASICs, microprocessors, gate arrays, and DSPs. Applications include wireless products, notebook computers, PDAs, video GUI and CPU/BUS boards. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- fleXBGA(TM) 133-412 Higher performance, lower profile package than PBGA due to size reduction made possible by denser substrate. Ideal for high performance disk drives, cellular phones, pagers, wireless communications, DSPs and micro-controller applications. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MicroBGA(TM) 8-200 Especially suited for memory devices such as FLASH, SRAM, DRAM and FSRAM technologies, microprocessors/ controllers and high value ASICs requiring a low height, weight and size packaging. End uses include cellular and other telecommunications products, disk drives, notebooks/sub-notebooks, PDAs, wireless and consumer systems and memory boards. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ChipArray(TM) 36-128 Designed for semiconductors such as memory, analog, ASICs and PLDs requiring a smaller package than conventional PBGAs. Applications include cellular and other telecommunications, notebooks/sub- notebooks, PDAs, wireless systems and GPS. - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FlipChip N/A An enabling interconnect technology which can be utilized in advanced IC packages such as PBGA, chip scale and flex circuit solutions to support improved electrical requirements and very high semiconductor density in very small systems.
================================================================================ 56 59 Traditional Leadframe Products. Traditional leadframe products are the most widely recognized package types and are characterized by a chip encapsulated in a plastic mold compound with metal leads surrounding the perimeter. This package type has evolved from packages designed to be plugged into the circuit board by inserting the leads into holes on the circuit board to the more modern surface-mount design, in which the leads are soldered to the surface of the circuit board. Specific package customization and evolutionary improvements are continually being engineered to enable improved electrical performance and multi-chip capability, as well as smaller printed circuit board footprints. The Company offers a wide range of lead counts and body sizes within this product group to satisfy customer die size variations. In addition, the Company offers power versions of the SOP, PLCC, and MQFP package types which are specially designed to handle today's high power ICs that need with enhanced heat dissipation characteristics. Advanced Leadframe Products. The Company's customers are seeking increasingly thinner packages, which has led the Company to develop newer, more advanced leadframe products. The Company's advanced leadframe products are similar in design to its traditional leadframe products. However, the advanced leadframe products generally are thinner and smaller, have more leads, and have advanced thermal and electrical characteristics which are necessary for many of today's more advanced semiconductor applications. The TSOP, TSSOP and SSOP packages are significantly smaller than the Company's traditional SOIC products, while the TQFP package is a smaller version of the MQFP package. The Company also offers power versions of these package types. The Company plans to continue to develop increasingly smaller versions of these products to keep pace with continually shrinking die sizes and increasing demands for miniaturization. Laminate Products. The laminate product family represents the newest and fastest growth area for the Company and consists of products employing the BGA format which utilize a laminate (plastic or tape) substrate rather than a leadframe substrate. BGA technology was first introduced in the industry as a solution to problems associated with the increasingly high lead counts required for advanced semiconductors. As the number of leads surrounding the IC increased, packagers attempted to maintain the size of the package by increasing the proximity of the leads to one another. As a result, however, these high lead count packages experienced significant electrical shorting problems and required the development of increasingly sophisticated and expensive techniques for producing circuit boards to accommodate the density of the leads. The BGA methodology solved this problem by effectively creating leads on the bottom of the package in the form of small bumps or balls. These balls can be evenly distributed across the entire bottom surface of the package, allowing greater distance between the individual leads. The Company's first product in this family was the plastic BGA. The Company has subsequently designed additional BGA type packages which include features that enable low cost, high volume manufacturing methods as well as higher performance packages. These new laminate products include: SuperBGA(R), which includes a copper heat-sink for heat dissipation and is designed for very low profile, high power applications; ChipArray(TM), which allows the package to be as small as 1.5 mm larger than the chip itself; and MicroBGA(TM), which is designed to be approximately the same size as the chip and uses a tape substrate rather than a plastic laminate. The Company is currently designing newer versions of BGA packages to enable further significant reductions in package size. Test and Related Services The Company also provides its customers with semiconductor test services. The Company has the capability to test digital logic, analog and mixed signal products. The combination of the Company's test operations together with AICL's Korean test operations comprises one of the largest independent test operations in the world. Providing test services requires a high level of communication and integration between the Company and its customers. In order to enable semiconductor companies to improve their time to market and to reduce costs, there has been an increasing trend to put packaging and test operations in the same location. The Company has capitalized on this trend by supplying its own testers or by supplementing customer-supplied testers with handlers and other related equipment. Although test services accounted for only 3.5% of the Company's total 1997 revenue and 13% of the total units shipped, the Company expects test services to grow significantly during the next several years as customers seek to reduce the time to market for their products by using contractors with test services at the 57 60 packaging site. In addition to final test services, the Company provides a full range of other related services, such as burn-in test services, "dry pack" services, "tape and reel" packing, and wafer "probing" or "sorting." The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the amount of the Company's net revenues and the percentage of total net revenues by product type:
1994 1995 1996 1997 ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------- REVENUES % REVENUES % REVENUES % REVENUES % -------- ----- -------- ----- -------- ----- -------- ----- (DOLLARS IN MILLIONS) Traditional Leadframe.............. $ 487 85.1% $ 699 75.0% $ 792 67.6% $ 801 55.0% Advanced Leadframe................. 53 9.2 157 16.8 220 18.8 312 21.5 Laminate........................... 3 0.5 15 1.6 90 7.7 248 17.0 Testing and Other.................. 30 5.2 61 6.6 69 5.9 95 6.5 ------- ----- ------- ----- ------- ----- ------- ----- Total.......................... $ 573 100.0% $ 932 100.0% $ 1,171 100.0% $ 1,456 100.0% ======= ===== ======= ===== ======= ===== ======= =====
Wafer Fabrication The Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services through AICL's new deep submicron CMOS foundry. This foundry is currently capable of producing up to 15,000 8" wafers per month. Through a strategic relationship with TI, the Company and AICL have qualified .25 micron CMOS process technology, and TI has agreed to provide to AICL .18 micron CMOS process technology during 1998. The Company's right to the supply of wafers from the foundry is subject to the TI Manufacturing and Purchasing Agreement, pursuant to which TI has agreed to purchase at least 40% of the capacity of the foundry and under certain circumstances has the right to purchase 70% of the capacity of the foundry. Although the Company has received forecasts from TI which indicate that TI will meet its minimum purchase obligation during the second half of 1998, during the first quarter of 1998 TI's orders were below such minimum purchase commitment and it is uncertain whether TI will meet its purchase obligations in the second quarter due to market conditions and issues encountered by TI in the transition of its products to .18 micron technology. There can be no assurance that TI will place orders representing at least 40% of the capacity of this foundry during this period or in the future. A failure by TI to comply with its minimum purchase obligations or the cancellation of a significant wafer fabrication order by TI or any other customer could have a material adverse effect on AICL's and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "Risk Factors -- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business" and " -- Intellectual Property." The new foundry's capability is targeted to meet the needs of customers for DSPs, ASICs and other logic devices. As technological capability and the needs for CMOS designs in this area change, the Company anticipates the need to add embedded memory and special analog functionality to its core CMOS technology. The Company plans to continue to focus its semiconductor technology development efforts to serve the needs of the high performance digital logic market. With the addition of the wafer fabrication capability, the Company is able to offer fully integrated turnkey semiconductor manufacturing services to its customers. This complete turnkey solution will enable the Company to work with its customers' IC designers to optimize the integration of IC design with wafer fabrication, package design, and packaging and test processes. The Company believes this integration will enable customers to improve the cost and performance of their ICs and achieve faster time to market in terms of both new product introductions and production lead times. 58 61 CUSTOMERS The Company currently has more than 150 customers, including many of the largest semiconductor companies in the world. Set forth below is a list of the Company's top 50 customers in 1997: Actel Corporation Integrated Circuit Systems, Inc. Plessey Semiconductors Altera Corporation Integrated Device Technology, Inc. Philips Electronics N.V. Adaptec, Inc. Intel Corporation Robert Bosch GmbH Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Lattice Semiconductor Rockwell Corp. Alcatel Mietec Corporation S3 Incorporated American Micro Systems, Inc. Level One Communications, Inc. SGS-THOMSON Analog Devices, Inc. LSI Logic Corporation Microelectronics N.V. Atmel Corporation Lucent Technologies Inc. Siemens AG Cirrus Logic Macronix International Co., Ltd. SMC Corporation Cypress Semiconductor Corp. Matra Harris Semiconductors Silicon Storage Dallas Semiconductor Maxim Integrated Circuits Technology, Inc. Delco Electronics Corporation Microchip Technology Inc. Symbios Logic Digital Equipment Corp. Microlinear TEMIC Semiconductors Harris Corporation Motorola, Inc. Texas Instruments Hewlett-Packard Company National Semiconductor Incorporated International Business Machines Corporation VLSI Technology, Inc. Corporation NeoMagic Corporation VTC Inc. IC Works Inc. Northern Telecom Waferscale Integration, Inc. Xilinx, Inc.
The Company's five largest customers collectively accounted for approximately 34.1%, 39.2%, and 40.1% of the Company's total revenues in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company anticipates that this customer concentration will continue at least for the foreseeable future. See "Risk Factors -- Customer Concentration; Absence of Backlog." MARKETING AND SALES The Company sells to and supports its customers through an international network of offices located in close proximity to its largest customers and concentration of customers, including offices in the United States (Austin, Texas; Boise, Idaho; Chandler, Arizona; Dallas, Texas; Santa Clara, California and West Chester, Pennsylvania), France, Singapore, Taiwan, and the Philippines. A substantial majority of the Company's sales have historically been derived from U.S.-based customers. See Note 15 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The Company assigns each of its customers a sales and customer support team consisting of an account manager, a technical program manager, and one or more customer support representatives. The largest multinational customers are typically supported from multiple offices. The Company's worldwide force of account managers, customer service representatives and technical product managers exceeds 200 personnel. In addition, an extended staff of product management, process and reliability engineering, marketing and advertising, information systems, and factory personnel supports the direct account teams. Together, these direct and extended teams deliver an array of services to the Company's customers including providing information and expert advice on packaging solutions and trends, managing the start-up of specific packaging and test programs, providing a continuous flow of information to the customers regarding products and programs in process, and researching and helping to resolve technical and logistical issues. FACILITIES AND MANUFACTURING Facilities The Company provides packaging and test services through its factories in the Philippines as well as its test facility in the U.S. A new packaging factory is currently being equipped at the Company's Chandler, Arizona site with expected start-up in 1999. In addition, the Company provides packaging and test services 59 62 through AICL's four factories in Korea, which provide such services to the Company pursuant to a Supply Agreement. In 1996 and 1997, AICL provided packaging and test services which accounted for approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues. In addition to providing world-class manufacturing services, these factories provide purchasing, engineering, and customer service support. The Company recently began offering wafer fabrication services through AICL's new state-of-the-art .25 micron wafer foundry in Korea pursuant to a Supply Agreement. The size, location, and manufacturing services provided by each of the Company's and AICL's primary facilities is set forth in the table below. See "Risk Factors -- Dependence on Relationship With AICL; Potential Conflicts of Interest," "-- Expansion of Manufacturing Capacity; Profitability Affected by Capacity Utilization Rates," "-- Risks Associated with New Wafer Fabrication Business" and "-- Inability to Obtain Packaging and Test Equipment in a Timely Fashion."
APPROXIMATE PLANT SIZE FACILITY LOCATION (SQUARE FEET) MANUFACTURING SERVICES -------- -------- ------------- ---------------------- Company Facilities P1 Muntilupa, Philippines 579,000 Packaging and test services; packaging and process development P2 Muntilupa, Philippines 115,000 Packaging services P3 Province of Laguna, Philippines 249,000 Packaging and test services AATS Santa Clara, California 3,000 Final testing services; test program development; central shipping and logistics A1 (1999) Chandler, Arizona 106,000 Packaging services for laminate products; package and process development AICL Facilities K1 Seoul, Korea 646,000 Packaging services, package and process development K2 Buchon, Korea 264,000 Packaging services K3 Bupyung, Korea 404,000 Packaging and test services K4 Kwangju, Korea 597,000 Packaging services Wafer Foundry Buchon, Korea 480,000 Wafer fabrication services
The Company's operational headquarters is located in Chandler, Arizona while its administrative headquarters is located in West Chester, Pennsylvania. In addition to an executive staff, the Chandler, Arizona campus houses sales and customer service for the southwest region, product management, a technical design center, planning, marketing and research and development. The West Chester location houses finance and accounting, legal, personnel administration, information systems, and serves as a satellite sales office for the Company's eastern sales region. Raw Materials and Equipment The Company's packaging operations depend upon obtaining adequate supplies of raw materials on a timely basis. The principal raw materials used in the Company's packaging process are leadframes or laminate substrates, along with gold wire and molding compound. The Company purchases raw materials based on the stated demand requirements of its customers and its customers are generally responsible for any unused materials that result from an overstatement of demand. The Company works closely with its primary raw material suppliers to insure the availability and timeliness of raw material supplies. In addition, the Company negotiates worldwide pricing agreements with its major suppliers to take advantage of the scale of its operations. The Company is not dependent on any one supplier for a substantial portion of its raw material requirements. The Company's packaging operations and expansion plans also depend on obtaining adequate supplies of manufacturing equipment on a timely basis. To that end, the Company works closely with its major equipment suppliers to insure that equipment deliveries are on time and the equipment meets the Company's stringent performance specifications. In addition, an affiliate of AICL manufactures semiconductor packaging equipment exclusively for the Company and AICL at locations in close proximity to the Company's and AICL's 60 63 packaging facilities in the Philippines and Korea, respectively. See "Risk Factors -- Dependence on Raw Materials Suppliers and Subcontractors." Total Quality Management The Company believes that total quality management is a vital component of its manufacturing strategy. To that end, the Company has established a comprehensive Quality Operating System designed to promote continuous improvement and maximize manufacturing yields at high volume production while maintaining the highest quality standards. Each of the Company's and AICL's factories is ISO9002 and QS-9000 certified. ISO9002 is a worldwide manufacturing quality certification program administered by an independent standards organization. QS9000 is similarly an independently administered manufacturing quality certification used by United States automotive manufacturers. The Company believes that many of its customers prefer to purchase from suppliers who are ISO9002 and QS9000 certified. COMPETITION The independent semiconductor packaging and test industry is very competitive, being comprised of approximately 50 companies, with about 15 of those companies having sales of $100 million per year or more. The Company faces substantial competition from established packaging companies primarily located in Asia, such as Advanced Semiconductor Engineering, Inc. (Taiwan), ASE Test Limited (Taiwan and Malaysia), ASAT Ltd. (Hong Kong), Hana Microelectronics Public Co. Ltd. (Hong Kong and Thailand), Astra International (Indonesia), Carsem Bhd. (Malaysia), ChipPAC Incorporated (Korea), Siliconware Precision Industries Co., Ltd. (Taiwan), and Shinko Electric Industries Co., Ltd. (Japan). Each of these companies has significant manufacturing capacity, financial resources, research and development operations, marketing and other capabilities, and have been operating for some time. Such companies have also established relationships with many large semiconductor companies which are current or potential customers of the Company. The principal elements of competition in the independent semiconductor packaging market include time to market, breadth of package offering, technical competence, design services, quality, production yields, customer service, and price. The Company believes it generally competes favorably with respect to these factors. On a larger scale, the Company also competes with the internal manufacturing capabilities of many of its largest customers. The independent wafer fabrication business is also highly competitive. The Company expects its wafer fabrication services to compete primarily with independent wafer foundries such as Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing, Ltd., Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. and United Microelectronics Corporation, as well as with device manufacturers such as LG Semicon Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ltd., Toshiba Corp. and Winbond Electronics Corporation, which provide foundry services for other semiconductor companies. Each of these companies has significant manufacturing capacity, financial resources, research and development operations, marketing and other capabilities and have been operating for some time. Many of these companies have also established relationships with many large semiconductor companies which are current or potential customers of the Company. The principal elements of competition in the wafer foundry market include technology, delivery cycle times, price, product performance, quality, production yield, responsiveness and flexibility, reliability and the ability to design and incorporate product improvements. See "Risk Factors -- Competition." RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The Company's research and development efforts are focused on developing new package designs and process capabilities, and on improving the efficiency and capabilities of its existing production processes and materials. The Company believes that technology development is one of the key success factors in the packaging market and believes that it has a distinct advantage in this area. In addition to its internal development work, and its co-development work with AICL, the Company also works closely with its packaging equipment and raw material suppliers in developing advanced processing capabilities and materials for use in the Company's production process. Currently, the Company is focusing on development programs that extend the capability and applicability of the BGA packaging format. These include high performance 61 64 BGAs for microprocessors and other high-end devices, and a chip size package for memory. In addition, the Company is aggressively developing a flip-chip die attach and connect process for its laminate packages that has the potential to reduce packaging size and cost and improve package performance significantly. The flip-chip packaging process involves attaching the die I/O terminals directly to the lead circuits on the substrate without the use of gold wires. In addition to providing a smaller package size, this process is expected to result in significant improvements in packaging yields by eliminating the delicate wire bonds from the package. As of December 31, 1997, the Company employed approximately 95 persons in research and development activities. In addition, other management and operational personnel are involved in research and development activities. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, the Company's research and development expenses were approximately $8.7 million, $10.9 million and $8.5 million, respectively. The Company expects to continue to invest significant resources in research and development. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The Company currently holds 24 U.S. patents, five of which are jointly held with AICL, related to various IC packaging technologies, in addition to other pending patents. These patents will expire at various dates from 2012 through 2016. With respect to development work undertaken jointly with AICL, the Company and AICL share intellectual property rights under the terms of the Supply Agreements between the Company and AICL. The Supply Agreements also provide for the cross-licensing of intellectual property rights between the Company and AICL. In addition, the Company enters into agreements with other developers of packaging technology to license or otherwise obtain certain process or packaging technologies. The Company expects to continue to file patent applications when appropriate to protect its proprietary technologies; however, the Company believes that its continued success depends primarily on factors such as the technological skills and innovation of its personnel rather than on its patents. The process of seeking patent protection can be expensive and time consuming. There can be no assurance that patents will be issued from pending or future applications or that, if patents are issued, they will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that rights granted thereunder will provide meaningful protection or other commercial advantage to the Company. Moreover, there can be no assurance that any patent rights will be upheld in the future or that the Company will be able to preserve any of its other intellectual property rights. Although the Company is not currently a party to any material litigation, the semiconductor industry is characterized by frequent claims regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. As is typical in the semiconductor industry, the Company may receive communications from third parties asserting patents on certain of the Company's technologies. In the event any third party were to make a valid claim against the Company or AICL, the Company or AICL could be required to discontinue the use of certain processes or cease the manufacture, use, import and sale of infringing products to pay substantial damages and to develop non-infringing technologies or to acquire licenses to the alleged infringed technology. The Company's business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by such developments. Litigation, which could result in substantial cost to and diversion of resources of the Company, may also be necessary to enforce patents or other intellectual property rights of the Company or to defend the Company against claimed infringement of the rights of others. The failure to obtain necessary licenses or the occurrence of litigation relating to patent infringement or other intellectual property matters could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, AICL has obtained intellectual property for wafer manufacturing primarily from TI. The licenses granted to AICL by TI under the TI Technology Agreements are very limited. Although TI has granted to AICL a license under TI's trade secret rights to use TI's technology in connection with AICL's provision of wafer fabrication services, TI has not granted AICL a license under its patents, copyrights and mask works to manufacture semiconductors for third parties. Although TI has agreed that TI will not assert a claim for patent, copyright or mask work right infringement against AICL or the Company in connection with AICL's manufacture of semiconductor products for third parties, TI has reserved the right to bring such infringement claims against AICL's or the Company's customers with respect to semiconductor products purchased from AICL or the Company. As a result, AICL's and the Company's customers could be subject to patent litigation by TI and others, and AICL and the Company could in turn be subject to litigation by such customers and 62 65 others, in connection with the sale of wafers produced by AICL. Any such litigation could materially and adversely affect AICL's ability to continue to manufacture wafers and AICL's and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS The semiconductor packaging process involves a significant amount of chemicals and gases which are subject to extensive governmental regulations. For example, liquid waste is produced at the stage at which silicon wafers are diced into chips with the aid of diamond saws and cooled with running water. In addition, excess materials on leads and moldings are removed from packaged semiconductors in the trim and form process. The Company has installed equipment to collect certain solvents used in connection with its manufacturing process and has contracted with independent waste disposal companies to remove such hazardous material. Federal, state and local regulations in the United States, as well as environmental regulations in Korea and the Philippines, impose various controls on the storage, handling, discharge and disposal of chemicals used in the Company's and AICL's manufacturing processes and on the facilities occupied by the Company and AICL. The Company believes that its activities, as well as those of AICL, conform to present environmental and land use regulations applicable to their respective operations and current facilities. Increasing public attention has, however, been focused on the environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing operations and the risk to neighbors of chemical releases from such operations. There can be no assurance that applicable land use and environmental regulations will not in the future impose the need for additional capital equipment or other process requirements upon the Company or AICL or restrict the Company's or AICL's ability to expand their respective operations. The adoption of new ordinances or similar measures or any failure by the Company or AICL to comply with applicable environment and land use regulations or to restrict the discharge of hazardous substances could subject the Company or AICL to future liability or cause their respective manufacturing operations to be curtailed or suspended. EMPLOYEES As of December 31, 1997, the Company had approximately 9,100 full-time employees, 7,450 of whom were engaged in manufacturing, 1,150 in manufacturing support, 95 in research and development, 210 in marketing and sales, and 195 in finance, business management, and administration. The Company's employees are not represented by any collective bargaining agreement, and the Company has never experienced a work stoppage. The Company believes that its relations with its employees are good. See "Risk Factors -- Dependence on Key Personnel and Availability of Skilled Workforce." 63 66 MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS The executive officers and directors of the Company and their ages as of December 31, 1997 are as follows:
NAME AGE POSITION ---- --- -------- James J. Kim.............................. 61 Chief Executive Officer and Chairman John N. Boruch............................ 55 President and Director Frank J. Marcucci......................... 62 Chief Financial Officer Eric R. Larson............................ 42 Vice President Michael D. O'Brien........................ 65 Vice President Thomas D. George(1)(2).................... 57 Director Gregory K. Hinckley(1)(2)................. 51 Director
- --------------- (1) Member of Compensation Committee. (2) Member of Audit Committee. James J. Kim. James Kim has served as the Company's Chief Executive Officer since September 1997. Mr. Kim founded AEI in 1968 and has served as its Chairman since 1970. He has also served as the Chairman of the Anam group of companies and a director of AICL since 1992. Mr. Kim is a director of CFM Technologies, Inc. Mr. Kim earned B.S. and M.A. degrees in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Kim is Chairman of The Electronics Boutique, Inc., an electronics retail chain, and Forte Systems, Inc., an information technology, consulting and outsourcing company. John N. Boruch. John Boruch has served as President and a director of the Company since September 1997. Mr. Boruch has served as President of AEI since February 1992. From 1991 to 1992 he served as AEI Corporate Vice President in charge of Sales. Mr. Boruch earned a B.A. in Economics from Cornell University. Mr. Boruch joined the Company in 1984. Frank J. Marcucci. Frank Marcucci has served as the Chief Financial Officer of the Company since September 1997. Mr. Marcucci has served as the Chief Financial Officer of AEI since joining AEI in 1980. Mr. Marcucci earned a B.S. in Business Administration from Duquesne University and an MBA from the University of Pittsburgh. Mr. Marcucci is a Certified Public Accountant. Eric R. Larson. Eric Larson has served as Vice President of the Wafer Fabrication business of the Company since September 1997. Mr. Larson has served as President of Amkor/Anam Semiconductor, a division of AEI, since December 1996. From 1979 to 1996 he worked for the Hewlett-Packard Company ("HP") in various management capacities, most recently as Worldwide Marketing Manager for disk products. In addition, Mr. Larson was the worldwide Manager of Sales and Marketing of the IC Business Division of HP from July 1985 to May 1993. Mr. Larson earned a B.A. in Political Science from Colorado State University and an MBA from the University of Denver. Michael D. O'Brien. Michael O'Brien has served as the Vice President of Packaging and Testing Operations of the Company since September 1997. Mr. O'Brien has served as Corporate Vice President of AEI since 1990. Mr. O'Brien earned a B.S. from Texas A&M University. Mr. O'Brien joined the Company in 1988. Thomas D. George. Mr. George has been a director of the Company since November 1997. Mr. George was Executive Vice President, and President and General Manager, Semiconductor Products Sector ("SPS") of Motorola from April 1993 to May 1997. Prior to that, he held several positions with Motorola, including Executive Vice President and Assistant General Manager, SPS from November 1992 to April 1993 and Senior Vice President and Assistant General Manager, SPS from July 1986 to November 1992. Mr. George is currently retired. 64 67 Gregory K. Hinckley. Mr. Hinckley has been a director of the Company since November 1997. Mr. Hinckley serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer of Mentor Graphics Corporation since January 1997. From November 1995 until December 1996 he held the position of Senior Vice President with VLSI, a manufacturer of complex ASICs. From August 1992 until December 1996, Mr. Hinckley held the position of Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer with VLSI. From December 1991 until August 1992, he was an independent consultant. Mr. Hinckley is a director of OEC Medical Systems, Inc., a manufacturer of medical imaging equipment. DIRECTOR COMPENSATION Directors who are also employees or officers of the Company do not receive compensation for their services as directors. Non-employee directors are eligible to receive an annual retainer of $15,000 plus per meeting fees of $1,000 per board meeting and $1,000 per committee meeting attended. Directors are reimbursed for travel and related expenses incurred by them in attending board and committee meetings. 1998 Director Option Plan. The Company's 1998 Director Option Plan (the "Director Plan") was adopted by the Board of Directors in January 1998 and was approved by the Company's stockholders in April 1998. The Director Plan will become effective immediately prior to the Offerings. A total of 300,000 shares of Common Stock have been reserved for issuance under the Director Plan. The option grants under the Director Plan are automatic and non-discretionary. The Director Plan provides for an initial grant of options to purchase 15,000 shares of Common Stock to each new nonemployee director of the Company (an "Outside Director") upon the later of the effective date of the Director Plan or the date which such individual first becomes an Outside Director. In addition, each Outside Director will automatically be granted subsequent options to purchase 5,000 shares of Common Stock on each date on which such Outside Director is re-elected by the stockholders of the Company, provided that as of such date such Outside Director has served on the Board of Directors for at least six months. The exercise price of the options is 100% of the fair market value of the Common Stock on the grant date, except that with respect to initial grants to directors on the effective date of the Director Plan the exercise price will be equal 94% of the initial public offering price per share of Common Stock in the Offerings. The term of each option is ten years. Each option granted to an Outside Director vests as to 33 1/3% of the optioned stock one year after the date of grant, and as to an additional 33 1/3% of the optioned stock on each anniversary of the date of grant, provided that the optionee continues to serve as an Outside Director on such date so that 100% of the optioned stock may be exercisable three years after the date of grant. In the event of the sale of all or substantially all the Company's assets or the merger of the company with or into another corporation, all outstanding options under the Director Plan may either be assumed or an equivalent option may be substituted by the surviving entity. Following such assumption or substitution, if the director is terminated other than upon a voluntary resignation, such assumed or substituted options will vest and become exercisable in full. If no assumption or substitution occurs, each such option will vest and become exercisable in full. The Director Plan will terminate in January 2008 unless sooner terminated by the Board of Directors. BOARD COMMITTEES The Board of Directors has a Compensation Committee and an Audit Committee. The Compensation Committee is comprised of Messrs. George and Hinckley. The functions of the Compensation Committee are to review and approve annual salaries, bonuses, and grants of stock options pursuant to the Company's 1998 Stock Plan and to review and approve the terms and conditions of all employee benefit plans or changes thereto. The Audit Committee is comprised of Messrs. George and Hinckley. The functions of the Audit Committee are to recommend annually to the Board of Directors the appointment of the independent auditors of the Company, discuss and review in advance the scope and the fees of the annual audit and review the results thereof with the independent auditors, review and approve non-audit services of the independent auditors, review compliance with existing major accounting and financial reporting policies of the Company, review the adequacy of the financial organization of the Company, and review management's procedures and policies relating to the adequacy of the Company's internal accounting controls and compliance with applicable laws relating to accounting practices. 65 68 EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION Summary Compensation. The following table sets forth compensation earned during the fiscal year ended December 31, 1997, by the Company's Chief Executive Officer and the four other most highly compensated executive officers whose total salary and bonus during such year exceeded $100,000 (collectively, the "Named Executive Officers"). SUMMARY COMPENSATION TABLE
ANNUAL COMPENSATION(1) ---------------------- ALL OTHER NAME AND PRINCIPAL POSITIONS SALARY BONUS COMPENSATION ---------------------------- --------- --------- ------------ James J. Kim, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman(2).......................................... $500,000 $500,000 $ 6,000 John N. Boruch, President(3)........................... 415,000 375,000 6,000 Frank J. Marcucci, Chief Financial Officer(4).......... 254,000 100,000 245,000 Eric R. Larson, Vice President......................... 220,000 -- -- Michael D. O'Brien, Vice President..................... 249,000 100,000 --
- --------------- (1) At the time of the Offerings, Messrs. Boruch, Marcucci, Larson and O'Brien will receive option grants of 300,000 shares, 100,000 shares, 85,000 shares and 85,000 shares, respectively, of Common Stock under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, in each case with an exercise price per share equal to the initial public offering price per share. (2) All other compensation for Mr. Kim represents the amount of insurance premium paid by the Company on Mr. Kim's behalf for a life insurance policy. Effective January 1, 1998, Mr. Kim is compensated at an annual salary of $750,000 and he may earn an annual bonus of up to $500,000 if the Company achieves its annual operating plan, as approved by the Company's Board of Directors. (3) All other compensation for Mr. Boruch represents the amount of insurance premium paid by the Company on Mr. Boruch's behalf for a life insurance policy. (4) All other compensation for Mr. Marcucci represents the amount of insurance premium paid by the Company on Mr. Marcucci's behalf for a life insurance policy together with a bonus paid to Mr. Marcucci to cover the income taxes owed by Mr. Marcucci as a result of the payment of such insurance premium. STOCK PLANS 1998 Stock Plan. The Company's 1998 Stock Plan (the "1998 Plan") provides for the grant to employees of incentive stock options within the meaning of Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the "Code"), and for the grant to employees, directors and consultants of nonstatutory stock options and stock purchase rights. The 1998 Plan was adopted by the Board of Directors in January 1998 and was approved by the Company's stockholders in April 1998. Unless terminated sooner, the 1998 Plan will terminate automatically in January 2008. The maximum aggregate number of shares which may be optioned and sold under the 1998 Plan is 5,000,000, plus an annual increase to be added on each anniversary date of the adoption of the 1998 Plan equal to the lesser of (i) the number of shares of Common Stock needed to restore the maximum aggregate number of shares of Common Stock which may be optioned and sold under the 1998 to 5,000,000, or (ii) a lesser amount determined by the Board of Directors. The 1998 Plan may be administered by the Board of Directors or a committee appointed by the Board of Directors (the "Committee"), which Committee shall, in the case of options intended to qualify as "performance-based compensation" within the meaning of Section 162(m) of the Code, consist of two or more "outside directors" within the meaning of Section 162(m) of the Code. The Board of Directors or the Committee, as applicable, has the power to determine the terms of options granted, including the exercise price and the fair market value, to reduce the exercise price of any option to the then current fair market price if the fair market value of the Common Stock covered by such option shall have declined since the date the option was granted, the number of shares subject to the option or stock purchase right, and the exercisability thereof and the form of consideration payable upon such exercise. In addition, the Board of Directors has the 66 69 authority to amend, suspend or terminate the 1998 Plan, provided that no such action may affect any share of Common Stock previously issued and sold or any option previously granted under the 1998 Plan. Unless determined otherwise by the administrators, options and stock purchase rights granted under the 1998 Plan are not transferable by the optionee, and each option and stock purchase right is generally exercisable during the lifetime of the optionee only by such optionee. Options granted under the 1998 Plan must generally be exercised within three months following termination of an optionee's status as an employee, director or consultant of the Company, within twelve months after an optionee's termination by disability, and within twelve months after an optionee's termination by death, but in no event later than the expiration of the option. In the case of stock purchase rights, unless the administrator determines otherwise, a restricted stock purchase agreement shall grant the Company a repurchase option exercisable upon the voluntary or involuntary termination of the purchaser's employment with the Company for any reason (including death or disability). The purchase price for shares repurchased pursuant to a restricted stock purchase agreement shall be the original price paid by the purchaser and may be paid by cancellation of any indebtedness of the purchaser to the Company. The repurchase option shall lapse at a rate determined by the administrator. The exercise price of all incentive stock options granted under the 1998 Plan must be at least equal to the fair market value of the shares on the date of grant. The exercise price of nonstatutory stock options granted under the 1998 Plan is determined by the Committee, but with respect to nonstatutory stock options intended to qualify as "performance-based compensation" within the meaning of Section 162(m) of the Code, the exercise price must be at least equal to the fair market value of the Common Stock on the date of grant. With respect to any employee who owns stock possessing more than ten percent of the voting power of all classes of the Company's, or any parent or subsidiary of the Company's outstanding capital stock, the exercise price of any incentive stock option granted to such person must equal at least 110% of the fair market value of the Common Stock on the date of grant and the term of such incentive stock option must not exceed five years. The term of all other options granted under the 1998 Plan may not exceed ten years. The 1998 Plan provides that in the event of a merger of the Company with or into another corporation, or a sale of substantially all of the Company's assets, each outstanding option and stock purchase right will be assumed or substituted for by the successor corporation. In the event the successor corporation refuses to assume or substitute for the option or stock purchase right, the optionee shall have the right to exercise all of the optioned stock, including shares as to which it would not otherwise be exercisable. 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees. The 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees (the "French Plan") was approved by the Board of Directors in April 1998. Unless terminated sooner, the French Plan will continue in existence for 5 years. The French Plan provides for the granting of options to employees of Amkor/Anam EuroServices S.A.R.L. and Amkor Wafer Fabrication Services SARL, the Company's French subsidiaries (the "French Subsidiaries"). A total of 250,000 shares of Common Stock have been reserved for issuance under the French Plan plus an annual increase to be added on each anniversary date of the adoption of the French Plan equal to the lesser of (i) the number of shares of Common Stock needed to restore the maximum aggregate number of shares of Common Stock which may be optioned and sold under the French Plan to 250,000, or (ii) a lesser amount determined by the Board of Directors. Options granted under the French Plan are not transferable by the optionee other than by will or by the laws of descent and distribution. The exercise price for each option granted under the French Plan shall be 100% of the fair market value of the shares of Common Stock on the date the option is granted and the maximum term of the option must not exceed ten years. Stock options granted under the French Plan vest over a five year period with 50% of the shares subject to cash options vesting on the second anniversary of the vesting commencement date and 1/24 of the remaining shares subject to each option vesting each month thereafter. Shares subject to the options granted under the French Plan may not be transferred, assigned or hypothecated in any manner other than by will or the laws of descent or distribution before the date which is five years after the date of grant. The French Plan may be administered by the Board of Directors or a committee appointed by the Board of Directors (the "Committee"). The Board of Directors or the Committee, as applicable, has the power to determine the terms of options granted, including the exercise price and the fair market value the number of 67 70 shares subject to the option and the exercisability thereof and the form of consideration payable upon such exercise. In addition, the Board of Directors has the authority to amend, suspend or terminate the French Plan, provided that no such action may affect any share of Common Stock previously issued and sold or any option previously granted under the French Plan. Unless determined otherwise by the administrators, options granted under the French Plan are not transferable by the optionee, and each option and stock purchase right is generally exercisable during the lifetime of the optionee only by such optionee. Options granted under the French Plan must generally be exercised within 30 days following termination of an optionee's status as an employee of either of the French Subsidiaries, within six months after an optionee's termination by disability, and within six months after an optionee's termination by death, but in no event later than the expiration of the option. The term of all options granted under the French Plan may not exceed ten years. The French Plan provides that in the event of a merger of the Company with or into another corporation, or a sale of substantially all of the Company's assets, each outstanding option will be assumed or substituted for by the successor corporation. In the event the successor corporation refuses to assume or substitute for the option, the optionee shall have the right to exercise all of the optioned stock, including shares as to which it would not otherwise be exercisable. 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. The Company's 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the "Purchase Plan") was adopted by the Board of Directors in January 1998 and was approved by the stockholders in April 1998. The Company does not intend to implement the Purchase Plan until after the Offerings. A total of 1,000,000 shares of Common Stock have been made available for sale under the Purchase Plan and an annual increase is to be added on each anniversary date of the adoption of the Purchase Plan equal to the lesser of (i) the number of shares needed to restore the maximum aggregate number of shares available for sale under the Purchase Plan to 1,000,000, or (ii) a lesser amount determined by the Board of Directors. The Purchase Plan, which is intended to qualify under Section 423 of the Code is administered by the Board of Directors or by a committee appointed by the Board. Employees (including officers and employee directors of the Company but excluding 5% or greater stockholders) are eligible to participate if they are customarily employed for at least 20 hours per week and for more than five months in any calendar year. The Purchase Plan permits eligible employees to purchase Common Stock through payroll deductions, which may not exceed 15% of the compensation an employee receives on each pay day. The Purchase Plan will be implemented by consecutive six-month offering periods. The initial offering period and the date of subsequent offering periods under the Purchase Plan will be determined by the Board of Directors after the effective date of the Offerings. Each participant will be granted an option on the first day of an offering period, and shares of Common Stock will be automatically purchased on the last date of each purchase period within the offering period. If the fair market value of the Common Stock on any purchase date (other than the final purchase date of the offering period) is lower than such fair market value on the start date of that offering period, then all participants in that offering period will be automatically withdrawn from such offering period and re-enrolled in the immediately following offering period. The purchase price of the Common Stock under the Purchase Plan will be equal to 85% of the lesser of the fair market value per share of Common Stock on the start date of the offering period or on the purchase date. Employees may end their participation in an offering period at any time, and participation ends automatically on termination of employment with the Company. In the event of a proposed dissolution or liquidation of the Company, the offering periods then in progress will be shortened by setting a new exercise date that is before the dissolution or liquidation, and will terminate immediately prior to the consummation of the proposed action, unless otherwise provided by the Board. In the event of a proposed sale of all or substantially all of the Company's assets or the merger of the Company with or into another corporation, each outstanding option will be assumed or substituted for by the successor corporation. In the event the successor corporation refuses to assume or substitute for the options, the offering periods then in progress will be shortened by setting a new exercise date that is before the sale or merger and the offering periods then in progress will end on the new exercise date. Each participant will be notified at least ten business days prior to the new exercise date, and unless such participant ends his or her participation, the option will be exercised automatically on the new exercise date. The Purchase Plan will terminate in January 2008, unless sooner terminated by the Board of Directors. 68 71 401(k) PLAN The Company participates in a tax-qualified employee savings and retirement plan (the "401(k) Plan") which covers certain of the Company's employees who are at least 21 years of age. Pursuant to the 401(k) Plan, employees may elect to reduce their current eligible compensation by up to 13% of eligible compensation or the statutorily prescribed annual limit, whichever is lower, and have the amount of such reduction contributed to the 401(k) Plan. After an eligible employee completes one year of service and has attained age 21, he or she will become eligible for the Company matching contributions effective as of the quarterly entry date after meeting these service and age requirements. The matching contribution amount is a discretionary amount as determined from time to time by the Company. The 401(k) Plan is intended to qualify under Section 401 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, so that contributions by employees or by the Company to the 401(k) Plan, and income earned on plan contributions, are not taxable to employees until withdrawn from the 401(k) Plan, and so that contributions by the Company, if any, will be deductible by the Company when made. The trustee under the 401(k) Plan, at the direction of each participant, invests the assets of the 401(k) Plan in any of a number of designated investment options. PHILIPPINE PENSION PLANS The Company adopted a retirement plan for its eligible Philippine employees and those eligible employees of designated affiliated companies and subsidiaries of the Company, the Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Incorporated Employees' Retirement Benefit Plan (the "Phillipine Plan"), originally effective January 1, 1988, and most recently amended on January 1, 1997. Eligible employees are employees with regular and permanent status that have been employed continuously for one (1) year by a participating company. Currently, the companies participating in the Phillipine Plan are AMI, AAAP, and Anam Amkor Precision Machine Company (Phils.), Incorporated. At normal retirement age (age 60), death, or upon total and permanent disability, a participant will receive a lump sum benefit payment based on a percentage of his or her final base monthly salary, as determined by his or her years of credited service. A participant who retires at age 50 with at least ten (10) years of service will receive a reduced payment based on the same formula. Company contributions to the Phillipine Plan are held in trust. The Phillipine Plan is presently underfunded by $3.8 million. The amount by which the Phillipine Plan is underfunded decreased from $7.2 million at September 30, 1997 primarily as a result of payments made by the Company as required under the plan and the effect of the recent devaluation of the Phillipine peso to the U.S. dollar. See Note 9 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITY AND INDEMNIFICATION MATTERS The Company has adopted provisions in its Certificate of Incorporation that eliminate to the fullest extent permissible under Delaware law the liability of its directors to the Company for monetary damages. Such limitation of liability does not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission. The Bylaws provide that the Company shall indemnify its directors and officers, and may indemnify its other employees and agents, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, including in circumstances in which indemnification is otherwise discretionary under Delaware law. The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its officers and directors containing provisions which may require the Company, among other things, to indemnify the officers and directors against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers (other than liabilities arising from willful misconduct of a culpable nature), and to advance their expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. There is no currently pending litigation or proceeding involving a director, officer, employee or other agent of the Company in which indemnification would be required or permitted. 69 72 CERTAIN TRANSACTIONS AICL was founded in 1956 by Mr. H. S. Kim, who currently serves as the honorary Chairman and a Representative Director of AICL. AICL is a member of the Anam Group of companies, consisting principally of companies in Korea in the electronics industries. The management of AICL and the other companies in the Anam Group are influenced to a significant degree by the family of H. S. Kim, which, together with the Company, collectively owned approximately 40.7% of the outstanding common stock of AICL as of December 31, 1997. A significant portion of the shares owned by the Kim family are leveraged and as a result of this, or for other reasons, the family's ownership could be substantially reduced. James Kim, the founder of the Company and currently its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is the eldest son of H. S. Kim. Since January 1992, in addition to his other responsibilities, James Kim has been serving as acting Chairman of the Anam Group and a director of AICL. Mr. In-Kil Hwang, the President and a Representative Director of AICL, is the brother-in-law of James Kim. In addition, four other members of Mr. Kim's family are on the 13-member Board of Directors of AICL. In connection with the Reorganization, Mr. James Kim and members of his family exchanged their interests in the Amkor Companies in return for shares of Common Stock. After the Offerings, James Kim and members of his family will beneficially own approximately 68.9% of the outstanding Common Stock, and Mr. Kim and other members of his family will continue to exercise significant control over the Company. The Company and AICL have had a long-standing relationship. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's revenues were derived from sales of services performed for the Company by AICL. In addition, substantially all of the revenues of AICL in 1996 and 1997 were derived from services sold by the Company. The Company expects that the businesses of the Company and AICL will continue to remain highly interdependent by virtue of their supply relationship, overlaps and family ties between their respective shareholders and management, financial relationships, coordination of product and operation plans, joint research and development activities and shared intellectual property rights. See "Relationship with AICL." and "Reorganization." The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its officers and directors containing provisions which may require the Company, among other things, to indemnify the officers and directors against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers (other than liabilities arising from willful misconduct of a culpable nature), and to advance to them expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. In connection with the Reorganization, the Company entered into tax indemnification agreements with Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts pursuant to which the Company will be indemnified by such stockholders with respect to their proportionate share of any U.S. federal or state corporate income taxes attributable to the failure of AEI to qualify as an S Corporation for any period or in any jurisdiction for which S Corporation status was claimed through the Termination Date. The tax indemnification agreements also provide that under certain circumstances the Company will indemnify Mr. and Mrs. Kim and the Kim Family Trusts if such stockholders are required to pay additional taxes or other amounts attributable to taxable years on or before the Termination Date as to which AEI filed or files tax returns claiming status as an S Corporation. AEI has made various distributions to such stockholders which have enabled them to pay their income taxes on their allocable portions of the income of AEI. Such distributions totaled approximately $13.0 million and $5.0 million in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company declared additional distributions to such stockholders prior to the consummation of the Reorganization in an amount equal to $27.7 million, as adjusted for net income (loss) recognized by AEI and Amkor Technology, Inc. following December 31, 1997 and prior to the consummation of the Reorganization and less a distribution of $8.1 million to such stockholders in March 1998, which distributions represented AEI's cumulative net income in all periods prior to the Termination Date less the aggregate amount of distributions previously made to such stockholders. These final distributions are intended to provide such stockholders with the balance of AEI's net income for which they have already recognized taxable income. Through December 31, 1997, the amount of such undistributed net earnings was $27.7 million. See "Reorganization" and Notes 1, 10 and 17 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. In February 1998 the Company sold its investment in AICL common stock to AK Investments, Inc. ("AK Investments"), a company owned by Mr. Kim, for $13.9 million, the market value determined by the 70 73 closing price of AICL shares on the Korea Stock Exchange on the date of the sale. In exchange for such shares, AK Investments assumed $13.9 million of the Company's long-term borrowing from AUSA. See Note 6 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Mr. Kim has executed certain guarantees to lenders in connection with certain debt instruments of the Amkor Companies that remain outstanding. The total contingent liability under such guarantees equalled approximately $87.0 million as of December 31, 1997. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. The Company and Mr. Kim currently are parties to a loan agreement under which Mr. Kim may borrow funds from the Company, subject to the Company's consent. Mr. Kim has recognized compensation in 1996 and 1997 in the amount of $101,716 and $3,000, respectively of imputed interest for loans under this agreement. Since the beginning of the 1996 fiscal year, the maximum amount outstanding under such agreement has been $6.5 million. All amounts due from Mr. Kim have been repaid in full subsequent to December 31, 1997. In 1996, Mr. Kim sold his interest in Amkor Anam Test Services, Inc., representing half of its outstanding capital stock, to AEI for $910,350. See Note 14 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. AK Investments purchased certain securities held by AEI for $49.7 million, which consideration was paid by assuming from AEI certain non-current payables from AUSA. Subsequent to the sale of investments to AK Investments, AEI loaned AK Investments an additional $12.8 million. The amount outstanding on this loan as of December 31, 1997 was $4.4 million. See Notes 6 and 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. AK Investments repaid such amount in full during March 1998. In 1996, the Kim Family Trusts borrowed $5.3 million at market interest rates from AEI to purchase the real estate and develop the facilities that comprise the Company's Chandler, Arizona plant and offices. In 1997, the Kim Family Trusts, after making improvements, sold the real estate and facilities back to AEI for $5.7 million which was used to repay the original loan from AEI. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Members of the Kim family own all the outstanding shares of Forte Systems, Inc. ("Forte"). The Company and Forte currently are parties to a loan agreement under which Forte may borrow funds at market interest rates from the Company, subject to the Company's consent. Since the beginning of the 1996 fiscal year, the maximum amount outstanding under such agreement has been $3.8 million. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. Members of the Kim family own all the outstanding shares of The Electronics Boutique, Inc. (the "Electronics Boutique"). The Company and the Electronics Boutique currently are parties to a loan agreement under which the Electronics Boutique may borrow funds at market rates from the Company, subject to the Company's consent. Since the beginning of the 1996 fiscal year, the maximum amount outstanding under such agreement in the ordinary course of business of the Electronics Boutique's business has been $30.0 million. In addition, in 1996, the Electronics Boutique borrowed $50 million from AEI in connection with a contemplated acquisition. However, this acquisition was abandoned by the Electronics Boutique and the $50 million was repaid to AEI within eleven working days of the date it was borrowed. Finally, the Company has guaranteed certain vendor obligations and a line of credit of the Electronics Boutique, which total approximately $24.7 million and $13.6 million, respectively as of December 31, 1997. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. In addition, in each of the last three years, various Electronics Boutique expenses were paid by the Company on behalf of Electronics Boutique and various Company expenses were paid by Electronics Boutique on behalf of the Company. These expenses include insurance premiums, employee medical claims, interest, rent and other miscellaneous expenses. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, the Company made net advancements on behalf of Electronics Boutique of $604,000, $128,000 and $147,000. In 1997, Electronics Boutique repaid to the Company $2.4 million of current and prior year advancements. 71 74 The Company has executed a surety and guarantee agreement on behalf of Electronics Boutique. The Company has unconditionally guaranteed Electronics Boutique's obligation under a $17 million line of credit and a $9 million term loan note. As of December 31, 1997, there was $750,000 outstanding under the line of credit and $9 million outstanding under the term loan note. The Company has also unconditionally guaranteed obligations of EB Canada, a subsidiary of Electronics Boutique, under a $4 million term loan agreement and a $1 million line of credit. As of December 31, 1997, there was $3.8 million outstanding under the term loan and no amounts outstanding under the line of credit. The Company leases office space in West Chester, Pennsylvania from the Kim Family Trusts. The lease expires in 2006. The Company has the option to extend the lease for an additional 10 years. The monthly rent pursuant to such lease is $92,000. The Company sub-leases a portion of this office space to Forte for which the monthly rent is $43,000. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. At December 31, 1996 and 1997, the Company had advances and notes receivable from affiliates other than AICL and AUSA of $23.0 million and $36.5 million, respectively. See Note 11 of Notes to Combined Financial Statements. 72 75 PRINCIPAL AND SELLING STOCKHOLDERS The following table sets forth certain information regarding the beneficial ownership of the Common Stock outstanding as of the date of this Prospectus, and as adjusted to reflect the sale of the shares of Common Stock offered hereby, by (i) each person or entity who is known by the Company to own beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock; (ii) each director of the Company; (iii) each of the Named Executive Officers; and (iv) all directors and executive officers of the Company as a group.
BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP PRIOR TO OFFERING NUMBER OF AFTER OFFERING(1) -------------------- SHARES -------------------- NAME AND ADDRESS NUMBER PERCENT OFFERED NUMBER PERCENT ---------------- ---------- ------- --------- ---------- ------- James J. and Agnes C. Kim(2)(3).............. 37,275,000 45.7% 5,000,000 32,275,000 28.7% 1345 Enterprise Drive West Chester, PA 19380 David D. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987(3)(4)................................. 13,750,000 16.6 -- 13,750,000 12.2 1500 E. Lancaster Avenue Paoli, PA 19301 John T. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987(3)(4)................................. 13,750,000 16.6 -- 13,750,000 12.2 1500 E. Lancaster Avenue Paoli, PA 19301 Susan Y. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987(3)(4)(5).............................. 13,750,000 16.6 -- 13,750,000 12.2 1500 E. Lancaster Avenue Paoli, PA 19301 Thomas D. George............................. -- -- -- -- -- Gregory K. Hinckley.......................... -- -- -- -- -- John N. Boruch............................... -- -- -- -- -- Eric R. Larson............................... -- -- -- -- -- Frank J. Marcucci............................ -- -- -- -- -- Michael D. O'Brien........................... -- -- -- -- -- All directors and executive officers as a group (7 persons).......................... 37,275,000 45.7 5,000,000 32,275,000 28.7
- --------------- (1) Assumes no exercise of the Underwriters' over-allotment options. The number and percentage of shares beneficially owned is determined in accordance with Rule 13d-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and the information is not necessarily indicative of beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under such rule, beneficial ownership includes any share as to which the individual or entity has voting power or investment power. Unless otherwise indicated, each person or entity has sole voting and investment power with respect to shares shown as beneficially owned. (2) James J. and Agnes C. Kim are husband and wife. Accordingly, each may be deemed to beneficially own shares of Common Stock held in the name of the other. (3) David D. Kim, John T. Kim and Susan Y. Kim are children of James J. and Agnes C. Kim. Each of the David D. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987, John T. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987 and Susan Y. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987 has in common Susan Y. Kim and John F.A. Earley as co-trustees, in addition to a third trustee (John T. Kim in the case of the Susan Y. Kim Trust and the John T. Kim Trust and David D. Kim in the case of the David D. Kim Trust) (the trustees of each trust may be deemed to be the beneficial owners of the shares held by such trust). In addition, the trust agreement for each of these trusts encourages the trustees of the trusts to vote the shares of Common Stock held by them, in their discretion, in concert with James Kim's family. Accordingly, the trusts, together with their respective trustees and James J. and Agnes C. Kim, may be considered a "group" under Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act. This group may be deemed to have beneficial ownership of 65,325,000 shares or 58.0% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock after the Offerings. (4) These three trusts together with the trusts described in note (5) below comprise the Kim Family Trusts. (5) Includes 8,200,000 shares held by trusts established for the benefit of Susan Y. Kim's children. 73 76 DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK GENERAL Upon the closing of the Offerings, the Company will be authorized to issue 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $.001 par value, and 10,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $.001 par value. Immediately after the closing of the Offerings and assuming no exercise of the Underwriters' over-allotment options, the Company estimates there will be an aggregate of 112,610,000 shares of Common Stock outstanding, 3,145,900 shares of Common Stock will be issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, 3,404,100 shares of Common Stock will be reserved for issuance under the Company's 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees, 1998 Director Option Plan and 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and shares of Common Stock will be reserved for issuance upon conversion of the Convertible Notes. The following description of the Company's capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the Registration Statement of which this Prospectus forms a part, and by the provisions of applicable Delaware law. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws contain certain provisions that are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the Board of Directors and which may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a future takeover or change in control of the Company unless such takeover or change in control is approved by the Board of Directors. COMMON STOCK Holders of Common Stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders. Holders of Common Stock do not have cumulative voting rights, and, therefore, holders of a majority of the shares voting for the election of directors can elect all of the directors. In such event, the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors. See "Risk Factors -- Benefits of the Offerings to Existing Stockholders; Continued Control by Existing Stockholders." Holders of the Common Stock are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared from time to time by the Board of Directors out of funds legally available therefor, subject to the terms of any existing or future agreements between the Company and its debtholders. The Company has never declared or paid cash dividends on its capital stock, expects to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of its business, and does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. See "Dividend Policy." In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the holders of Common Stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets legally available for distribution after payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any holders of Preferred Stock then outstanding. PREFERRED STOCK The Company's Board of Directors is authorized to issue 10,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock in one or more series and to fix the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, dividend rates, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, redemption prices, liquidation preferences and the number of shares constituting a series or the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by the Company's stockholders. The issuance of Preferred Stock, while providing desirable flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of delaying, deferring or making more difficult a change in control of the Company and may adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of, the holders of Common Stock. The issuance of Preferred Stock with voting and conversion rights may adversely affect the voting power of the holders of Common Stock, including the loss of voting control to others. The Company has no current plans to issue any additional shares of Preferred Stock. See "Risk Factors -- Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Certain Charter Provisions." 74 77 EFFECT OF DELAWARE ANTI-TAKEOVER STATUTE The Company is subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "Anti-Takeover Law"), which regulates corporate acquisitions. The Anti-Takeover Law prevents certain Delaware corporations, including those whose securities are listed for trading on the Nasdaq National Market, from engaging, under certain circumstances in a "business combination" with any "interested stockholder" for three years following the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder. For purposes of the Anti-Takeover Law, a "business combination" includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving the Company and the interested shareholder and the sale of more than 10% of the Company's assets. In general, the Anti-Takeover Law defines an "interested stockholder" as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more the outstanding voting stock of the Company and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person. A Delaware corporation may "opt out" of the Anti-Takeover Law with an express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or an express provision in its certificate of incorporation or bylaws resulting from amendments approved by the holders of at least a majority of the Company's outstanding voting shares. The Company has not "opted out" of the provisions of the Anti-Takeover Law. See "Risk Factors -- Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Certain Charter Provisions." TRANSFER AGENT The Transfer Agent and Registrar for the Common Stock is First Chicago Trust Company of New York Shareholder Services, 525 Washington Boulevard, Jersey City, NJ 07310; telephone (201) 324-0014. 75 78 DESCRIPTION OF CONVERTIBLE NOTES The Convertible Notes will be issued under an indenture to be dated as of , 1998 (the "Indenture") between the Company and State Street Bank and Trust Company, as trustee (the "Trustee"), a copy of which has been filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement of which this Prospectus forms a part. The terms of the Convertible Notes will include those stated in the Indenture and those made a part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the "TIA"), as in effect on the date of the Indenture. The Convertible Notes will be subject to all such terms, and holders of the Convertible Notes are referred to the Indenture and the TIA for a statement of such terms. The following is a summary of important terms of the Convertible Notes and does not purport to be complete. Reference should be made to all provisions of the Indenture, including the definitions therein of certain terms and all terms made a part of the Indenture by reference to the TIA. Certain definitions of terms used in the following summary are set forth under "-- Certain Definitions" below. As used in this section, the "Company" means Amkor Technology, Inc., but not any of its Subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. GENERAL The Convertible Notes will be general unsecured subordinated obligations of the Company, will mature on , 2003 (the "Maturity Date"), and will be limited to an aggregate principal amount of $150,000,000 ($172,500,000 if the Underwriters' over-allotment option is exercised). The Convertible Notes will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in fully registered form. The Convertible Notes are exchangeable and transfers thereof will be registrable without charge therefor, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in connection therewith. The Convertible Notes will accrue interest at a rate of % per annum from , 1998, or from the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, and accrued and unpaid interest will be payable semi-annually in arrears on and of each year beginning , 1998. Interest will be paid to the person in whose name a Convertible Note is registered at the close of business on the or immediately preceding the relevant interest payment date (other than with respect to a Convertible Note or portion thereof called for redemption on a redemption date, or repurchased in connection with a Designated Event on a repurchase date, during the period from a record date to (but excluding) the next succeeding interest payment date (in which case accrued interest shall be payable (unless such Convertible Note of portion thereof is converted) to the holder of the Convertible Note or portion thereof redeemed or repurchased)). Interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year comprised of twelve 30-day months. Principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Convertible Notes will be payable at the office or agency of the Company maintained for such purpose or, at the option of the Company, payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the holders of the Convertible Notes at their respective addresses set forth in the register of holders of Convertible Notes. Until otherwise designated by the Company, the Company's office or agency maintained for such purpose will be the principal corporate trust office of the Trustee. CONVERSION The holders of Convertible Notes will be entitled at any time on or before the close of business on the last trading day prior to the Maturity Date of the Convertible Notes, subject to prior redemption or repurchase, to convert any Convertible Notes or portions thereof (in denominations of $1,000 or multiples thereof) into Common Stock of the Company, at the conversion price of $ per share of Common Stock, subject to adjustment as described below (the "Conversion Price"). Except as described below, no adjustment will be made on conversion of any Convertible Notes for interest accrued thereon or for dividends on any Common Stock issued. If Convertible Notes not called for redemption are converted after a record date for the payment of interest and prior to the next succeeding interest payment date, such Convertible Notes must be accompanied by funds equal to the interest payable on such succeeding interest payment date on the principal amount so converted. The Company is not required to issue fractional shares of Common Stock upon 76 79 conversion of Convertible Notes and, in lieu thereof, will pay a cash adjustment based upon the market price of the Common Stock on the last trading day prior to the date of conversion. In the case of Convertible Notes called for redemption, conversion rights will expire at the close of business on the trading day preceding the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company defaults in payment of the redemption price, in which case the conversion right will terminate at the close of business on the date such default is cured. In the event any holder exercises its right to require the Company to repurchase Notes upon a Designated Event, such holder's conversion right will terminate on the close of business on the Designated Event Offer Termination Date (as defined) unless the Company defaults in the payment due upon repurchase or the holder elects to withdraw the submission of election to repurchase. See "-- Repurchase at Option of Holders Upon a Designated Event." The right of conversion attaching to any Convertible Note may be exercised by the holder by delivering the Convertible Note at the specified office of a conversion agent, accompanied by a duly signed and completed notice of conversion, together with any funds that may be required as described in the preceding paragraph. Such notice of conversion can be obtained from the Trustee. Beneficial owners of interests in a Global Note (as defined) may exercise their right of conversion by delivering to The Depository Trust Company ("DTC") the appropriate instruction form for conversion pursuant to DTC's conversion program. The conversion date shall be the date on which the Convertible Note, the duly signed and completed notice of conversion, and any funds that may be required as described in the preceding paragraph shall have been so delivered. A holder delivering a Convertible Note for conversion will not be required to pay any taxes or duties payable in respect of the issue or delivery of Common Stock on conversion, but will be required to pay any tax or duty which may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issue or delivery of the Common Stock in a name other than the holder of the Convertible Note. Certificates representing shares of Common Stock will not be issued or delivered unless all taxes and duties, if any, payable by the holder have been paid. The Conversion Price is subject to adjustment (under formulae set forth in the Indenture) in certain events, including: (i) the issuance of Common Stock as a dividend or distribution on Common Stock; (ii) certain subdivisions and combinations of the Common Stock; (iii) the issuance to all or substantially all holders of Common Stock of certain rights or warrants to purchase Common Stock at a price per share less than the Current Market Price (as defined); (iv) the dividend or other distribution to all holders of Common Stock of shares of capital stock of the Company (other than Common Stock) or evidences of indebtedness of the Company or assets (including securities, but excluding those rights, warrants, dividends and distributions referred to above or paid exclusively in cash); (v) dividends or other distributions consisting exclusively of cash (excluding any cash portion of distributions referred to in clause (iv)) to all holders of Common Stock to the extent such distributions, combined together with (A) all such all-cash distributions made within the preceding 12 months in respect of which no adjustment has been made plus (B) any cash and the fair market value of other consideration payable in respect of any tender offers by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries for Common Stock concluded within the preceding 12 months in respect of which no adjustment has been made, exceeds 15% of the Company's market capitalization (being the product of the then current market price of the Common Stock times the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding) on the record date for such distribution; and (vi) the purchase of Common Stock pursuant to a tender offer made by the Company or any of its subsidiaries to the extent that the aggregate consideration, together with (X) any cash and the fair market value of any other consideration payable in any other tender offer expiring within 12 months preceding such tender offer in respect of which no adjustment has been made plus (Y) the aggregate amount of any such all-cash distributions referred to in clause (v) above to all holders of Common Stock within the 12 months preceding the expiration of such tender offer in respect of which no adjustments have been made, exceeds 15% of the Company's market capitalization on the expiration of such tender offer. In the case of (i) any reclassification or change of the Common Stock or (ii) a consolidation, merger or combination involving the Company or a sale or conveyance to another corporation of the property and assets of the Company as an entirety or substantially as an entirety, in each case as a result of which holders of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive stock, other securities, other property or assets (including cash) with respect to or in exchange for such Common Stock, the holders of the Convertible Notes then outstanding will be entitled thereafter to convert such Convertible Notes into the kind and amount of shares of stock, other 77 80 securities or other property or assets, which they would have owned or been entitled to receive upon such reclassification, change, consolidation, merger, combination, sale or conveyance had such Convertible Notes been converted into Common Stock immediately prior to such reclassification, change, consolidation, merger, combination, sale or conveyance (assuming, in a case in which the Company's stockholders may exercise rights of election, that a holder of Convertible Notes would not have exercised any rights of election as to the stock, other securities or other property or assets receivable in connection therewith and received per share the kind and amount received per share by a plurality of non-electing shares). Certain of the foregoing events may also constitute or result in a Designated Event requiring the Company to offer to repurchase the Convertible Notes. See "-- Repurchase at Option of Holders Upon a Designated Event." In the event of a taxable distribution to holders of Common Stock (or other transaction) that results in any adjustment of the Conversion Price, the holders of Convertible Notes may, in certain circumstances, be deemed to have received a distribution subject to United States income tax as a dividend; in certain other circumstances, the absence of such an adjustment may result in a taxable dividend to the holders of Common Stock. See "Certain Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Common Stock and Convertible Notes." The Company from time to time may, to the extent permitted by law, reduce the Conversion Price of the Convertible Notes by any amount for any period of at least 20 days, in which case the Company shall give at least 15 days' notice of such decrease, if the Board of Directors has made a determination that such decrease would be in the best interests of the Company, which determination shall be conclusive. The Company may, at its option, make such reductions in the Conversion Price, in addition to those set forth above, as the Board of Directors deems advisable to avoid or diminish any income tax to holders of Common Stock resulting from any dividend or distribution of stock (or rights to acquire stock) or from any event treated as such for income tax purposes. See "Certain Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Common Stock and Convertible Notes." No adjustment in the Conversion Price will be required unless such adjustment would require a change of at least 1% of the Conversion Price then in effect; provided that any adjustment that would otherwise be required to be made shall be carried forward and taken into account in any subsequent adjustment. Except as stated above, the Conversion Price will not be adjusted for the issuance of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock or carrying the right to purchase any of the foregoing. SUBORDINATION The payment of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Convertible Notes will be subordinated in right of payment, as set forth in the Indenture, to the prior payment in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to the Senior Debt of all Senior Debt, whether outstanding on the date of the Indenture or thereafter incurred. Upon any distribution to creditors of the Company in a liquidation or dissolution of the Company or in a bankruptcy, reorganization, insolvency, receivership or similar proceeding relating to the Company or its property, an assignment for the benefit of creditors or any marshaling of the Company's assets and liabilities, the holders of Senior Debt will be entitled to receive payment in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to the Senior Debt of all Senior Debt of all obligations in respect of such Senior Debt before the holders of Convertible Notes will be entitled to receive any payment with respect to the Convertible Notes. In the event of any acceleration of the Convertible Notes because of an Event of Default, the holders of any Senior Debt then outstanding will be entitled to payment in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to the holders of such Senior Debt of all obligations in respect of such Senior Debt before the holders of the Convertible Notes are entitled to receive any payment or distribution in respect thereof. If payment of the Convertible Notes is accelerated because of an Event of Default, the Company or the Trustee shall promptly notify the holders of Senior Debt or the trustee(s) for such Senior Debt of the acceleration. The Company may not pay the Convertible Notes until five business days after such holders or trustee(s) of Senior Debt receive notice of such acceleration and, thereafter, may pay the Convertible Notes only if the subordination provisions of the Indenture otherwise permit payment at that time. 78 81 The Company also may not make any payment upon or in respect of the Convertible Notes if (i) a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, interest, rent or other obligations in respect of Senior Debt occurs and is continuing beyond any applicable period of grace or (ii) a default, other than a payment default, occurs and is continuing with respect to Designated Senior Debt that permits holders of the Designated Senior Debt as to which such default relates to accelerate its maturity and the Trustee receives a notice of such default (a "Payment Blockage Notice") from the Company or other person permitted to give such notice under the Indenture. Payments on the Convertible Notes may and shall be resumed (a) in the case of a payment default, upon the date on which such default is cured or waived or ceases to exist and (b) in case of a nonpayment default, the earlier of the date on which such nonpayment default is cured or waived or ceases to exist or 179 days after the date on which the applicable Payment Blockage Notice is received if the maturity of the Senior Debt has not been accelerated. No new period of payment blockage may be commenced unless and until 365 days have elapsed since the effectiveness of the immediately prior Payment Blockage Notice. No nonpayment default that existed or was continuing on the date of delivery of any Payment Blockage Notice to the Trustee shall be, or be made, the basis for a subsequent Payment Blockage Notice. By reason of the subordination provisions described above, in the event of the Company's liquidation or insolvency, holders of Senior Debt may receive more, ratably, and holders of the Convertible Notes may receive less, ratably, than the other creditors of the Company. Such subordination will not prevent the occurrences of any Event of Default under the Indenture. The Convertible Notes are obligations exclusively of the Company. However, since the operations of the Company are primarily conducted through Subsidiaries, the cash flow and the consequent ability of the Company to service its debt, including the Convertible Notes, are primarily dependent upon the earnings of its Subsidiaries and the distribution of those earnings to, or upon loans or other payments of funds by those Subsidiaries to, the Company. The payment of dividends and the making of loans and advances to the Company by its Subsidiaries may be subject to statutory or contractual restrictions, are dependent upon the earnings of those Subsidiaries and are subject to various business considerations. Any right of the Company to receive assets of any of its Subsidiaries upon their liquidation or reorganization (and the consequent right of the holders of the Convertible Notes to participate in those assets) will be effectively subordinated to the claims of that Subsidiary's creditors (including trade creditors), except to the extent that the Company is itself recognized as a creditor of such Subsidiary, in which case the claims of the Company would still be subordinate to any security interests in the assets of such Subsidiary and any indebtedness of such Subsidiary senior to that held by the Company. As of December 31, 1997 (after giving effect to the Reorganization), the Company had approximately $32 million of outstanding indebtedness that would have constituted Senior Debt, and the indebtedness and other liabilities of the Company's subsidiaries (excluding intercompany liabilities and obligations of a type not required to be reflected on the balance sheet of such subsidiary in accordance with GAAP) that would effectively have been senior to the Convertible Notes were approximately $642 million. After giving effect to planned debt repayments by the Company prior to the Offerings and the application of the estimated net proceeds to the Company of the Offerings (assuming an initial public offering price of $11.00 per share of Common Stock), such amounts will be approximately $32 million and $217 million, respectively. The Indenture will not limit the amount of additional indebtedness, including Senior Debt, that the Company can create, incur, assume or guarantee, nor will the Indenture limit the amount of indebtedness and other liabilities that any Subsidiary can create, incur, assume or guarantee. In the event that, notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trustee or any holder of Convertible Notes receives any payment or distribution of assets of the Company of any kind in contravention of any of the terms of the Indenture, whether in cash, property or securities, including, without limitation by way of set-off or otherwise, in respect of the Convertible Notes before all Senior Debt is paid in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to the holders of Senior Debt, then such payment or distribution will be held by the recipient in trust for the benefit of holders of Senior Debt, and will be immediately paid over or delivered to the holders of Senior Debt or their representative or representatives to the extent necessary to make payment in full in cash or other 79 82 payment satisfactory to such holders of all Senior Debt remaining unpaid, after giving effect to any concurrent payment or distribution, or provision therefor, to or for the holders of Senior Debt. OPTIONAL REDEMPTION The Convertible Notes may not be redeemed by the Company prior to , 2001. The Convertible Notes may be redeemed at the option of the Company, in whole or from time to time in part, on not less than 15 nor more than 60 days' prior written notice to the holders thereof by first class mail, at the following redemption prices (expressed as percentages of principal amount) if redeemed during the 12-month period beginning of each year indicated ( with respect to 2001), plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption, if the closing price of the Common Stock on the principal stock exchange or market on which the Common Stock is then quoted or admitted to trading equals or exceeds 125% of the Conversion Price for at least 20 trading days within a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the fifth trading day prior to the date the notice of redemption is first mailed to the holders of the Convertible Notes:
REDEMPTION YEAR PRICE ---- ---------- 2001............................................ 2002............................................
If less than all the Convertible Notes are to be redeemed at any time, selection of Convertible Notes for redemption will be made by the Trustee in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange, if any, on which the Convertible Notes are listed or, if the Convertible Notes are not so listed, on a pro rata basis by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate. The Trustee may select for redemption a portion of the principal of any Convertible Note that has a denomination larger than $1,000. Convertible Notes and portions thereof will be redeemed in the amount of $1,000 or integral multiples of $1,000. The Trustee will make the selection from Convertible Notes outstanding and not previously called for redemption; provided that if a portion of a holder's Convertible Notes are selected for partial redemption and such holder converts a portion of such Convertible Notes, such converted portion shall be deemed to be taken from the portion selected for redemption. Provisions of the Indenture that apply to the Convertible Notes called for redemption also apply to portions of the Convertible Notes called for redemption. If any Convertible Note is to be redeemed in part, the notice of redemption will state the portion of the principal amount to be redeemed. Upon surrender of a Convertible Note that is redeemed in part only, the Company will execute and the Trustee will authenticate and deliver to the holder a new Convertible Note equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Convertible Note surrendered. On and after the redemption date, unless the Company shall default in the payment of the redemption price, interest will cease to accrue on the principal amount of the Convertible Notes or portions thereof called for redemption and for which funds have been set apart for payment. In the case of Convertible Notes or portions thereof redeemed on a redemption date which is also a regularly scheduled interest payment date, the interest payment due on such date shall be paid to the person in whose name the Note is registered at the close of business on the relevant record date. The Convertible Notes are not entitled to any sinking fund. REPURCHASE AT OPTION OF HOLDERS UPON A DESIGNATED EVENT Upon the occurrence of a Designated Event, each holder of Convertible Notes will have the right to require the Company to repurchase all or any part (equal to $1,000 or an integral multiple thereof) of such holder's Convertible Notes pursuant to the offer described below (the "Designated Event Offer") at an offer price in cash equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of purchase (the "Designated Event Payment"). Within 20 days following any Designated Event, the Company will mail a notice to each holder describing the transaction or transactions that constitute the 80 83 Designated Event and offering to repurchase Convertible Notes pursuant to the procedures required by the Indenture and described in such notice. The Company will comply with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 under the Exchange Act and any other securities laws and regulations thereunder to the extent such laws and regulations are applicable in connection with the repurchase of the Convertible Notes as a result of a Designated Event. Rule 13e-4 under the Exchange Act requires, among other things, the dissemination of certain information to security holders in the event of an issuer tender offer and may apply in the event that the repurchase option becomes available to holders of the Convertible Notes. The Company will comply with this rule to the extent applicable at that time. On the date specified for termination of the Designated Event Offer, the Company will, to the extent lawful, (1) accept for payment all Convertible Notes or portions thereof properly tendered pursuant to the Designated Event Offer, (2) deposit with the paying agent an amount equal to the Designated Event Payment in respect of all Convertible Notes or portions thereof so tendered and (3) deliver or cause to be delivered to the Trustee the Convertible Notes so accepted together with an Officers' Certificate stating the aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes or portions thereof being purchased by the Company. On the date specified for payment of the Designated Event Payment (the "Designated Event Payment Date"), the paying agent will promptly mail to each holder of Convertible Notes so accepted the Designated Event Payment for such Convertible Notes, and the Trustee will promptly authenticate and mail (or cause to be transferred by book entry) to each holder a new Convertible Note equal in principal amount to any unpurchased portion of the Convertible Notes surrendered, if any; provided that each such new Convertible Note will be in a principal amount of $1,000 or an integral multiple thereof. The foregoing provisions would not necessarily afford holders of the Convertible Notes protection in the event of highly leveraged or other transactions involving the Company that may adversely affect holders. The right to require the Company to repurchase Convertible Notes as a result of a Designated Event could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a Change of Control or other attempts to acquire control of the Company unless arrangements have been made to enable the Company to repurchase all the Convertible Notes at the Designated Event Payment Date. Consequently, this right may render more difficult or discourage a merger, consolidation or tender offer (even if such transaction is supported by the Company's Board of Directors or is favorable to the stockholders), the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of the Company's shares and the removal of incumbent management. Except as described above with respect to a Designated Event, the Indenture does not contain provisions that permit the holders of the Convertible Notes to require that the Company repurchase or redeem the Convertible Notes in the event of a takeover, recapitalization or similar restructuring. Subject to the limitation on mergers and consolidations described below, the Company, its management or its Subsidiaries could in the future enter into certain transactions, including refinancings, certain recapitalizations, acquisitions, the sale of all or substantially all of its assets, the liquidation of the Company or similar transactions, that would not constitute a Designated Event under the Indenture, but that would increase the amount of Senior Debt (or any other indebtedness) outstanding at such time or substantially reduce or eliminate the Company's assets. The terms of the Company's existing or future credit or other agreements relating to indebtedness (including Senior Debt) may prohibit the Company from purchasing any Convertible Notes and may also provide that a Designated Event, as well as certain other change-of-control events with respect to the Company, would constitute an event of default thereunder. In the event a Designated Event occurs at a time when the Company is prohibited from purchasing Convertible Notes, the Company could seek the consent of its then-existing lenders to the purchase of Convertible Notes or could attempt to refinance the borrowings that contain such prohibition. If the Company does not obtain such a consent or repay such borrowings, the Company would remain prohibited from purchasing Convertible Notes. In such case, the Company's failure to purchase tendered Convertible Notes would constitute an Event of Default under the Indenture, which may, in turn, constitute a further default under the terms of other indebtedness that the Company has entered into or may enter into from time to time. In such circumstances, the subordination provisions in the Indenture would likely restrict payments to the holders of Convertible Notes. 81 84 A "Designated Event" will be deemed to have occurred upon a Change of Control or a Termination of Trading. A "Change of Control" will be deemed to have occurred when: (i) any person has become an Acquiring Person, (ii) the Company consolidates with or merges into any other corporation, or conveys, transfers, or leases all or substantially all of its assets to any person, or any other corporation merges into the Company, and, in the case of any such transaction, the outstanding Common Stock of the Company is changed or exchanged as a result, unless the stockholders of the Company immediately before such transaction own, directly or indirectly immediately following such transaction, at least a majority of the combined voting power of the outstanding voting securities of the corporation resulting from such transaction in substantially the same proportion as their ownership of the Voting Stock immediately before such transaction, or (iii) any time the Continuing Directors do not constitute a majority of the Board of Directors of the Company (or, if applicable, a successor corporation to the Company); provided that a Change of Control shall not be deemed to have occurred if either (x) the last sale price of the Common Stock for any five trading days during the ten trading days immediately preceding the Change of Control is at least equal to 105% of the Conversion Price in effect on the date of such Change of Control or (y) at least 90% of the consideration (excluding cash payments for fractional shares) in the transaction or transactions constituting the Change of Control consists of shares of common stock that are, or upon issuance will be, traded on a United States national securities exchange or approved for trading on an established automated over-the-counter trading market in the United States. The definition of Change of Control includes a phrase relating to the lease, transfer or conveyance of "all or substantially all" of the assets of the Company. Although there is a developing body of case law interpreting the phrase "substantially all," there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, the ability of a holder of Convertible Notes to require the Company to repurchase such Convertible Notes as a result of a lease, transfer or conveyance of less than all of the assets of the Company to another person or group may be uncertain. "Continuing Directors" means, as of any date of determination, any member of the Board of Directors of the Company who (i) was a member of such Board of Directors on the date of the Indenture or (ii) was nominated for election or elected to such Board of Directors with the approval of a majority of the Continuing Directors who were members of such Board at the time of such nomination or election. A "Termination of Trading" will be deemed to have occurred if the Common Stock (or other common stock into which the Convertible Notes are then convertible) is neither listed for trading on a United States national securities exchange nor approved for trading on an established automated over-the-counter trading market in the United States. MERGER AND CONSOLIDATION The Indenture will provide that the Company may not, in a single transaction or a series of related transactions, consolidate or merge with or into (whether or not the Company is the surviving corporation), or sell, assign, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties or assets in one or more related transactions to, another corporation, person or entity as an entirety or substantially as an entirety unless either (a)(i) the Company shall be the surviving or continuing corporation or (ii) the entity or person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company) or the entity or person which acquires by sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance or other disposition the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety (x) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (y) assumes the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on all the Convertible Notes and the performance of every covenant of the Company under the Convertible Notes and the Indenture pursuant to a supplemental indenture in a form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee; (b) immediately after such transaction no Default or Event of Default exists; and (c) the Company or such person shall have delivered to the Trustee an officers' certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that such transaction and the supplemental indenture comply with the Indenture and that all conditions precedent in the Indenture relating to such transaction have been satisfied. 82 85 For purposes of the foregoing, the transfer (by lease, assignment, sale or otherwise, in a single transaction or series of transactions) of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of one or more Subsidiaries of the Company, the capital stock of which constitutes all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company, shall be deemed to be the transfer of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company. Upon any such consolidation, merger, sale, assignment, conveyance, lease, transfer or other disposition in accordance with the foregoing, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such sale, assignment, conveyance, lease, transfer or other disposition is made will succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under the Indenture with the same effect as if such successor had been named as the Company therein, and thereafter (except in the case of a sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance or other disposition) the predecessor corporation will be relieved of all further obligations and covenants under the Indenture and the Convertible Notes. EVENTS OF DEFAULT AND REMEDIES An Event of Default is defined in the Indenture as being (i) default in payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, on the Convertible Notes, whether or not such payment is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Indenture; (ii) default for 30 days in payment of any installment of interest on the Convertible Notes, whether or not such payment is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Indenture; (iii) default by the Company for 60 days after notice in the observance or performance of any other covenants in the Indenture; (iv) default in the payment of the Designated Event Payment in respect of the Convertible Notes on the date therefor, whether or not such payment is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Indenture; (v) failure to provide timely notice of a Designated Event; (vi) failure of the Company or any Material Subsidiary to make any payment at maturity, including any applicable grace period, in respect of indebtedness for borrowed money of, or guaranteed or assumed by, the Company or any Material Subsidiary, which payment is in an amount in excess of $20,000,000, and continuance of such failure for 30 days after notice; (vii) default by the Company or any Material Subsidiary with respect to any such indebtedness, which default results in the acceleration of any such indebtedness of an amount in excess of $20,000,000 without such indebtedness having been paid or discharged or such acceleration having been cured, waived, rescinded or annulled for 30 days after notice; or (viii) certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company or any Material Subsidiary. If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (viii) above with respect to the Company) occurs and is continuing, then and in every such case the Trustee, by written notice to the Company, or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Convertible Notes, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Convertible Notes then outstanding to be due and payable. Upon such declaration, such principal amount, premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest will become immediately due and payable, notwithstanding anything contained in the Indenture or the Convertible Notes to the contrary, but subject to the provisions limiting payment described in "-- Subordination." If any Event of Default specified in clause (viii) above occurs with respect to the Company, all unpaid principal of, and premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes then outstanding will automatically become due and payable, subject to the provisions described in "-- Subordination," without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any holder of Convertible Notes. Holders of the Convertible Notes may not enforce the Indenture or the Convertible Notes except as provided in the Indenture. Subject to the provisions of the Indenture relating to the duties of the Trustee, the Trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the holders, unless such holders have offered to the Trustee a security or an indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, expense or liability. Subject to all provisions of the Indenture and applicable law, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Convertible Notes have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and 83 86 is continuing and is known to the Trustee, the Indenture requires the Trustee to mail a notice of Default or Event of Default to each holder within 60 days of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, provided, however, that the Trustee may withhold from the holders notice of any continuing Default or Event of Default (except a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of, premium, if any or interest on the Convertible Notes) if it determines in good faith that withholding notice is in their interest. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes then outstanding by notice to the Trustee may rescind any acceleration of the Convertible Notes and its consequences if all existing Events of Default (other than the nonpayment of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Convertible Notes that has become due solely by virtue of such acceleration) have been cured or waived and if the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of any court of competent jurisdiction. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In the case of any Event of Default occurring by reason of any willful action (or inaction) taken (or not taken) by or on behalf of the Company with the intention of avoiding payment of the premium that the Company would have had to pay if the Company then had elected to redeem the Convertible Notes pursuant to the optional redemption provisions of the Indenture, an equivalent premium shall also become and be immediately due and payable to the extent permitted by law upon the acceleration of the Convertible Notes. If an Event of Default occurs prior to any date on which the Company is prohibited from redeeming the Convertible Notes by reason of any willful action (or inaction) taken (or not taken) by or on behalf of the Company with the intention of avoiding the prohibition on redemption of the Convertible Notes prior to such date, then the premium specified in the Indenture shall also become immediately due and payable to the extent permitted by law upon the acceleration of the Convertible Notes. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes then outstanding may, on behalf of the holders of all the Convertible Notes, waive any past Default or Event of Default under the Indenture and its consequences, except Default in the payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Convertible Notes (other than the non-payment of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Convertible Notes that has become due solely by virtue of an acceleration that has been duly rescinded as provided above) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the Indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of all holders of Convertible Notes. The Company is required to deliver to the Trustee annually a statement regarding compliance with the Indenture and the Company is required, upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, to deliver to the Trustee a statement specifying such Default or Event of Default. BOOK-ENTRY; DELIVERY AND FORM The Convertible Notes will be issued in the form of one or more global notes (the "Global Note") deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co. as DTC's nominees, or will remain in the custody of the Trustee pursuant to a FAST Balance Certificate Agreement between DTC and the Trustee. Owners of beneficial interests in the Convertible Notes represented by the Global Note will hold such interests pursuant to the procedures and practices of DTC and must exercise any rights in respect of their interests (including any right to convert or require repurchase of their interests) in accordance with those procedures and practices. Such beneficial owners will not be holders for purposes of the Indenture, and will not be entitled to any rights under the Global Note or the Indenture, with respect to the Global Note, and the Company and the Trustee, and any of their respective agents, may treat DTC as the sole holder and owner of the Global Note for all purposes under the Indenture. DTC has advised the Company as follows: DTC is a limited purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a "banking organization" within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a "clearing corporation" within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a "clearing agency" registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds securities for its participants and facilitates the clearance and settlement of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants' accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities 84 87 certificates. Direct participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. DTC is owned by a number of its direct participants and by the New York Stock Exchange, Inc., the American Stock Exchange, Inc. and the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as securities brokers and dealers, banks and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the Commission. Unless and until they are exchanged in whole or in part for certificated Convertible Notes in definitive form as set forth below, the Global Note may not be transferred except as a whole by DTC to a nominee of DTC, or by a nominee of DTC to DTC or another nominee of DTC. The Convertible Notes represented by the Global Note will not be exchangeable for certificated Convertible Notes, provided that if DTC is at any time unwilling, unable or ineligible to continue as depositary and a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, the Company will issue individual Convertible Notes in definitive form in exchange for the Global Note. In addition, the Company may at any time in its sole discretion determine not to have a Global Note, and, in such event, will issue individual Convertible Notes in definitive form in exchange for the Global Note previously representing all such Convertible Notes. In either instance, an owner of a beneficial interest in a Global Note will be entitled to physical delivery of Convertible Notes in definitive form equal in principal amount to such beneficial interest and to have such Convertible Notes registered in its name. Individual Convertible Notes so issued in definitive form will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and any larger amount that is an integral multiple of $1,000 and will be issued in registered form only, without coupons. The laws of some states require that certain persons take physical delivery in definite form of securities that they own and that security interests in negotiable instruments can only be perfected by delivery of certificates representing the instruments. Consequently, the ability to transfer Convertible Notes evidenced by the Global Note will be limited to such extent. Payments of principal of and interest on the Convertible Notes will be made by the Company through the Trustee to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the Global Note. Neither the Company nor the Trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of the Global Note or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests. The Company expects that DTC, upon receipt of any payment of principal or interest in respect of the Global Note, will credit the accounts of the related participants with payment in amounts proportionate to their respective holdings in principal amount of beneficial interest in the Global Note as shown on the records of DTC. The Company also expects that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in the Global Note will be covered by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in "street name," and will be the responsibility of such participants. So long as the Convertible Notes are represented by a Global Note, DTC or its nominee will be the only entity that can exercise a right to repayment pursuant to the holder's option to elect repayment of its Convertible Notes or the right of conversion of the Convertible Notes. Notice by participants or by owners of beneficial interests in a Global Note held through such participants of the exercise of the option to elect repayment, or the right of conversion, of beneficial interests in Convertible Notes represented by the Global Note must be transmitted to DTC in accordance with its procedures on a form required by DTC and provided to participants. In order to ensure that DTC's nominee will timely exercise a right to repayment, or the right of conversion, with respect to a particular Convertible Note, the beneficial owner of such Convertible Notes must instruct the broker or other participant through which it holds an interest in such Convertible Notes to notify DTC of its desire to exercise a right to repayment, or the right of conversion. Different firms have different cut-off times for accepting instructions from their customers and, accordingly, each beneficial owner should consult the broker or other participant through which it holds an interest in a Convertible Note in order to ascertain the cut-off time by which such an instruction must be given in order for timely notice to be delivered to DTC. The Company will not be liable for any delay in delivery of such notice to DTC. 85 88 The information in this section concerning DTC and DTC's book-entry system has been obtained from sources that the Company believes to be reliable. The Company will have no responsibility for the performance by DTC or its participants of their respective obligations as described hereunder or under the rules and procedures governing their respective operations. Neither the Company nor the Trustee shall be liable for any delay by DTC or any participant or indirect participant in DTC in identifying the beneficial owners of the Convertible Notes, and the Company and the Trustee may conclusively rely on, and shall be protected in relying on, instructions from DTC for all purposes (including with respect to the registration and delivery, and the respective principal amounts, of the Convertible Notes to be issued). AMENDMENT, SUPPLEMENT AND WAIVER Except as provided in the next two succeeding paragraphs, the Indenture or the Convertible Notes may be amended or supplemented with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Convertible Notes then outstanding (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for Convertible Notes), and any existing default or compliance with any provision of the Indenture or the Convertible Notes may be waived with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Convertible Notes (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for Convertible Notes). Without the consent of each holder affected, an amendment or waiver may not (with respect to any Convertible Notes held by a non-consenting holder): (a) reduce the principal amount of Convertible Notes whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, (b) reduce the principal of or change the fixed maturity of any Convertible Note or, other than as set forth in the next paragraph, alter the provisions with respect to the redemption of the Convertible Notes, (c) reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest on any Convertible Notes, (d) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Convertible Notes (except a rescission of acceleration of the Convertible Notes by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration), (e) make any Convertible Note payable in money other than that stated in the Indenture and the Convertible Notes, (f) make any change in the provisions of the Indenture relating to waivers of past Defaults or the rights of holders of Convertible Notes to receive payments of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Convertible Notes, (g) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Convertible Note, (h) except as permitted by the Indenture, increase the Conversion Price or, other than as set forth in the next paragraph, modify the provisions of the Indenture relating to conversion of the Convertible Notes in a manner adverse to the holders thereof or (i) make any change to the abilities of holders of Convertible Notes to enforce their rights under the Indenture or the provisions of clause (a) through (i) hereof. In addition, any amendment to the provisions of Article 11 of the Indenture (which relate to subordination) will require the consent of the holders of at least 75% in aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes then outstanding if such amendment would adversely affect the rights of holders of Convertible Notes. Notwithstanding the foregoing, without the consent of any holder of Convertible Notes, the Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement the Indenture or the Convertible Notes to (a) cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency or make any other changes in the provisions of the Indenture which the Company and the Trustee may deem necessary or desirable, provided such amendment does not materially and adversely affect the Convertible Notes, (b) provide for uncertificated Convertible Notes in addition to or in place of certificated Convertible Notes, (c) provide for the assumption of the Company's obligations to holders of Convertible Notes in the circumstances required under the Indenture as described under "-- Merger and Consolidation," (d) provide for conversion rights of holders of Convertible Notes in certain events such as a consolidation, merger or sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company, (e) reduce the Conversion Price, (f) make any change that would provide any additional rights or benefits to the holders of Convertible Notes or that does not adversely affect the legal rights under the Indenture of any such holder, or (g) comply with requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the Indenture under the TIA. 86 89 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE The Company may discharge its obligations under the Indenture while Convertible Notes remain outstanding if (i) all outstanding Convertible Notes will become due and payable at their scheduled maturity within one year or (ii) all outstanding Convertible Notes are scheduled for redemption within one year, and, in either case, the Company has (a) deposited with the Trustee an amount sufficient to pay and discharge all outstanding Convertible Notes on the date of their scheduled maturity or the scheduled date of redemption and (b) paid all other sums then payable by the Company under the Indenture. GOVERNING LAW The Indenture will provide that the Convertible Notes will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York without giving effect to applicable principles of conflicts of law. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE A holder may transfer or exchange Convertible Notes in accordance with the Indenture. The Registrar and the Trustee may require a holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents and the Company may require a holder to pay any taxes and fees required by law or permitted by the Indenture. The Company is not required to transfer or exchange any Convertible Note selected for redemption or repurchase. Also, the Company is not required to transfer or exchange any Convertible Note for a period of 15 days before a selection of Convertible Notes to be redeemed. The registered holder of a Convertible Note will be treated as the owner of it for all purposes. THE TRUSTEE The Indenture will provide that, except during the continuance of an Event of Default, the Trustee will perform only such duties as are specifically set forth in the Indenture. In case an Event of Default shall occur (and shall not be cured) and holders of the Convertible Notes have notified the Trustee, the Trustee will be required to exercise its powers with the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of such person's own affairs. Subject to such provisions, the Trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request of any of the holders of Convertible Notes, unless they shall have offered to the Trustee security and indemnity satisfactory to it. The Indenture and the TIA will contain certain limitations on the rights of the Trustee, should it become a creditor of the Company, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. Subject to the TIA, the Trustee will be permitted to engage in other transactions, provided, however, that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as described in the TIA), it must eliminate such conflict or resign. CERTAIN DEFINITIONS "Acquiring Person" means any person (as defined in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act) who or which, together with all affiliates and associates (each as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act), becomes the beneficial owner (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act and as further defined below) of shares of Common Stock or other voting securities of the Company having more than 50% of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of the Company; provided, however, that an Acquiring Person shall not include (i) the Company, (ii) any Subsidiary of the Company, (iii) any Permitted Holder, (iv) an underwriter engaged in a firm commitment underwriting in connection with a public offering of the Voting Stock of the Company or (v) any current or future employee or director benefit plan of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company or any entity holding Common Stock of the Company for or pursuant to the terms of any such plan. For purposes hereof, a person shall not be deemed to be the beneficial owner of (A) any securities tendered pursuant to a tender or exchange offer made by or on behalf of such person or any of such person's affiliates until such tendered securities are accepted for purchase or exchange thereunder, or (B) any securities if such beneficial ownership (1) arises solely as a result of a revocable proxy delivered in response to a proxy or consent solicitation made pursuant to the applicable rules and regulations under the Exchange Act, and (2) is not also then reportable on Schedule 13D (or any successor schedule) under the Exchange Act. 87 90 "Capital Stock" of any person means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such person, but excluding any debt securities convertible into such equity. "Default" means any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default. "Designated Senior Debt" means any particular Senior Debt if the instrument creating or evidencing the same or the assumption or guarantee thereof (or related agreements or documents to which the Company is a party) expressly provides that such Indebtedness shall be "Designated Senior Debt" for purposes of the Indenture (provided that such instrument, agreement or other document may place limitations and conditions on the right of such Senior Debt to exercise the rights of Designated Senior Debt). "Event of Default" has the meaning set forth under "-- Events of Default and Remedies" herein. "GAAP" means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as may be approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession of the United States, which are in effect from time to time. "Indebtedness" means, with respect to any person, all obligations, whether or not contingent, of such person (i) (a) for borrowed money (including, but not limited to, any indebtedness secured by a security interest, mortgage or other lien on the assets of the Company that is (1) given to secure all or part of the purchase price of property subject thereto, whether given to the vendor of such property or to another, or (2) existing on property at the time of acquisition thereof), (b) evidenced by a note, debenture, bond or other written instrument, (c) under a lease required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of the lessee under GAAP or under any lease or related document (including a purchase agreement) that provides that the Company is contractually obligated to purchase or cause a third party to purchase and thereby guarantee a minimum residual value of the lease property to the lessor and the obligations of the Company under such lease or related document to purchase or to cause a third party to purchase such leased property, (d) in respect of letters of credit, bank guarantees or bankers' acceptances (including reimbursement obligations with respect to any of the foregoing), (e) with respect to Indebtedness secured by a mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance, charge or adverse claim affecting title or resulting in an encumbrance to which the property or assets of such person are subject, whether or not the obligation secured thereby shall have been assumed by or shall otherwise be such person's legal liability, (f) in respect of the balance of deferred and unpaid purchase price of any property or assets, (g) under interest rate or currency swap agreements, cap, floor and collar agreements, spot and forward contracts and similar agreements and arrangements; (ii) with respect to any obligation of others of the type described in the preceding clause (i) or under clause (iii) below assumed by or guaranteed in any manner by such person or in effect guaranteed by such person through an agreement to purchase (including, without limitation, "take or pay" and similar arrangements), contingent or otherwise (and the obligations of such person under any such assumptions, guarantees or other such arrangements); and (iii) any and all deferrals, renewals, extensions, refinancings and refundings of, or amendments, modifications or supplements to, any of the foregoing. "Issue Date" means the date on which the Convertible Notes are first issued and authenticated under the Indenture. "Material Subsidiary" means any Subsidiary of the Company which at the date of determination is a "significant subsidiary" as defined in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. "Maturity Date" means , 2003. "Obligations" means any principal, interest, penalties, fees, indemnifications, reimbursements, damages and other liabilities payable under the documentation governing any Indebtedness. "Permitted Holders" means James Kim and his estates, spouses, ancestors and lineal descendants (and spouses thereof), the legal representatives of any of the foregoing, and the trustee of any bona fide trust of which one or more of the foregoing are the sole beneficiaries or the grantors, or any person of which any of the 88 91 foregoing, individually or collectively, beneficially own (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act) voting securities representing at least a majority of the total voting power of all classes of Capital Stock of such person (exclusive of any matters as to which class voting rights exist). "Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, estate, unincorporated organization, limited liability company or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof. "Senior Debt" means the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on, rent under, and any other amounts payable on or in or in respect of any Indebtedness of the Company (including, without limitation, any Obligations in respect of such Indebtedness and, in the case of Designated Senior Debt, any interest accruing after the filing of a petition by or against the Company under any bankruptcy law, whether or not allowed as a claim after such filing in any proceeding under such bankruptcy law), whether outstanding on the date of the Indenture or thereafter created, incurred, assumed, guaranteed or in effect guaranteed by the Company (including all deferrals, renewals, extensions or refundings of, or amendments, modifications or supplements to the foregoing); provided, however, that Senior Debt does not include (v) Indebtedness evidenced by the Convertible Notes, (w) any liability for federal, state, local or other taxes owed or owing by the Company, (x) Indebtedness of the Company to any Subsidiary of the Company except to the extent such Indebtedness is of a type described in clause (ii) of the definition of Indebtedness, (y) trade payables of the Company for goods, services or materials purchased in the ordinary course of business (other than, to the extent they may otherwise constitute such trade payables, any obligations of the type described in clause (ii) of the definition of Indebtedness), and (z) any particular Indebtedness in which the instrument creating or evidencing the same expressly provides that such Indebtedness shall not be senior in right of payment to, or is pari passu with, or is subordinated or junior to, the Convertible Notes. "Subsidiary" means, with respect to any person, (i) any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person (or a combination thereof) and (ii) any partnership (a) the sole general partner or the managing general partner of which is such person or a Subsidiary of such person or (b) the only general partners of which are such person or of one or more Subsidiaries of such person (or any combination thereof). "Voting Stock" of a corporation means all classes of Capital Stock of such corporation then outstanding and normally entitled to vote in the election of directors. 89 92 SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE Prior to the Offerings, there has been no market for the Common Stock and there is no assurance that a significant public market for the Common Stock will develop or be sustained after the Offerings. Sales of substantial amounts of Common Stock in the public market could adversely affect the market price of the Common Stock and could impair the Company's future ability to raise capital through the sale of its equity securities. Upon the closing of the Offerings, the Company will have outstanding 112,610,000 shares of Common Stock. In addition to the 35,000,000 shares of Common Stock offered hereby (40,250,000 if the Underwriters' over-allotment options are exercised in full), upon the closing of the Offerings, there will be approximately shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, all of which will be freely tradeable. In addition, in connection with market-making activities in the Convertible Notes, Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time until the maturity date or redemption date of the Convertible Notes borrow, return and reborrow up to 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock from Mr. and Mrs. Kim pursuant to a securities loan agreement (the "Securities Loan Agreement"), which shares may from time to time be sold in the market in connection with such market-making activities pursuant to a Form S-1 registration statement (No. 333-49645) (the "Securities Loan Registration Statement") filed by the Company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"). At the end of such period, the shares of Common Stock borrowed and returned to Mr. and Mrs. Kim (the "Control Shares") may be resold from time to time by Mr. and Mrs. Kim subject to certain volume, manner of sale and other restrictions described below under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Excluding all such freely tradeable shares and Control Shares, approximately 70,610,000 additional shares of Common Stock will be outstanding upon the closing of the Offerings (excluding 3,145,900 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options), all of which are "restricted" shares (the "Restricted Shares") under the Securities Act. Such Restricted Shares may be sold only if registered under the Securities Act or sold in accordance with an available exemption from such registration. Under Rule 144, a person (or persons whose shares are aggregated in accordance with the Rule) who has beneficially owned his or her Restricted Shares for at least one year, including persons who are affiliates of the Company, will be entitled to sell, within any three month period a number of Restricted Shares that does not exceed the greater of (i) one percent of the then outstanding number of shares of Common Stock (1,126,100 shares of Common Stock immediately after the consummation of the Offerings) or (ii) the average weekly trading volume of the shares of Common Stock during the four calendar weeks preceding each such sale. In addition, sales under Rule 144 are also subject to certain manner of sale provisions and notice requirements and to the availability of current public information about the Company. After Restricted Shares are held for two years, a person who is not an affiliate of the Company is entitled to sell such shares under Rule 144 without regard to such volume limitations, or manner of sale, notice or public information requirements under Rule 144. Sales of Restricted Shares by affiliates will continue to be subject to such volume limitations, and manner of sale, notice and public information requirements. The Company has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of (or enter into any transaction which is designed to, or could be expected to, result in the disposition (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any person in privity with the Company or any affiliate of the Company), directly or indirectly, or announce the offering of, any other shares of Common Stock or any securities or options convertible into, or exchangeable or exercisable for, shares of Common Stock (other than the Convertible Notes) for a period of 180 days following the date hereof without the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. In addition, each of the Company's officers, directors and stockholders has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, or file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act with respect to, any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction, for a period of 180 days after the date hereof other than pursuant to 90 93 the Securities Loan Agreement or with the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. See "Underwriting." Beginning April 29, 1999, approximately 70,610,000 Restricted Shares subject to the lock-up agreements will become eligible for sale in the public market pursuant to Rule 144. The Company plans to grant options to purchase 3,145,900 shares of Common Stock immediately prior to the Offerings under the 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees and 1998 Director Option Plan. See "Management -- Stock Plans." The Company intends to file, within 30 days after the date of this Prospectus, a Form S-8 registration statement under the Securities Act to register shares of Common Stock reserved for issuance under the 1998 Stock Plan, 1998 Director Option Plan and 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, and shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options. Shares of Common Stock issued upon exercise of options after the effective date of the Form S-8 will be available for sale in the public market, subject to Rule 144 volume limitations applicable to affiliates and to lock-up agreements. 91 94 CERTAIN UNITED STATES FEDERAL TAX CONSEQUENCES TO HOLDERS OF COMMON STOCK AND CONVERTIBLE NOTES GENERAL The following is a general discussion of certain United States federal income and estate tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of Common Stock and Convertible Notes by a holder who acquires and owns such Common Stock or a Convertible Note as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"). This discussion does not consider specific facts and circumstances that may be relevant to a particular holder's tax position, does not address all aspects of United States federal income and estate taxes and does not deal with foreign, state, and local consequences and United States federal gift taxes that may be relevant to such holders in light of their personal circumstances. Further, it does not discuss the rules applicable to holders subject to special tax treatment under the federal income tax laws (including but not limited to, banks, insurance companies, dealers in securities, holders of securities held as part of a "straddle," "hedge," or "conversion transaction," and persons who undertake a constructive sale of Common Stock or a Convertible Note). In addition, this discussion is limited to original purchasers of Convertible Notes, who acquire their Convertible Notes at their original issue price within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code, and Common Stock. Furthermore, this discussion is based on current provisions of the Code, existing and proposed regulations promulgated thereunder and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, all of which are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis. Accordingly, each prospective purchaser of Common Stock or Convertible Notes is advised to consult a tax advisor with respect to current and possible future tax consequences of acquiring, holding, and disposing of Common Stock or Convertible Notes. U.S. HOLDERS The following discussion is limited to a holder of Common Stock or a Convertible Note that for United States federal income tax purposes is (i) a citizen or resident (within the meaning of Section 7701(b) of the Code) of the United States, (ii) a corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States or of any state, (iii) an estate whose income is includible in gross income for United States federal income tax purposes, regardless of its source, or (iv) in general, a trust subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and the control of a United States person as described in Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code (a "U.S. Holder"). Interest Stated interest on the Convertible Notes will generally be includable in a U.S. Holder's gross income and taxable as ordinary income for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is paid or accrued in accordance with the U.S. Holder's regular method of accounting. Conversion of Convertible Notes Into Common Stock A U.S. Holder generally will not recognize any income, gain or loss upon conversion of a Note into Common Stock except to the extent the Common Stock is considered attributable to accrued interest not previously included in income (which is taxable as ordinary income) or with respect to cash received in lieu of a fractional share of Common Stock. The adjusted basis of shares of Common Stock received on conversion will equal the adjusted basis of the Convertible Note converted (reduced by the portion of adjusted basis allocated to any fractional share of Common Stock exchanged for cash), and the holding period of the Common Stock received on conversion will generally include the period during which the converted Convertible Notes were held. However, a U.S. Holder's tax basis in shares of Common Stock considered attributable to accrued interest as described above generally will equal the amount of such accrued interest included in income, and the holding period for such shares shall begin as of the date of conversion. The conversion price of the Convertible Notes is subject to adjustment under certain circumstances. Section 305 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations issued thereunder may treat the holders of the 92 95 Convertible Notes as having received a constructive distribution, resulting in ordinary income (subject to a possible dividends received deduction in the case of corporate holders) to the extent of the Company's current or accumulated earnings and profits, if, and to the extent that, certain adjustments in the conversion price that may occur in limited circumstances (particularly an adjustment to reflect a taxable dividend to holders of Common Stock) increase the proportionate interest of a holder of Convertible Notes in the fully diluted Common Stock, whether or not such holder ever exercises its conversion privilege. Moreover, if there is not a full adjustment to the conversion ratio of the Convertible Notes to reflect a stock dividend or other event increasing the proportionate interest of the holders of outstanding Common Stock in the assets or earnings and profits of the Company, then such increase in the proportionate interest of the holders of the Common Stock generally will be treated as a distribution to such holders, taxable as ordinary income (subject to a possible dividends received deduction in the case of corporate holders) to the extent of the Company's current or accumulated earnings and profits.. Sale, Exchange or Retirement of a Convertible Note Each U.S. Holder generally will recognize gain or loss upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of a Convertible Note measured by the difference (if any) between (i) the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received (except to the extent that such cash or other property is attributable to the payment of accrued interest not previously included in income, which amount will be taxable as ordinary income) and (ii) such holder's adjusted tax basis in the Convertible Note. Any such gain or loss recognized on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of a Convertible Note will be capital gain or loss. Gain on most capital assets held or deemed held by an individual for more than 18 months is subject to a maximum rate of tax of 20%, and gain on most capital assets held or deemed held by an individual more than one year and up to 18 months is subject to tax at a maximum rate of 28%. A U.S. Holder's initial basis in a Convertible Note will be the amount paid therefor. The Common Stock In general, dividends paid from current or accumulated earnings and profits of the Company, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be included in a U.S. Holder's income as ordinary income (subject to a possible dividends received deduction in the case of corporate holders) as they are paid. Gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Common Stock will equal the difference between the amount realized on such sale or exchange and the U.S. Holder's adjusted tax basis in such Common Stock. Gain on most capital assets held by an individual for more than 18 months is subject to tax at a maximum rate of 20% and gain on most capital assets held by an individual for more than one year and up to 18 months is subject to tax at a maximum rate of 28%. Information Reporting and Backup Withholding A U.S. Holder of Common Stock or a Convertible Note may be subject to "backup withholding" at a rate of 31% with respect to certain "reportable payments," including dividend payments, interest payments, and, under certain circumstances, principal payments on the Convertible Notes. These backup withholding rules apply if the holder, among other things, (i) fails to furnish a social security number or other taxpayer identification number ("TIN") certified under penalties of perjury within a reasonable time after the request therefor, (ii) furnishes an incorrect TIN, (iii) fails to report properly interest or dividends, or (iv) under certain circumstances, fails to provide a certified statement, signed under penalties of perjury, that the TIN furnished is the correct number and that such holder is not subject to backup withholding. A holder who does not provide the Company with its correct TIN also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount withheld from a payment to a U.S. Holder under the backup withholding rules is creditable against the holder's federal income tax liability, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS. Backup withholding will not apply, however, with respect to payments made to certain U.S. Holders, including corporations and tax-exempt organizations, provided their exemptions from backup withholding are properly established. 93 96 The Company will report to the U.S. Holders of Convertible Notes and Common Stock and to the IRS the amount of any "reportable payments" for each calendar year and the amount of tax withheld, if any, with respect to such payments. NON U.S. HOLDERS The following discussion is limited to the U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder. As used herein, the term "Non-U.S. Holder" means any holder other than a U.S. Holder. For purposes of withholding tax on interest and dividends discussed below, a Non-U.S. Holder includes a non- resident fiduciary of an estate or trust. For purposes of the following discussion, interest, dividends and gain on the sale, exchange or other disposition of a Convertible Note or Common Stock will generally be considered to be "U.S. trade or business income" if such income or gain is (i) effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business or (ii) in the case of most treaty residents, attributable to a permanent establishment (or, in the case of an individual, a fixed base) in the United States. Interest Generally, any interest paid to a Non-U.S. Holder of a Convertible Note that is not U.S. trade or business income will not be subject to U.S. tax if the interest qualifies as "portfolio interest." Interest on the Convertible Notes will generally qualify as portfolio interest if (i) the Non-U.S. Holder does not actually or constructively own 10% or more of the total voting power of all voting stock of the Company and is not a "controlled foreign corporation" with respect to which the Company is a "related person" within the meaning of the Code, and (ii) the beneficial owner, under penalty of perjury, certifies that the beneficial owner is not a U.S. person and such certificate provides the beneficial owner's name and address. The gross amount of payments of interest to a Non-U.S. Holder that do not qualify for the portfolio interest exemption and that are not U.S. trade or business income will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate, unless a U.S. income tax treaty applies to reduce or eliminate the rate of withholding. Interest that is U.S. trade or business income will be subject to United States federal income tax on a net income basis at applicable graduated individual or corporate rates and would be exempt from the 30% withholding tax described above. In the case of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation, interest that is U.S. trade or business income may, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional "branch profits tax" at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. To claim the benefit of a tax treaty or to claim an exemption from withholding for interest that is U.S. trade or business income, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide a properly executed Form 1001 or Form 4224 (or such successor form as the IRS designates), as applicable, prior to the payment of interest. Under recently adopted Treasury Regulations that will generally be effective after December 31, 1998 (the "New Regulations"), a Non-U.S. Holder, subject to certain transition rules, will instead be required to provide a properly executed Form W-8, certifying to such U.S. Holder's entitlement to treaty benefits or exemption from withholding for U.S. trade or business income. Special procedures are provided in the New Regulations for payments through qualified intermediaries. Other recently adopted Treasury Regulations that will be effective with respect to payments made after December 31, 1997 (the "Treaty Regulations") provide special rules applicable to certain entities that are treated as partnerships for U.S. purposes but as corporations for foreign tax purposes, for purposes of determining the applicability of a tax treaty. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of the New Regulations and the Treaty Regulations on an investment in a Convertible Note or Common Stock. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of the New Regulations and the Treaty Regulations on an investment in the Common Stock or a Convertible Note. Conversion of Convertible Notes into Common Stock A Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the conversion of Convertible Notes into Common Stock, except with respect to cash (if any) received in lieu of a fractional share or interest not previously included in income. Cash received in lieu of a fractional share may give rise to gain that would be subject to the rules described below for the sale of Convertible Notes. Cash or Common Stock treated as issued for accrued interest would be treated as interest under the rules described above. 94 97 Dividends In general, dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder of Common Stock will be subject to withholding of United States federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are U.S. trade or business income. If the dividend is U.S. trade or business income, the dividend would be subject to United States federal income tax on a net income basis at applicable graduated individual or corporate rates and would be exempt from the 30% withholding tax described above. Any such dividends that are U.S. trade or business income received by a foreign corporation may, under certain circumstances, be subject to the additional "branch profits tax" at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be complied with in order to be exempt from withholding under the U.S. trade or business income exemption discussed above (which requirements have been modified by the New Regulations). Under current United States Treasury regulations, dividends paid to a stockholder at an address in a foreign country are presumed to be paid to a resident of such country for purposes of the withholding discussed above (unless the payor has knowledge to the contrary), including for purposes of determining the applicability of a tax treaty rate. Under the New Regulations, to obtain a reduced rate of withholding under a treaty, a Non-U.S. Holder would generally be required to provide an Internal Revenue Service Form W-8 (or suitable substitute form) certifying such Non-U.S. Holder's entitlement to benefits under a treaty. These certification requirements may be relaxed somewhat in the case of a Non-U.S. Holder who holds Common Stock through an account maintained at a non-U.S. office of a financial institution. Certain other special rules may be applicable to a Non-U.S. Holder under the New Regulation or the Treaty Regulations. See "-- Non-U.S. Holders -- Interest". A Non-U.S. Holder of Common Stock that is eligible for a reduced rate of United States withholding tax pursuant to a tax treaty or whose dividends have otherwise been subjected to withholding in an amount that exceeds such holder's United States federal income tax liability, may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by filing an appropriate claim for refund with the United States Internal Revenue Service (the "Service"). Gain on Disposition of Common Stock or a Convertible Note A Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to United States federal income tax with respect to gain realized on a sale or other disposition of Common Stock or a Convertible Note unless (i) the gain is U.S. trade or business income, (ii) in the case of a Non-U.S. Holder who is a nonresident alien individual and holds Common Stock or a Convertible Note as a capital asset, such holder is present in the United States for 183 or more days in the taxable year of the sale or other disposition and certain other conditions are met, (iii) the Non-U.S. Holder is subject to tax pursuant to provisions of United States tax law that apply to certain expatriates, or (iv) under certain circumstances, in the case of disposition of Common Stock if the Company is or has been during certain time periods a "U.S. real property holding corporation" for United States federal income tax purposes. The Company is not and does not anticipate becoming a "U.S. real property holding corporation" for United States federal income tax purposes. Federal Estate Taxes Common Stock that is owned, or treated as owned, by a non-resident alien individual (as specifically determined under residence rules for United States federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death or that has been the subject of certain lifetime transfers will be included in such holder's gross estate for United States federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise. A Convertible Note that is owned, or treated as owned, by a non-resident alien individual (as specifically determined under residence rules for United States federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will not be subject to U.S. federal estate tax provided that the interest thereon qualifies as portfolio interest and was not U.S. trade or business income. 95 98 United States Information Reporting and Backup Withholding Tax The Company must report annually to the Service and to each Non-U.S. Holder the amount of dividends or interest paid to such holder and any tax withheld with respect to such dividends or interest. These information reporting requirements apply regardless of whether withholding is required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and interest and withholding with respect thereof may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement, to the tax authorities in the country in which such Non-U.S. Holder resides. Treasury Regulations provide that backup withholding and additional information reporting will not apply to payments of principal on the Convertible Notes by the Company to a Non-U.S. Holder if the holder certifies as to its Non-U.S. status under penalties of perjury or otherwise establishes an exemption (provided that neither the Company nor its paying agent has actual knowledge that the holder is a U.S. person or that the conditions of any other exemption are not, in fact, satisfied). United States backup withholding tax (which generally is a withholding tax imposed at the rate of thirty-one percent (31%) on certain payments to persons that fail to furnish certain information under the United States information reporting requirements) generally will not apply to dividends paid on Common Stock to a Non-U.S. Holder at an address outside the United States, except that with regard to payments made after December 31, 1998, a Non-U.S. Holder will be entitled to such an exemption only if it provides a Form W-8 (or satisfies certain documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-United States person) or otherwise establishes an exemption. Except as provided below, Non-U.S. Holders will not be subject to backup withholding with respect to the payment of proceeds from the disposition of Common Stock or Convertible Notes effected by the foreign office of a broker; except that if the broker is a United States person or a "U.S. related person," information reporting (but not backup withholding) is required with respect to the payment, unless the broker has documentary evidence in its files that the owner is a Non-U.S. Holder (and the broker has no actual knowledge to the contrary) and certain other requirements are met or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. For this purpose, a "U.S. related person" is (i) a "controlled foreign corporation" for United States federal income tax purposes, (ii) a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for the three-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the collection or payment of such proceeds (or for such part of the period that the broker has been in existence) is derived from activities that are effectively connected with the conduct of a United States trade or business, or (iii) with respect to payments made after December 31, 1998, a foreign partnership that, at any time during its taxable year is 50% or more (by income or capital interest) owned by U.S. persons or is engaged in the conduct of a U.S. trade or business. The payment of the proceeds of a sale of shares of Common Stock or of a Convertible Note to or through a United States office of a broker is subject to information reporting and possible backup withholding unless the owner certifies its non-United States status under penalties of perjury or otherwise establishes an exemption. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a Non-U.S. Holder will be allowed as a refund or a credit against such Non-U.S. Holder's United States federal income tax liability, provided that the required information is furnished to the Service. THE FOREGOING DISCUSSION IS INCLUDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY. ACCORDINGLY, EACH PROSPECTIVE PURCHASER IS URGED TO CONSULT WITH HIS TAX ADVISOR WITH RESPECT TO THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX AND FEDERAL ESTATE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF COMMON STOCK AND CONVERTIBLE NOTES, INCLUDING THE APPLICATION AND EFFECT OF THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL, FOREIGN, OR OTHER TAXING JURISDICTION. 96 99 UNDERWRITING Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement (the "U.S. Underwriting Agreement") among the Company, the Selling Stockholder and each of the underwriters named below (the "U.S. Underwriters"), for whom Smith Barney Inc., BancAmerica Robertson Stephens and Cowen & Company are acting as representatives (the "U.S. Representatives"), (i) the Company and the Selling Stockholder have agreed to sell to each of the U.S. Underwriters and each of the U.S. Underwriters has severally agreed to purchase from the Company and the Selling Stockholder the aggregate number of Shares set forth opposite its name in the table below and (ii) the Company has agreed to sell to certain of the U.S. Underwriters and each such U.S. Underwriter has severally agreed to purchase from the Company the principal amount of the Convertible Notes set forth opposite its name below.
PRINCIPAL AMOUNT NUMBER OF OF CONVERTIBLE U.S. UNDERWRITERS SHARES NOTES ----------------- ---------- -------------- Smith Barney Inc. .......................... BancAmerica Robertson Stephens.............. Cowen & Company............................. ---------- ------------ Total............................. 28,000,000 $120,000,000 ========== ============
The U.S. Underwriting Agreement provides that the obligations of the U.S. Underwriters to purchase the Shares and Convertible Notes listed above are subject to certain conditions set forth therein. The U.S. Underwriters are committed to purchase all of the Shares and Convertible Notes agreed to be purchased by the U.S. Underwriters pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement (other than those covered by the over-allotment options described below), if any Shares or Convertible Notes are purchased. In the event of default by any U.S. Underwriter, the U.S. Underwriting Agreement provides that, in certain circumstances, the purchase commitments of the non-defaulting U.S. Underwriters may be increased or the U.S. Underwriting Agreement may be terminated. The U.S. Representatives have advised the Company and the Selling Stockholder that the U.S. Underwriters propose initially to offer such Shares to the public at the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, and to certain dealers at such price less a discount not in excess of $ per share. The U.S. Underwriters may allow, and such dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of $ per share on sales to certain other dealers. After the initial public offering of the Shares, the public offering price and such discounts may be changed. The U.S. Representatives have also advised the Company that the relevant U.S. Underwriters propose initially to offer such Convertible Notes to the public at the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, and to certain dealers at such price less a concession not in excess of % of the principal amount of such Convertible Notes. The relevant U.S. Underwriters may allow, and such dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of % of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes on sales to certain other dealers. After the initial public offering of the Convertible Notes, the public offering price and such concessions may be changed. The Company and the Selling Stockholder also have entered into an underwriting agreement (the "International Underwriting Agreement") with the International Underwriters named therein, for whom Smith Barney Inc., BancAmerica Robertson Stephens International Limited and Cowen International L.P. are acting as representatives (the "International Representatives" and, together with the U.S. Representatives, the "Representatives"), providing for the concurrent offer and sale of 7,000,000 of the Shares and $30,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes outside the United States and Canada. The closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement is a condition to the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement, and the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement is a 97 100 condition to the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement. The initial public offering price and underwriting discounts per Share and per Convertible Note for the U.S. Offering and the International Offering will be identical. Each U.S. Underwriter has severally agreed that, as part of the distribution of the 28,000,000 Shares and $120,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes by the U.S. Underwriters, (i) it is not purchasing any Shares or Convertible Notes for the account of anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person, (ii) it has not offered or sold, and will not offer or sell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes or distribute any Prospectus relating to the U.S. Offering to any person outside of the United States or Canada, or to anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person and (iii) any dealer to whom it may sell any Shares or Convertible Notes will represent that it is not purchasing for the account of anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person and agree that it will not offer or resell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes outside of the United States or Canada, or to anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person or to any other dealer who does not so represent and agree. Each International Underwriter has severally agreed that, as part of the distribution of the 7,000,000 Shares and $30,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes by the International Underwriters, (i) it is not purchasing any Shares or Convertible Notes for the account of any United States or Canadian Person, (ii) it has not offered or sold, and will not offer or sell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes or distribute any Prospectus to any person in the United States or Canada, or to any United States or Canadian Person and (iii) any dealer to whom it may sell any Shares or Convertible Notes will represent that it is not purchasing for the account of any United States or Canadian Person and agree that it will not offer or resell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes in the United States or Canada, or to any United States or Canadian Person or to any other dealer who does not so represent and agree. The foregoing limitations do not apply to stabilization transactions or to certain other transactions specified in the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters. "United States or Canadian Persons" means any person who is a national or resident of the United States or Canada, any corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or Canada or of any political subdivision thereof, and any estate or trust the income of which is subject to United States or Canadian federal income taxation, regardless of its source (other than a foreign branch of such entity) and includes any United States or Canadian branch of a person other than a United States or Canadian Person. Each U.S. Underwriter that will offer or sell Shares or Convertible Notes in Canada as part of the distribution has severally agreed that such offers and sales will be made only pursuant to an exemption from the prospectus requirements in each jurisdiction in Canada in which such offers and sales are made. Pursuant to the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters, sales may be made between the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters of such number of Shares and such principal amount of the Convertible Notes as may be mutually agreed. The price of any Shares or Convertible Notes so sold shall be the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, less an amount not greater than the concession to securities dealers set forth above. To the extent that there are sales between the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters pursuant to the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters, the number of Shares and the principal amount of the Convertible Notes initially available for sale by the U.S. Underwriters or by the International Underwriters may be more or less than the amount specified on the cover page of this Prospectus. Each International Underwriter has severally represented and agreed that (i) it has not offered or sold and, prior to the expiration of six months from the closing of the International Offering, will not offer or sell any Shares or Convertible Notes in the United Kingdom other than to persons whose ordinary activities involve them in acquiring, holding, managing or disposing of investments (whether as principal or agent) for the purposes of their businesses or otherwise in circumstances which have not resulted in and will not result in an offer to the public within the meaning of the Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995; (ii) it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the Financial Services Act 1986 with respect to anything done by it in relation to the Shares or the Convertible Notes in, from or otherwise involving the 98 101 United Kingdom; and (iii) it has only issued or passed on and will only issue or pass on in the United Kingdom any document received by it in connection with the issue of the Shares or the Convertible Notes to a person who is of a kind described in Article 11(3) of the Financial Services Act 1986 (Investment Advertisements) (Exemptions) Order 1996 or is a person to whom such document may otherwise lawfully be issued or passed on. The Company has granted to the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters options to purchase up to an additional 4,200,000 and 1,050,000 Shares, respectively, and an additional $18,000,000 and $4,500,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, respectively, in each case at the applicable price to the public less the applicable underwriting discount set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, solely to cover over-allotments, if any. Such options may be exercised at any time up to 30 days after the date of this Prospectus. To the extent such options are exercised, each of the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters will become obligated, subject to certain conditions, to purchase approximately the same percentage of such additional shares of Common Stock or such additional principal amount of Convertible Notes as the percentage it was obligated to purchase pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement or the International Underwriting Agreement, as applicable. The Company has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of (or enter into any transaction which is designed to, or could be expected to, result in the disposition (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any person in privity with the Company or any affiliate of the Company), directly or indirectly, or announce the offering of, any other shares of Common Stock or any securities or options convertible into, or exchangeable or exercisable for, shares of Common Stock (other than the Convertible Notes) for a period of 180 days following the date hereof without the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. In addition, each of the Company's officers, directors and stockholders has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, or file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act with respect to any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction, for a period of 180 days after the date hereof unless pursuant to the Securities Loan Agreement (as described below) or with the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. Smith Barney Inc. currently does not intend to release any securities subject to such lock-up agreements, but may, in its sole discretion and at any time without notice, release all or any portion of the securities subject to such lock-up agreements. The U.S. Underwriting Agreement and the International Underwriting Agreement provide that the Company and the Selling Stockholder will indemnify the several U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters against certain liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribute to payments the U.S. Underwriters and the International Underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof. BancAmerica Robertson Stephens is an affiliate of Bank of America, which will be repaid approximately $43 million of short-term loans to the Company from the net proceeds of the Offerings. See "Use of Proceeds." Because more than 10% of the net proceeds of the Offerings may be paid to Bank of America, the Offerings are being conducted in accordance with Rule 2710(c)(8) and Rule 2720 ("Rule 2720") of the Conduct Rules of the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., Smith Barney Inc. will serve as a "qualified independent underwriter" in the Offerings and, in such capacity, will recommend a price in compliance with Rule 2720 and has performed due diligence investigations in accordance with Rule 2720. Affiliates of Smith Barney Inc., Mr. James Kim and AICL are among the principal shareholders of a securities and investment banking firm in Korea. In addition, certain of the Underwriters and their affiliates have been engaged from time to time, and may in the future be engaged, to perform investment banking and other advisory-related services to the Company and its affiliates, including the Selling Stockholder, in the ordinary course of business. In connection with rendering such services in the past, such Underwriters and affiliates have received customary compensation, including reimbursement of related expenses. 99 102 In connection with the Offerings, certain Underwriters and selling group members and their respective affiliates may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes. Such transactions may include stabilization transactions effected in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M, pursuant to which such persons may bid for or purchase Common Stock or Convertible Notes for the purpose of stabilizing their market price. The Underwriters also may create a short position for the account of the Underwriters by selling more Common Stock or Convertible Notes in connection with the Offerings than they are committed to purchase from the Company and the Selling Stockholder, and in such case may purchase Common Stock or Convertible Notes in the open market following completion of the Offerings to cover all or a portion of such short position. The Underwriters may also cover all or a portion of such short position, up to 5,250,000 shares of Common Stock and $22,500,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, by exercising the Underwriters' over-allotment options referred to above. In addition, the Representatives, on behalf of the Underwriters, may impose "penalty bids" under contractual arrangements with the Underwriters whereby it may reclaim from an Underwriter (or dealer participating in the Offerings), for the account of the other Underwriters, the selling concession with respect to Common Stock or Convertible Notes that are distributed in the Offerings but subsequently purchased for the account of the Underwriters in the open market. Any of the transactions described in this paragraph may result in the maintenance of the price of the Common Stock and the Convertible Notes at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. None of the transactions described in this paragraph is required, and, if they are undertaken, they may be discontinued at any time. In connection with the Offerings, Mr. and Mrs. Kim (referred to herein as the "Lenders") and Smith Barney Inc. intend to enter into a Securities Loan Agreement (the "Securities Loan Agreement") which provides that, subject to certain restrictions and with the agreement of the Lenders, Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time until the maturity date or redemption date of the Convertible Notes borrow, return and reborrow shares of Common Stock from the Lenders (the "Borrowed Securities"): provided, however, that the number of Borrowed Securities at any time may not exceed 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock, subject to adjustment for certain dilutive events. The Securities Loan Agreement is intended to facilitate market-making activity in the Convertible Notes by Smith Barney Inc. Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time borrow shares of Common Stock under the Securities Loan Agreement to settle short sales of Common Stock (or to return Common Stock previously borrowed by Smith Barney Inc. to settle such short sales) entered into by Smith Barney Inc. to hedge any long position in the Convertible Notes resulting from its market-making activities. Such sales will be made on the Nasdaq National Market or in the over-the-counter market at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such market prices. Market conditions will dictate the extent and timing of Smith Barney Inc.'s market-making transactions in the Convertible Notes and the consequent need to borrow and sell shares of Common Stock. The availability of shares of Common Stock under the Securities Loan Agreement at any time is not assured and any such availability does not assure market-making activity with respect to the Convertible Notes. Any market-making engaged in by Smith Barney Inc. or any other Underwriter may cease at any time. The foregoing description of the Securities Loan Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to such agreement, which is an exhibit to the Securities Loan Registration Statement. The Underwriters do not intend to confirm sales in the Offerings to any accounts over which they exercise discretionary authority. Prior to the Offerings, there has been no public market for the Common Stock. Accordingly, the initial public offering price for the Shares will be determined by negotiation among the Company, the Selling Stockholder and the Representatives. Among the factors considered in determining the initial public offering price will be the Company's record of operations, its current financial condition, its future prospects, the market for its services, the experience of management, the economic conditions of the Company's industry in general, the general condition of the equity securities market and the demand for similar securities of companies considered comparable to the Company and other relevant factors. There can be no assurance, however, that the prices at which the Common Stock will sell in the public market after the Offerings will not be lower than the price at which the Shares are sold by the Underwriters. 100 103 LEGAL MATTERS The validity of the Shares and the Convertible Notes offered hereby will be passed upon for the Company by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Palo Alto, California. Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, New York, New York, is acting as counsel for the Underwriters in connection with certain legal matters relating to the Shares and the Convertible Notes offered hereby. EXPERTS The combined financial statements and schedule of Amkor Technology, Inc. and A.K. Industries, Inc. as of December 31, 1996 and 1997, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 1997, included in this Prospectus and elsewhere in this Registration Statement have been audited by Arthur Andersen LLP, independent public accountants, as set forth in their reports dated February 3, 1998 (except with respect to the sale of the investment in Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL") common stock discussed in Note 6 to the Combined Financial Statements, as to which the date is February 16, 1998 and the Reorganization discussed in Note 16, as to which the date is April 29, 1998) with respect thereto, and are included herein in reliance upon the authority of said firm as experts in giving said reports. In those reports, such firm states that with respect to the investment in AICL its opinion is based on the report of other independent public accountants, namely Samil Accounting Corporation. Reference is made to said reports which include an explanatory paragraph with respect to the ability of Amkor Technology, Inc. and A.K. Industries, Inc. to continue as a going concern as discussed in Note 1 of Notes to the Combined Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements of AICL as of December 31, 1996 and 1997, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 1997 (not included in this Prospectus or elsewhere in this Registration Statement) have been audited by Samil Accounting Corporation, independent public accountants, as set forth in their report dated March 20, 1998 with respect thereto, which report is included herein in reliance upon the authority of said firm as experts. In that report, such firm states that with respect to Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. ("AEC") and AUSA, subsidiaries of AICL, and the investment in AAP, its opinion is based on the reports of other independent public accountants, namely Chong Un & Company, Siana, Carr and O' Connor, LLP and SyCip Gorres, Velayo & Co, respectively. Reference is made to the reports regarding AAP and AEC, which include explanatory paragraphs with respect to the ability of AAP and AEC, respectively, to continue as a going concern, and the report regarding AICL, which includes an explanatory paragraph regarding a change in accounting principles, the impact of the Korean economic situation on AICL and the ability of AICL to continue as a going concern. 101 104 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The Company has filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "Commission") a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the "Registration Statement") under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This Prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the Registration Statement and the exhibits and schedules thereto. For further information with respect to the Company, the Common Stock and the Convertible Notes, reference is made to the Registration Statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part thereof. Statements contained in this Prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete. In each instance, reference is made to the copy of such contract or document filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement, and each such statement is qualified in all respects by such reference. The Registration Statement, including exhibits and schedules thereto, may be inspected without charge at the public reference facilities maintained by the Commission at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549 and at the regional offices of the Commission located at Seven World Trade Center, Suite 1300, New York, New York 10048 and Northwestern Atrium Center, 500 Madison Street, Suite 1400, Chicago, Illinois 60661-2511. Copies of such materials may be obtained from the Public Reference Section of the Commission, 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549, at prescribed rates and through the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. located at 1735 K Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. The Commission maintains a World Wide Web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the Commission. The address of the Commission's Web site is http://www.sec.gov. 102 105 GLOSSARY ASIC....................... Application Specific Integrated Circuit. A custom-designed integrated circuit that performs specific functions which would otherwise require a number of off-the-shelf integrated circuits to perform. The use of an ASIC in place of a conventional integrated circuit reduces product size and cost and also improves reliability. BGA........................ Ball grid array. Bus........................ A common pathway, or channel, between multiple devices. CMOS....................... Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon. Currently the most common integrated circuit fabrication process technology, CMOS is one of the latest fabrication techniques to use metal oxide semiconductor transistors. DAC........................ Digital Analog Converter. A device that converts digital pulses into analog signals. Die........................ A piece of a semiconductor wafer containing the circuitry of a single chip. DRAM....................... Dynamic Random Access Memory. A type of volatile memory product that is used in electronic systems to store data and program instructions. It is the most common type of RAM and must be refreshed with electricity thousands of times per second or else it will fade away. DSP........................ Digital Signal Processor. A type of integrated circuit that processes and manipulates digital information after it has been converted from an analog source. EEPROM..................... Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory. A form of non-volatile memory that can be erased electronically before being reprogrammed. EPROM...................... Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. A programmable and reusable chip that holds its content until erased under ultraviolet light. Ethernet................... A type of local area network (LAN). Most widely used LAN access method. Flash Memory............... A type of non-volatile memory, similar to an EEPROM in that it is erasable and reprogrammable. FlipChip................... Package type where silicon die is attached to the packaging substrate using solder balls instead of wires. See "Business -- Products." GPS........................ Global Positioning System. A system for identifying earth locations. GUI........................ Graphical User Interface. A graphics-based user interface that incorporates icons, pull-down menus and a mouse. IC......................... Integrated Circuit. A combination of two or more transistors on a base material, usually silicon. All semiconductor chips, including memory chips and logic chips, are just very complicated ICs with thousands of transistors. Input/Output............... A connector which interconnects the chip to the package or one package level to the next level in the hierarchy. Also referred to as pin out connections or terminals. ISDN....................... Integrated Services Digital Network. An international telecommunications standard for transmitting voice, video and data over digital lines running at 64 Kbps. Logic Device............... A device that contains digital integrated circuits that process, rather than store, information. 103 106 Mask....................... A piece of glass on which an IC's circuitry design is laid out. Integrated circuits may require up to 20 different layers of design, each with its own mask. In the IC production process, a light shines through the mask leaving an image of the design on the wafer. Also known as a reticle. MBGA....................... Micro Ball Grid Array. See "Business -- Products." Micron..................... 1/25,000 of an inch. Circuitry on an IC typically follows lines that are less than one micron wide. MOS........................ A device which consists of three layers (metal, oxide and semiconductors) and operates as a transistor. MQFP....................... Metric Quad Flat Package. See "Business -- Products." PBGA....................... Plastic Ball Grid Array. See "Business -- Products." PC......................... Personal Computer. PCMCIA..................... Standard for connecting peripherals to computers. PDA........................ Personal Digital Assistant. PDIP....................... Plastic Dual In-Line Packages. See "Business -- Products." Photolithography........... A lithographic technique used to transfer the design of the circuit paths and electronic elements on a chip onto a wafer's surface. PLCC....................... Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier. See "Business -- Products." PLD........................ A logic chip that is programmed at the customer's site. PQFP....................... Plastic Quad Flat Packages. See "Business -- Products." RF......................... Radio Frequency. The range of electromagnetic frequencies above the audio range and below visible light. SIP........................ Single In-Line Package. See "Business -- Products." SOIC....................... Small Outline IC Packages. See "Business -- Products." SRAM....................... Static Random Access Memory. A type of volatile memory product that is used in electronic systems to store data and program instructions. Unlike the more common DRAM, it does not need to be refreshed. SSOP....................... Shrink Small Outline Packages. See "Business -- Products." Surface Mount Technology... A circuit board packaging technique in which the leads (pins) on the chips and components are soldered on top of the board. TQFP....................... Thin Quad Flat Packages. See "Business -- Products." TSOP....................... Thin Small Outline Packages. See "Business -- Products." TSSOP...................... Thin Shrink Small Outline Packages. See "Business -- Products." Wafer...................... Thin, round, flat piece of silicon that is the base of most integrated circuits. Wire Bonding............... The method used to attach very fine wire to semiconductor components in order to provide electrical continuity between the semiconductor die and a terminal. 104 107 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. INDEX TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
PAGE ---- Report of Independent Public Accountants (Arthur Andersen LLP)...................................................... F-2 Combined Statements of Income -- Years ended December 31, 1995, 1996 and 1997....................................... F-3 Combined Balance Sheets -- December 31, 1996 and 1997....... F-4 Combined Statements of Stockholders' Equity -- Years ended December 31, 1995, 1996 and 1997.......................... F-5 Combined Statements of Cash Flows -- Years ended December 31, 1995, 1996 and 1997................................... F-6 Notes to Combined Financial Statements...................... F-7 Independent Auditors' Report (Samil Accounting Corporation) with respect to Anam Industrial Co., Ltd.................. F-25 Independent Auditors' Report (Chong Un & Company) with respect to Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd....... F-27 Report of Independent Public Accountants (SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co) with respect to Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc.... F-28 Independent Auditors' Report (Siana Carr & O'Connor, LLP) with respect to Anam USA, Inc............................. F-29
F-1 108 REPORT OF INDEPENDENT PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS To Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc.: We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries (see Note 1) as of December 31, 1996 and 1997, and the related combined statements of income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We did not audit the financial statements of Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL"), the investment in which is reflected in the accompanying financial statements using the equity method of accounting. The investment in AICL represents 4% and 2% of total assets at December 31, 1996 and 1997, respectively, and the equity in its net income represents 5% of net income in 1995 and the equity in its net loss represents 4% and 29% of net income before the equity in income (loss) of AICL in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The statements of AICL were audited by other auditors whose report has been furnished to us and our opinion, insofar as it relates to amounts included for AICL, is based solely on the report of the other auditors. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, based upon our audit and the report of other auditors, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the combined financial position of Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 1996 and 1997, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the combined financial statements, the Company is not in compliance with certain debt agreements and has a net working capital deficiency at December 31, 1997. These matters raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to this matter are also described in Note 1. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. The report of the other auditors referred to above indicates that the financial statements of AICL have been prepared assuming that AICL will continue as a going concern. The operations of AICL have been significantly affected, and will continue to be affected for the foreseeable future, by Korea's unstable economy caused by currency volatility and unstable finance markets in Korea. AICL has traditionally operated with a significant amount of debt relative to its equity and has a significant working capital deficit at December 31, 1997. Because of Korea's unstable economy and AICL's dependence on debt financing, there are significant uncertainties that may affect AICL's future operations and its abilities to maintain or refinance certain debt obligations as they mature, which raise substantial doubt regarding AICL's ability to continue as a going concern. The ultimate outcome of these uncertainties cannot be determined presently and AICL's financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from these uncertainties. AICL's plans to address these matters are included in the notes to the AICL financial statements. ARTHUR ANDERSEN LLP Philadelphia, Pa. February 3, 1998 (except with respect to the sale of the investment in Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. common stock discussed in Note 6, as to which the date is February 16, 1998 and the Reorganization discussed in Note 16, as to which the date is April 29, 1998). F-2 109 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. COMBINED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ---------------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 -------- ---------- ---------- NET REVENUES................................................ $932,382 $1,171,001 $1,455,761 COST OF REVENUES -- including purchases from AICL (Note 11)....................................................... 783,335 1,022,078 1,242,669 -------- ---------- ---------- GROSS PROFIT................................................ 149,047 148,923 213,092 -------- ---------- ---------- OPERATING EXPENSES: Selling, general and administrative....................... 55,459 66,625 103,726 Research and development.................................. 8,733 10,930 8,525 -------- ---------- ---------- Total operating expenses............................... 64,192 77,555 112,251 -------- ---------- ---------- OPERATING INCOME............................................ 84,855 71,368 100,841 -------- ---------- ---------- OTHER (INCOME) EXPENSE: Interest expense, net..................................... 9,797 22,245 32,241 Foreign currency (gain) loss.............................. 1,512 2,961 (835) Other expense, net........................................ 6,523 3,150 8,429 -------- ---------- ---------- Total other expense.................................... 17,832 28,356 39,835 -------- ---------- ---------- INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES, EQUITY IN INCOME (LOSS) OF AICL AND MINORITY INTEREST..................................... 67,023 43,012 61,006 PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXES.................................. 6,384 7,876 7,078 EQUITY IN INCOME (LOSS) OF AICL............................. 2,808 (1,266) (17,291) MINORITY INTEREST........................................... 1,515 948 (6,644) -------- ---------- ---------- NET INCOME.................................................. $ 61,932 $ 32,922 $ 43,281 ======== ========== ========== PRO FORMA DATA (UNAUDITED): Historical income before income taxes, equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest................... $ 67,023 $ 43,012 $ 61,006 Pro forma provision for income taxes...................... 16,784 10,776 10,691 -------- ---------- ---------- Pro forma income before equity in income (loss) of AICL and minority interest.................................. 50,239 32,236 50,315 Historical equity in income (loss) of AICL................ 2,808 (1,266) (17,291) Historical minority interest.............................. 1,515 948 (6,644) -------- ---------- ---------- Pro forma net income...................................... $ 51,532 $ 30,022 $ 39,668 ======== ========== ========== Basic and diluted pro forma net income per common share... $ .62 $ .36 $ .48 ======== ========== ========== Shares used in computing pro forma net income per common share..................................................... 82,610 82,610 82,610 ======== ========== ==========
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. F-3 110 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. COMBINED BALANCE SHEETS (IN THOUSANDS)
DECEMBER 31, ----------------------------------- 1997 1997 1996 ACTUAL PRO FORMA -------- -------- ----------- (UNAUDITED) ASSETS CURRENT ASSETS: Cash and cash equivalents............................... $ 49,664 $ 90,917 $ 63,217 Short-term investments.................................. 881 2,524 2,524 Accounts receivable -- Trade, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $1,179, $4,234 and $4,234.......................... 170,892 102,804 102,804 Due from affiliates.................................. 26,886 14,431 14,431 Other................................................ 6,426 4,879 4,879 Inventories............................................. 101,920 115,870 115,870 Other current assets.................................... 8,618 26,997 26,997 -------- -------- -------- Total current assets............................ 365,287 358,422 330,722 -------- -------- -------- PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT, net........................ 324,895 427,061 427,061 -------- -------- -------- INVESTMENTS: AICL at equity.......................................... 31,154 13,863 13,863 Other................................................... 38,090 5,958 5,958 -------- -------- -------- Total investments............................... 69,244 19,821 19,821 -------- -------- -------- OTHER ASSETS: Due from affiliates..................................... 20,699 29,186 29,186 Other................................................... 24,739 21,102 21,102 -------- -------- -------- 45,438 50,288 50,288 -------- -------- -------- Total assets.................................... $804,864 $855,592 $827,892 ======== ======== ======== LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY CURRENT LIABILITIES: Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt................................................. $191,813 $325,968 $325,968 Trade accounts payable.................................. 45,798 113,037 113,037 Due to affiliates....................................... 33,379 15,581 15,581 Bank overdraft.......................................... 14,518 29,765 29,765 Accrued expenses........................................ 30,156 43,973 43,973 Accrued income taxes.................................... 12,838 26,968 26,968 -------- -------- -------- Total current liabilities....................... 328,502 555,292 555,292 -------- -------- -------- LONG-TERM DEBT............................................ 167,444 38,283 38,283 -------- -------- -------- DUE TO ANAM USA, INC. (Note 11)........................... 234,894 149,776 149,776 -------- -------- -------- OTHER NONCURRENT LIABILITIES.............................. 12,286 12,084 14,184 -------- -------- -------- COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Notes 1 and 13) MINORITY INTEREST......................................... 15,926 9,282 9,282 -------- -------- -------- STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY: Amkor Technology, Inc. -- common stock.................. 45 45 45 AK Industries, Inc. -- common stock..................... 1 1 1 Additional paid-in capital.............................. 16,770 20,871 20,871 Retained earnings....................................... 32,340 70,621 40,821 Unrealized losses on investments........................ (1,586) -- -- Cumulative translation adjustment....................... (1,758) (663) (663) -------- -------- -------- Total stockholders' equity...................... 45,812 90,875 61,075 -------- -------- -------- Total liabilities and stockholders' equity...... $804,864 $855,592 $827,892 ======== ======== ========
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. F-4 111 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. COMBINED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1995, 1996, AND 1997 (IN THOUSANDS)
AMKOR AK UNREALIZED TECHNOLOY, INDUSTRIES, GAINS INC. INC. ADDITIONAL (LOSSES) CUMULATIVE COMMON COMMON PAID-IN RETAINED ON TRANSLATION STOCK STOCK CAPITAL EARNINGS INVESTMENTS ADJUSTMENT TOTAL ---------- ----------- ---------- --------- ----------- ------------ -------- BALANCE AT JANUARY 1, 1995..... $45 $ 1 $16,494 $ (6,359) $ (35) $ (529) $ 9,617 Net income................... -- -- -- 61,932 -- -- 61,932 Distributions................ -- -- -- (19,922) -- -- (19,922) Change in division equity account.................... -- -- -- (4,505) -- -- (4,505) Unrealized gains (losses) on investments................ -- -- -- -- (2,015) -- (2,015) Currency translation adjustments................ -- -- -- -- -- 182 182 --- --- ------- -------- ------- ------- -------- BALANCE AT DECEMBER 31, 1995... 45 1 16,494 31,146 (2,050) (347) 45,289 Net income................... -- -- -- 32,922 -- -- 32,922 Distributions................ -- -- -- (15,123) -- -- (15,123) Change in division equity account.................... -- -- -- (16,605) -- -- (16,605) Unrealized gains (losses) on investments................ -- -- -- -- 464 -- 464 Currency translation adjustments................ -- -- -- -- -- (1,411) (1,411) Acquisition of AATS (Note 14)........................ -- -- 276 -- -- -- 276 --- --- ------- -------- ------- ------- -------- BALANCE AT DECEMBER 31, 1996... 45 1 16,770 32,340 (1,586) (1,758) 45,812 Net income................... -- -- -- 43,281 -- -- 43,281 Distributions................ -- -- -- (5,000) -- -- (5,000) Change in division equity account.................... -- -- 4,101 -- -- -- 4,101 Unrealized gains (losses) on investments................ -- -- -- -- 1,586 -- 1,586 Currency translation adjustments................ -- -- -- -- -- 1,095 1,095 --- --- ------- -------- ------- ------- -------- BALANCE AT DECEMBER 31, 1997... $45 $ 1 $20,871 $ 70,621 $ 0 $ (663) $ 90,875 === === ======= ======== ======= ======= ========
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. F-5 112 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. COMBINED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (IN THOUSANDS)
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ----------------------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 ----------- ----------- ----------- CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: Net income................................................ $ 61,932 $ 32,922 $ 43,281 Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities -- Depreciation and amortization........................... 26,614 57,825 81,864 Provision for accounts receivable....................... 444 1,271 3,490 Provision for excess and obsolete inventory............. 1,000 500 12,659 Deferred income taxes................................... (1,147) (324) (11,715) Equity (gain) loss of investees......................... (2,713) 605 16,779 (Gain) loss on sale of investments...................... 126 (139) (239) Minority interest....................................... 1,515 948 (6,644) Changes in assets and liabilities excluding effects of acquisitions -- Accounts receivable..................................... (53,264) (36,695) (19,802) Proceeds from accounts receivable sale.................. -- -- 90,700 Other receivables....................................... (2,565) (925) 1,547 Inventories............................................. (32,668) (16,380) (26,609) Due to/from affiliates, net............................. (3,001) (8,203) (19,138) Other current assets.................................... (4,764) 1,694 (7,239) Other non-current assets................................ (326) (6,108) 3,322 Accounts payable........................................ 35,017 (16,852) 60,939 Accrued expenses........................................ 17,687 (12,658) 13,817 Accrued taxes........................................... 404 7,433 14,130 Other long-term liabilities............................. 9,034 (108) (1,089) Other, net.............................................. -- 3,750 -- ----------- ----------- ----------- Net cash provided by operating activities.......... 53,325 8,556 250,053 ----------- ----------- ----------- CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: Purchases of property, plant and equipment, including purchase of AATS........................................ (123,645) (185,112) (178,990) Sale of property, plant and equipment..................... 110 2,228 1,413 Purchases of investments and issuances of notes receivable.............................................. (25,123) (15,633) (15,187) Proceeds from sale of investments......................... 351 520 -- ----------- ----------- ----------- Net cash used in investing activities.............. (148,307) (197,997) (192,764) ----------- ----------- ----------- CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: Net change in bank overdrafts and short-term borrowings... 41,308 64,852 52,393 Proceeds from issuance of Anam USA, Inc. debt............. 1,059,759 1,205,174 1,408,086 Payments of Anam USA, Inc. debt........................... (1,052,415) (1,189,317) (1,443,464) Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt.................. 50,080 102,193 11,389 Payments of long-term debt................................ (3,021) (3,138) (43,541) Distributions to stockholders............................. (20,003) (15,205) (5,000) Change in division equity account......................... (4,505) (16,605) 4,101 ----------- ----------- ----------- Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities....................................... 71,203 147,954 (16,036) ----------- ----------- ----------- NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS........ (23,779) (41,487) 41,253 CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, BEGINNING OF PERIOD.............. 114,930 91,151 49,664 ----------- ----------- ----------- CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, END OF PERIOD.................... $ 91,151 $ 49,664 $ 90,917 =========== =========== =========== SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION: Cash paid during the period for: Interest................................................ $ 12,594 $ 24,125 $ 37,070 Income taxes............................................ 495 2,256 3,022
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. F-6 113 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES Principles of Combination The combined financial statements of Amkor Technology, Inc. ("ATI") and its subsidiaries and AK Industries, Inc. and its subsidiary ("Amkor" or the "Company") include the accounts of the following (these companies are referred to as the "Amkor Companies"): - Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("AEI"), a U.S. S Corporation and its wholly owned subsidiaries Amkor Receivables Corp and Amkor Wafer Fabrication Services SARL (a French Limited Company). - T.L. Limited ("TLL") (a British Cayman Island Corporation) and its Philippine subsidiaries, Amkor Anam Advanced Packaging, Inc. ("AAAP") (wholly owned) and Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. ("AAP") (which is currently owned 60% by TLL and 40% by Anam Semiconductor Inc. which changed its name in 1998 from Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL"-- see Notes 11 and 16) and its wholly-owned subsidiary Automated MicroElectronics, Inc. ("AMI"); - C.I.L., Limited ("CIL") (a British Cayman Islands Corporation) and its wholly-owned subsidiary Amkor/Anam Euroservices S.A.R.L. ("AAES") (a French Corporation); - Amkor Anam Test Services, Inc. (a U.S. Corporation) (see Note 14); and - The semiconductor packaging and test business unit of Chamterry Enterprises, Ltd. ("Chamterry"). During the third quarter of 1997 Chamterry transferred its customers to AEI and CIL and ceased operations of its semiconductor and test business unit. - AK Industries, Inc. ("AKI") (a U.S. Corporation) and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Amkor-Anam, Inc. (a U.S. Corporation); All of the Amkor Companies are substantially wholly owned by Mr. and Mrs. James Kim or entities controlled by members of Mr. James Kim's immediate family (the "Founding Stockholders"), except for AAP which is 40% owned by AICL and one third of AEI and all of AKI which are owned by trusts established for the benefit of other members of Mr. James Kim's family ("Kim Family Trusts"). The Amkor Companies are an interdependent group of companies involved in the same business under the direction of common management. ATI was formed in September 1997 to facilitate the Reorganization and consolidate the ownership of the Amkor Companies. In connection with the Reorganization, AEI was merged into ATI. Amkor International Holdings ("AIH") a newly formed Cayman Islands holding company became a wholly owned subsidiary of ATI. AIH holds the following entities: First Amkor Caymans, Inc. ("FACI"), a newly formed holding company, and its subsidiaries AAAP and AAP and AAP's subsidiary AMI, TLL and its subsidiary CIL and CIL's subsidiary AAES. The relative number of shares of common stock issued by the Company in connection with each of the transactions comprising the Reorganization was based upon the relative amounts of stockholders' equity at December 31, 1997. In exchange for their interests in AEI, Mr. and Mrs. James Kim and the Kim Family Trusts received two-thirds (9,746,760 shares) and one-third (4,873,380 shares) of the ATI common stock then outstanding, respectively. ATI then issued 67,989,851 shares of common stock, representing approximately 82% of its shares immediately after the Reorganization, in exchange for all of the outstanding shares of AIH and its subsidiaries. Of such shares, 27,528,234 shares and, 36,376,617 shares were gifted to Mr. and Mrs. James Kim and the Kim Family Trusts, respectively, such that Mr. and Mrs. James Kim and the Kim Family Trusts own 45.1% and 49.9%, respectively, of the ATI common shares outstanding after the Reorganization. Following such transactions the Founding Stockholders beneficially owned a majority of the outstanding shares of ATI common stock. In addition, ATI acquired all of the stock of AKI from the Kim Family Trusts for $3,000. The merger of AEI and ATI, the creation of AIH and FACI, the issuance of ATI common stock for AIH and the acquisition of AKI are collectively referred to as the Reorganization. F-7 114 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) Included within the Amkor Companies following the Reorganization are ATI, AIH and its subsidiaries and AKI and its subsidiary. All of the subsidiaries are wholly owned except for 40% of the common stock of AAP which is owned by AICL (see Note 16), and a small number of shares of each of AAP, AAAP and AMI which are required to be owned by directors of these companies pursuant to Philippine law. Except for the acquisition of the shares of AKI which has been accounted for as a purchase transaction, the Reorganization described above was treated similar to a pooling of interests as it represents an exchange of equity interests among companies under common control. The purchase price for the AKI stock, which represents the fair value of these shares, approximates the book value of AKI. The financial statements are presented on a combined basis as a result of the common ownership and business operations of all of the Amkor Companies, including AKI. As a result of the acquisition of AKI, AKI became a wholly owned subsidiary of ATI; accordingly, future financial statements will be presented for ATI and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. The financial statements reflect the elimination of all significant intercompany accounts and transactions. The investments in and the operating results of 20%- to 50%-owned companies are included in the combined financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Basis of Presentation The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis which contemplates realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. At December 31, 1997 the Company was not in compliance with certain restrictive covenants of its principal long-term debt agreements and, as a result, amounts due under these agreements are required to be classified as current liabilities in the combined balance sheet. Consequently, at December 31, 1997, current liabilities exceeded current assets by $196,870. To date, the Company has not received any notification that the Company's repayment obligations with respect to these loans have been accelerated as a result of such covenant violations. However, there is no assurance that the Company could generate sufficient cash flow from operations or other sources to satisfy these liabilities should they become due before maturity. If the planned public offering of common stock and convertible debt is successful (see Note 16), the Company will use part of the net proceeds to the Company to repay these bank loans. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties. Nature of Operations The Company provides semiconductor packaging and test services to semiconductor and computer manufacturers located in strategic markets throughout the world. Such services are provided by the Company and by AICL under a long-standing arrangement. Approximately 79%, 72% and 68% of the Company's packaging and test revenues in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively, relate to the packaging and test services provided by AICL. Concentrations of Credit Risk Financial instruments, for which the Company is subject to credit risk, consist principally of trade receivables. The Company has mitigated this risk by selling primarily to well established companies, performing ongoing credit evaluations and making frequent contact with customers. At December 31, 1996 and 1997, the Company maintained $34,330 and $53,071, respectively, in deposits at one U.S. financial institution and $1,861 and $2,548, respectively, in deposits at U.S. banks which exceeded federally insured limits. F-8 115 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) Additionally, at December 31, 1996 and 1997, the Company maintained deposits and certificates of deposits totaling approximately $14,649 and $34,622, respectively, at foreign owned banks. Significant Customers The Company has a number of major customers in North America, Asia and Europe. The Company's largest customer, Intel Corporation, accounted for approximately 13.3%, 23.5% and 23.4% of net revenues in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company's five largest customers collectively accounted for 34.1%, 39.2% and 40.1% of net revenues in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company anticipates that significant customer concentration will continue for the foreseeable future, although the companies which constitute the Company's largest customers may change. Risks and Uncertainties The Company's future results of operations involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Factors that could affect the Company's future operating results and cause actual results to vary materially from expectations include, but are not limited to, dependence on the highly cyclical nature of both the semiconductor and the personal computer industries, competitive pricing and declines in average selling prices, risks associated with leverage, dependence on the Company's relationship with and the financial support provided by AICL (see Note 11), reliance on a small group of principal customers, timing and volume of orders relative to the Company's production capacity, availability of manufacturing capacity and fluctuations in manufacturing yields, availability of financing, competition, dependence on international operations and sales, dependence on raw material and equipment suppliers, exchange rate fluctuations, dependence on key personnel, difficulties in managing growth, enforcement of intellectual property rights, environmental regulations and fluctuations in quarterly operating results. Foreign Currency Translation Substantially all of the Company's foreign subsidiaries use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Accordingly, monetary assets and liabilities which were originally denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars at month-end exchange rates. Non-monetary items which were originally denominated in foreign currencies are translated at historical rates. Gains and losses from such transactions and from transactions denominated in foreign currencies are included in other (income) expense, net. The cumulative translation adjustment reflected in stockholders' equity in the combined balance sheets relates primarily to investments in unconsolidated companies which use the local currency as the functional currency (see Note 6). Cash and Cash Equivalents The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Accounts Receivable At December 31, 1997, trade accounts receivable represent the Company's interest in receivables sold in excess of amounts purchased by banks under an accounts receivable sale agreement (see Note 2). Of the total net trade accounts receivable amount at December 31, 1997, $19,905 relates to the trade accounts receivable of CIL which were not sold under the Agreement. Inventories Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined principally by using a moving average method. F-9 116 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is calculated by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of depreciable assets. Accelerated methods are used for tax purposes. Depreciable lives follow: Building and improvements............................. 10 to 30 years Machinery and equipment............................... 3 to 5 years Furniture, fixtures, and other equipment.............. 3 to 10 years
Cost and accumulated depreciation for property retired or disposed of are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in earnings. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation expense was $27,381, $58,497 and $81,159 for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. Other Noncurrent Assets Other noncurrent assets consist principally of security deposits, deferred income taxes and the cash surrender value of life insurance policies. Other Noncurrent Liabilities Other noncurrent liabilities consist primarily of pension obligations and noncurrent income taxes payable. Income Taxes The Company accounts for income taxes following the provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 109, "Accounting for Income Taxes," which requires the use of the liability method. If it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is provided. The Company reports certain income and expense items for income tax purposes on a basis different from that reflected in the accompanying combined financial statements. The principal differences relate to the timing of the recognition of accrued expenses which are not deductible for federal income tax purposes until paid, the use of accelerated methods of depreciation for income tax purposes and unrecognized foreign exchange gains and losses. AEI elected to be taxed as an S Corporation under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and comparable state tax provisions. As a result, AEI does not recognize U.S. federal corporate income taxes. Instead, the stockholders of AEI are taxed on their proportionate share of AEI's taxable income. Accordingly, no provision for U.S. federal income taxes was recorded for AEI. Given the pending Offerings (see Note 16), for informational purposes, the accompanying combined statements of income include an unaudited pro forma adjustment to reflect income taxes which would have been recorded if AEI had not been an S Corporation, based on the tax laws in effect during the respective periods (see Note 17). Earnings Per Share The pro forma net income per common share was calculated by dividing the pro forma net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding for the respective periods, adjusted for the effect of the Reorganization (see Note 16). In the fourth quarter of 1997, the Company adopted SFAS No. 128, "Earnings Per Share," which requires dual presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share on the face of the income statement. Basic F-10 117 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) EPS is computed using only the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period while diluted EPS is computed assuming conversion of all dilutive securities, such as options. In accordance with the statement, all prior period per share amounts have been revised to reflect the new presentation. The Company's basic and diluted per share amounts are the same for all periods presented. There have been no changes to historical per share amounts. Revenue Recognition and Risk of Loss The Company records revenues upon shipment of packaged semiconductors to its customers. The Company does not take ownership of customer-supplied semiconductors. Title and risk of loss remains with the customer for these materials at all times. Risk of loss for Amkor packaging costs passes upon completion of the packaging process and shipment to the customer. Accordingly, the cost of the customer-supplied materials is not included in the combined statements of income. Research and Development Costs Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Recently Issued Accounting Standards In June 1997, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued SFAS No. 130, "Reporting Comprehensive Income." This statement establishes standards for reporting and display of income and its components in financial statements. The Company will be required to adopt this statement in 1998. In June 1997, the FASB issued SFAS No. 131, "Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information." Under this statement, reporting standards were established for the way that public business enterprises report information about operating segments in annual financial statements and selected information about operating segments in interim financial reports issued to shareholders. Generally, financial information is required to be reported on the basis that it is used internally for evaluating segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources to segments. This statement is effective for financial statements for periods beginning after December 15, 1997. In the initial year of application, comparative information for earlier years presented is to be restated. This statement need not be applied to interim financial statements in the initial year of its application, but comparative information for interim periods in the initial year of application is to be reported in financial statements for interim periods in the second year of application. The Company will adopt this statement prospectively for the year ended December 31, 1998. Reclassifications Certain previously reported amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current presentation. 2. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SALE AGREEMENT Effective July 7, 1997, the Company entered into an agreement to sell receivables (the "Agreement") with certain banks (the "Purchasers"). The transaction qualifies as a sale under the provisions of SFAS F-11 118 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) No. 125 "Accounting For Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Extinguishments of Liabilities." Under the Agreement, the Purchasers have committed to purchase, with limited recourse, all right, title and interest in selected accounts receivable of the Company, up to a maximum of $100,000. In connection with the Agreement, the Company established a wholly owned, bankruptcy remote subsidiary, Amkor Receivables Corp., to purchase accounts receivable at a discount from the Company on a continuous basis, subject to certain limitations as described in the Agreement. Amkor Receivables Corp. simultaneously sells the accounts receivable at the same discount to the Purchasers. AICL has guaranteed AEI's obligations under the Agreement (see Note 11). The Agreement is structured as a three year facility subject to annual renewals based upon the mutual consent of the Company and purchasers. The first such renewal date is June 18, 1998. The Company and AICL did not comply with certain financial covenants under the Agreement as of December 31, 1997. The Purchasers have agreed to waive compliance with these covenants through January 2, 1999. The Company applied approximately $83.4 million of the Receivables Sale proceeds together with approximately $17 million of working capital to reduce the Company's indebtedness to AUSA which amounts were advanced by AUSA to entities controlled by members of James Kim's family. Proceeds from the sale of receivables were $84,400 in 1997. Losses on receivables sold under the Agreement were approximately $2,414 in 1997 and are included in other expense, net. As of December 31, 1997, approximately $6,300 is included in current liabilities for amounts to be refunded to the Purchasers as a result of a reduction in selected accounts receivable. 3. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Property, plant and equipment consist of the following:
DECEMBER 31, -------------------- 1996 1997 -------- -------- Land........................................... $ -- $ 2,346 Building and improvements...................... 81,602 109,528 Machinery and equipment........................ 333,188 448,032 Furniture, fixtures and other equipment........ 31,330 33,050 Construction in progress....................... 5,240 31,964 -------- -------- 451,360 624,920 Less -- Accumulated depreciation and amortization................................. 126,465 197,859 -------- -------- $324,895 $427,061 ======== ========
4. COMMON STOCK AND ADDITIONAL PAID-IN CAPITAL The common stock and additional paid-in-capital of the Company are reflected at the original cost of the Amkor Companies. In connection with the Reorganization, the Company authorized 500,000,000 shares of $.001 par value common stock, of which 82,610,000 shares were issued to the stockholders of the Amkor Companies in exchange for their interests in these Companies. In addition, the Company authorized 10,000,000 shares of $.001 par value preferred stock, designated as Series A. Changes in the division equity account reflected in the combined statement of stockholders' equity represent the net cash flows resulting from the operations of the Chamterry semiconductor packaging and test business for the periods indicated. Such cash flows have been presented as distributions or capital contributions since these amounts were retained in Chamterry Enterprises, Ltd. for the benefit of the owners. F-12 119 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 5. INVENTORIES Inventories consist of raw materials and purchased components which are used in the semiconductor packaging process. The Company's inventories are located at its facilities in the Philippines or at AICL on a consignment basis. Components of inventories follow:
DECEMBER 31, -------------------- 1996 1997 -------- -------- Raw materials and purchased components......... $ 93,112 $105,748 Work-in-process................................ 8,808 10,122 -------- -------- $101,920 $115,870 ======== ========
6. INVESTMENTS The Company's investments include investments in affiliated companies which provide services to the Company (see Note 11) and certain other technology based companies. Investments are summarized as follows:
DECEMBER 31, ------------------ 1996 1997 ------- ------- Equity Investment in AICL (10.2% and 8.1% at December 31, 1996 and 1997, respectively)...... $31,154 $13,863 ------- ------- Other Equity Investments (20%-50% owned) Anam Semiconductor & Technology Co., Ltd....... 10,700 -- Datacom International, Inc..................... 1,335 -- Sunrise Capital Fund........................... 1,328 -- Other.......................................... 1,373 738 ------- ------- Total other equity investments......... 14,736 738 ------- ------- Available for Sale (cost based investments)...... 23,354 5,220 ------- ------- $69,244 $19,821 ======= =======
The Company had net unamortized investment costs in excess of the proportionate share of the investee companies' net assets of approximately $1,284 and $0 at December 31, 1996 and 1997, respectively. On August 1, 1997, the Company sold its equity investment in Anam Semiconductor & Technology Co., Ltd. ("Anam S&T") and certain investments and notes receivable from companies unrelated to the semiconductor packaging and test business to AK Investments, Inc., an entity owned by James J. Kim, at cost ($49,740) and AK Investments, Inc. assumed $49,740 of the Company's long-term borrowings from Anam USA, Inc. Management estimates that the fair value of these investments and notes receivable approximated the carrying value at August 1, 1997. Subsequent to the sale on August 1, 1997 the Company loaned AK Investments, Inc. $12,800 for the purchase of additional investments. The amount outstanding on this loan at December 31, 1997 was $4,350. The Company's investment in AICL is accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Although the Company does not own in excess of 20% of the outstanding common stock of AICL, the Company through its common ownership with the Kim family and entities controlled by the Kim family owns 40.7% of the outstanding common stock of AICL and may exercise a significant influence over AICL. Accordingly the Company applies the equity method based on its ownership interest. A significant portion of the shares owned by the Kim family are leveraged and as a result of this, or for other reasons, the family's ownership could be substantially reduced. F-13 120 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) In 1997, the Company recognized a loss of $17,291, resulting principally from the impairment of value of its investment in AICL as well as the current year equity in income (loss) of AICL. The amount of the loss was determined based upon the market value of the AICL shares on the Korean Stock Exchange on February 16, 1998, the date that the Company sold its investment in AICL common stock to AK Investments, Inc. In exchange for the shares, AK Investments, Inc. assumed $13,863 of the Company's long-term borrowings from Anam USA, Inc. The Company is advised that AICL, as a public company in Korea, has published its most recent consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 1997. The Korean economy is undergoing changes as evidenced by the agreement between the Korean government and the International Monetary Fund. Among other things, this agreement includes a restructuring plan of the banking industry as a whole which will most likely have a material effect on AICL's operations. The overall impact of these economic changes on AICL is uncertain at this time. AICL's independent auditors' report indicates that the financial statements of AICL have been prepared assuming that AICL will continue as a going concern. The operations of AICL have been significantly affected, and will continue to be affected for the foreseeable future, by Korea's unstable economy caused by currency volatility and unstable finance markets in Korea. AICL has traditionally operated with a significant amount of debt relative to its equity and has a significant working capital deficit at December 31, 1997. Because of Korea's unstable economy and AICL's dependence on debt financing, the report indicates that there are significant uncertainties that may affect AICL's future operations and its abilities to maintain or refinance certain debt obligations as they mature, which raise substantial doubt regarding AICL's ability to continue as a going concern. The ultimate outcome of these uncertainties cannot be determined presently and AICL's financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from these uncertainties. AICL's plans to address these matters are included in the notes to the AICL's financial statements. AICL's financial statements are prepared on the basis of Korean GAAP, which differs from U.S. GAAP in certain significant respects. The Company's equity in income (loss) of AICL is based upon the Korean GAAP information noted above and the Company's estimate of significant U.S. GAAP adjustments. These adjustments were not significant in 1995 and 1996. In 1997, AICL recognized a W349 billion loss principally as a result of foreign exchange losses on U.S. dollar denominated liabilities due to the significant depreciation of the won relative to the U.S. dollar. For purposes of determining the Company's equity in income (loss) of AICL under U.S. GAAP, losses on remeasuring U.S. dollar denominated liabilities are not recognized as the U.S. dollar is the functional currency for AICL. Such U.S. dollar denominated liabilities were W2,144 billion at December 31, 1997. Also, at December 31, 1997, the carrying value of the investment in AICL, adjusted for the loss on the 1998 disposition discussed above, is less than the Company's portion of AICL's net assets after consideration of the estimated U.S. GAAP adjustments. The most significant such adjustment affecting net assets is the remeasurement of property, plant and equipment to historical costs as required as the U.S. dollar is the functional currency. The following summary of consolidated financial information pertaining to AICL was derived from the consolidated financial statements referred to above. All amounts are in millions of Korean Won:
1995 1996 1997 ---------- ---------- ---------- SUMMARY INCOME STATEMENT INFORMATION: Sales........................................ W1,105,273 W1,338,718 W1,786,457 Net income (loss)............................ 18,333 (9,385) (348,729) SUMMARY BALANCE SHEET INFORMATION: Total assets................................. 2,225,288 3,936,030 Total liabilities............................ 1,975,431 3,834,096
F-14 121 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 7. SHORT-TERM CREDIT FACILITIES At December 31, 1996 and 1997, short-term borrowings consisted of various operating lines of credit and working capital facilities maintained by the Company. These borrowings are secured by receivables, inventories or property. These facilities, which are typically for one-year renewable terms, generally bear interest at current market rates appropriate for the country in which the borrowing is made (ranging from 7.2% to 13.0% at December 31, 1997). For 1996 and 1997, the weighted average interest rate on these borrowings was 7.8% and 8.6%, respectively. Included in cash and cash equivalents is $1,200 of certificates of deposit pledged as collateral for certain of these lines. The unused portion of lines of credit total $36,169 at December 31, 1997. 8. DEBT Following is a summary of the Company's short-term borrowings and long-term debt:
DECEMBER 31, ---------------------- 1996 1997 --------- --------- Short-term borrowings (see Note 7).......................... $ 150,513 $ 187,659 Bank loan, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (6.78% at December 31, 1997), due October, 2000..................... 50,000 50,000 Bank loan, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (6.68% at December 31, 1997), due in installments beginning March, 1998 through April, 2001.................................. 71,250 71,250 Floating rate notes (FRNs), interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (7.38% at August 20, 1997, date of redemption)..... 40,000 -- Bank debt, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (9.37% at December 31, 1997), due December, 2001.................... 20,000 20,000 Bank debt, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (12.22% at December 31, 1997,) due October, 1998..................... 5,000 5,000 Bank debt, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (9.09% at December 31, 1997), due in installments with balance due September, 1999........................................... 4,000 3,500 Bank debt, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (11.88% at December 31, 1997), due in equal installments through January, 2001............................................. 5,926 5,502 Note payable, interest at prime (8.50% at December 31, 1997), due in semiannual installments beginning November 1999 through April, 2004.................................. -- 9,530 Note payable, interest at LIBOR plus annual spread (12.48% at December 31, 1997), due in installments with balance due November, 1999........................................ 11,000 9,000 Other, primarily capital lease obligations and other debt... 1,568 2,810 --------- --------- 359,257 364,251 Less -- Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt............................................ (191,813) (325,968) --------- --------- $ 167,444 $ 38,283 ========= =========
The Bank loans were obtained to finance the expansion of the Company's factories in the Philippines. The Company has the option to prepay all or part of the loans on any interest payment date. These Bank loans are unconditionally and irrevocably guaranteed by AICL. The Bank loans contain provisions pertaining to the maintenance of specified debt-to-equity ratios, restrictions with respect to corporate reorganization, acquisition of capital stock or substantially all of the assets of any other corporations and advances and dispositions of all F-15 122 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) or a substantial portion of the borrower's assets, except in the ordinary course of business. AAP has not been in compliance with covenants regarding the maintenance of certain debt-to-equity ratios and advances to affiliates. Consequently, amounts due under these agreements and certain other agreements with cross-default clauses have been classified as current liabilities in the accompanying combined balance sheet. Other bank debt instruments have interest rates based on Singapore interbank rates and LIBOR plus an annual spread. The loans are secured by assets of the Company and assets acquired through proceeds from the loans. Principal payments required under long-term debt borrowings at December 31, 1997 are as follows:
AMOUNT -------- 1998.............................................. $138,309 1999.............................................. 9,153 2000.............................................. 2,360 2001.............................................. 22,003 2002.............................................. 1,905 Thereafter........................................ 2,862 -------- Total............................................. $176,592 ========
9. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS U.S. Pension Plans AEI has a defined contribution benefit plan covering substantially all U.S. employees under which AEI matches 75% of the employee's contributions of between 6% and 10% of salary, up to a defined maximum on an annual basis. The pension expense for this plan was $483, $776 and $959 in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The pension plan assets are invested primarily in equity and fixed income securities. Philippine Pension Plans AAAP, AAP and AMI sponsor several defined benefit plans that cover substantially all employees who are not covered by statutory plans. Charges to expense are based upon costs computed by independent actuaries. The components of net periodic pension cost for the defined benefit plans are as follows:
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, -------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 ------ ------ ------ Service cost of current period................... $ 974 $1,542 $1,274 Interest cost on projected benefit obligation.... 811 1,228 957 Actual return on plan assets..................... (609) (677) (585) Net amortization and deferrals................... 100 98 132 ------ ------ ------ Total pension expense.................. $1,276 $2,191 $1,778 ====== ====== ======
It is the Company's policy to make contributions sufficient to meet the minimum contributions required by law and regulation. F-16 123 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) The following table sets forth the funded status and the amounts recognized in the combined balance sheets for the defined benefit pension plans:
1996 1997 ------- ------- Actuarial present value of: Vested benefit obligation.............................. $ 1,696 $ 1,546 ======= ======= Accumulated benefit obligation......................... $ 2,848 $ 2,669 ======= ======= Actuarial present value of projected benefit obligation............................................. $12,699 10,428 Plan assets at fair value................................ 6,077 6,614 ------- ------- Plan assets less than projected benefit obligation....... (6,622) (3,814) Prior service cost....................................... 1,125 967 Unrecognized net loss.................................... 1,800 953 ------- ------- Accrued pension cost..................................... $(3,697) $(1,894) ======= =======
The weighted average interest rate used in determining the projected benefit obligation was 12% as of December 31, 1996 and 1997. The rates of increase in future compensation levels was 11% as of December 31, 1996 and 1997. The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets was 12% as of December 31, 1996 and 1997. 10. INCOME TAXES The provision for income taxes includes federal, state and foreign taxes currently payable and those deferred because of temporary differences between the financial statement and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. The components of the provision for income taxes follow:
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, --------------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 -------- -------- --------- Current: Federal....................................... $6,125 $5,880 $16,126 State......................................... 908 60 2,639 Foreign....................................... 498 2,260 28 ------ ------ ------- 7,531 8,200 18,793 ------ ------ ------- Deferred: Federal....................................... (173) (226) (4,991) Foreign....................................... (974) (98) (6,724) ------ ------ ------- (1,147) (324) (11,715) ------ ------ ------- Total provision....................... $6,384 $7,876 $ 7,078 ====== ====== =======
F-17 124 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) The reconciliation between the tax payable based upon the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate and the recorded provision follow:
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, ------------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 -------- ------- -------- Federal statutory rate...................... $ 23,458 $15,054 $ 21,352 State taxes, net of federal benefit......... 908 60 1,285 S Corp. status of AEI....................... (10,400) (2,900) (3,613) (Income) losses of foreign subsidiaries subject to tax holiday.................... -- 4,957 (5,106) Foreign exchange losses recognized for income taxes.............................. (1,649) -- (21,147) Valuation allowance......................... 22,000 Difference in rates on foreign subsidiaries.............................. (5,933) (9,295) (7,693) -------- ------- -------- Total............................. $ 6,384 $ 7,876 $ 7,078 ======== ======= ========
The Company has structured its global operations to take advantage of lower tax rates in certain countries and tax incentives extended to encourage investment. AAP had a tax holiday in the Philippines which expired in 1995. AAAP has a tax holiday in the Philippines which expires at the end of 2002. Foreign exchange losses recognized for income taxes relate to unrecognized net foreign exchange losses on U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities. These losses, which are not recognized for financial reporting purposes as the U.S. dollar is the functional currency (see Note 1), result in deferred tax assets that will be realized, for Philippine tax reporting purposes, upon settlement of the related asset or liability. The deferred tax asset related to these losses increased in 1997 as a result of the dramatic devaluation of the Philippine peso relative to the U.S. dollar. The Company's ability to utilize these assets depends on the timing of the settlement of the related assets or liabilities and the amount of taxable income recognized within the Philippine statutory carryforward limit of three years. Accordingly, a valuation allowance has been established in 1997 for a portion of the related deferred tax assets. The following is a summary of the significant components of the Company's deferred tax assets and liabilities:
DECEMBER 31, ------------------ 1996 1997 ------ -------- Deferred tax assets (liabilities): Retirement benefits.................................... $ 888 $ 816 Receivables............................................ 344 227 Inventories............................................ 1,057 6,509 Unrealized foreign exchange losses..................... 398 37,447 Unrealized foreign exchange gains...................... (614) (9,084) Other.................................................. 225 98 ------ -------- Net deferred tax asset................................. 2,298 36,013 Valuation allowance.................................... -- (22,000) ------ -------- Net deferred tax asset................................. $2,298 $ 14,013 ====== ========
Non-U.S. income before taxes and minority interest of the Company was $23,800, $20,420 and $32,920 in 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. F-18 125 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) At December 31, 1996 and 1997 current deferred tax assets of $1,919 and $13,439, respectively, are included in other current assets and noncurrent deferred tax assets of $379 and $574, respectively, are included in other assets in the combined balance sheet. The Company's net deferred tax assets include amounts which management believes are realizable through future taxable income. The Company's tax returns have been examined through 1993 in the Philippines and through 1994 in the U.S. The recorded provision for open years is subject to changes upon final examination of these tax returns. Changes in the mix of income from the Company's foreign subsidiaries, expiration of tax holidays and changes in tax laws or regulations could result in increased effective tax rates for the Company. At December 31, 1997, the financial reporting basis of AEI's net assets were greater than the tax basis of the net assets by approximately $5,200. In connection with the Offerings, the Company and the stockholders of AEI will enter into a Tax Indemnification Agreement providing that the Company and AEI will be indemnified by such stockholders, with respect to their proportionate share of any federal or state corporate income taxes attributable to the failure of AEI to qualify as an S Corporation for any period or in any jurisdiction for which S Corporation status was claimed through the date AEI terminates its S Corporation status. The Tax Indemnification Agreement will also provide that the Company and AEI will indemnify the stockholders if such stockholders are required to include in income additional amounts attributable to taxable years on or before the date AEI terminates its S Corporation status as to which AEI filed or files tax returns claiming status as an S Corporation. 11. RELATED-PARTY TRANSACTIONS At December 31, 1997, the Company owned 8.1% of the outstanding stock of AICL (see Note 6), and AICL owned 40% of AAP. After the Offerings (see Note 16) the Company intends to purchase AICL's interest in AAP for approximately $34,000. In 1996 and 1997, approximately 72% and 68%, respectively, of the Company's net revenues (see Note 1) were derived from services performed for the Company by AICL, a Korean public company in which the Company and certain of the Company's principal stockholders hold a minority interest. By the terms of a long-standing agreement, the Company has been responsible for marketing and selling AICL's semiconductor packaging and test services, except to customers in Korea and certain customers in Japan to whom AICL has historically sold such services directly. The Company has worked closely with AICL in developing new technologies and products. The Company has recently entered into five-year supply agreements with AICL giving the Company the first right to market and sell substantially all of AICL's packaging and test services and the exclusive right to market and sell all of the wafer output of AICL's new wafer foundry. The Company's business, financial condition and operating results have been and will continue to be significantly dependent on the ability of AICL to effectively provide the contracted services on a cost-efficient and timely basis. The termination of the Company's relationship with AICL for any reason, or any material adverse change in AICL's business resulting from underutilization of its capacity, the level of its debt and its guarantees of affiliate debt, labor disruptions, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in governmental policies, economic or political conditions in Korea or any other change could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company has obtained a significant portion of its financing from financing arrangements provided by Anam USA, Inc. ("AUSA"), AICL's wholly-owned financing subsidiary. A majority of the amount due to AUSA represents outstanding amounts under financing obtained by AUSA for the benefit of the Company with the balance representing payables to AUSA for packaging and service charges paid to AICL. Based on guarantees provided by AICL, AUSA obtains for the benefit of the Company a continuous series of short-term financing arrangements which generally are less than six months in duration, and typically are less than two months in duration. Because of the short-term nature of these loans, the flows of cash to and from AUSA under this arrangement are significant. Purchases from AICL through AUSA were $354,062, $460,282 and F-19 126 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) $527,858 for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. Charges from AUSA for interest and bank charges were $4,484, $7,074 and $6,002 for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. Amounts payable to AICL and AUSA were $252,221, and $156,350 at December 31, 1996 and 1997, respectively. AICL's ability to continue to provide services to the Company will depend on AICL's financial condition and performance. AICL currently has a significant amount of debt relative to its equity, which debt the Company expects will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The Company is advised that AICL, as a public company in Korea, has published its most recent annual consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 1997. These consolidated financial statements are prepared on the basis of Korean GAAP, which differs from U.S. GAAP. U.S. GAAP financial statements are not available (See Note 6). As of December 31, 1997, AICL, on a consolidated basis, had current liabilities of approximately W2,124 billion, including approximately W1,721 billion of short-term borrowings and approximately W121 billion of current maturities of long-term debt, and had long-term liabilities of approximately W1,710 billion, including approximately W737 billion of long-term debt and approximately W862 billion of long-term capital lease obligations. As of such date, the total shareholders' equity of AICL amounted to approximately W77 billion. The deterioration of the Korean economy in recent months and the resulting liquidity crisis in Korea have led to sharply higher domestic interest rates and reduced opportunities for refinancing or refunding maturing debts as financial institutions in Korea, which are experiencing financial difficulties, are increasingly looking to limit their lending, particularly to highly leveraged companies, and to increase their reserves and provisions for non-performing assets. Therefore, there can be no assurance that AICL will be able to refinance its existing loans or obtain new loans, or continue to make required interest and principal payments on such loans or otherwise comply with the terms of its loan agreements. Any inability of AICL to obtain financing or generate cash flow from operations sufficient to fund its capital expenditure, debt service and repayment and other working capital and liquidity requirements could have a material adverse effect on AICL's ability to continue to provide services and otherwise fulfill its obligations to the Company. As of December 31, 1997, AICL and its consolidated subsidiaries were contingently liable under guarantees in respect of debt of its non-consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates in the aggregate amount of approximately W857 billion. As of December 31, 1997, such guarantees included those in respect of all of AUSA's debt totaling $319,200, $176,250 of the Company's debt to banks and the Company's obligations under a receivables sales arrangement (see Note 2). The Company has met a significant portion of its financing needs through financing arrangements obtained by AUSA for the benefit of the Company based on guarantees provided by AICL. There can be no assurance that AUSA will be able to obtain additional guarantees, if necessary, from AICL. Further, a deterioration in AICL's financial condition could trigger defaults under AICL's guarantees, causing acceleration of such loans. In addition, as an overseas subsidiary of AICL, AUSA was formed with the approval of the Bank of Korea. If the Bank of Korea were to withdraw such approval, or if AUSA otherwise ceased operations for any reason, the Company and AICL would be required to meet their financing needs through alternative arrangements. There can be no assurance that the Company or AICL will be able to obtain alternative financing on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, if any relevant subsidiaries or affiliates of AICL were to fail to make interest or principal payments or otherwise default under their debt obligations guaranteed by AICL, AICL could be required under its guarantees to repay such debt, which event could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations. Anam Engineering and Construction, an affiliate of AICL, built the packaging facility for AAAP in the Philippines. Payments to Anam Engineering and Construction were $22,167 and $3,844 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Anam Precision Equipment and Anam Instruments manufacture certain equipment used by the Philippine operations. Payments to Anam Precision Equipment and Anam Instruments were $6,652 and $4,211 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company purchases direct materials from Anam S&T. Payments to Anam S&T were approximately $16,400, $27,300 and $26,000 during 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. F-20 127 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) During 1996, the Company extended guarantees on behalf of an affiliate to vendors used by this affiliate. Outstanding guarantees as of December 31, 1996 and 1997 were $25,100 and $24,655 respectively. Amounts guaranteed under this agreement fluctuate due to the cyclical nature of the affiliate's retail business. Balances guaranteed at December 31 are generally the largest. The Company has executed a surety and guarantee agreement on behalf of an affiliate. The Company has unconditionally guaranteed the affiliate's obligation under a $17,000 line of credit and a $9,000 term loan note. As of December 31, 1997, there was $750 outstanding under the line of credit and $9,000 outstanding under the term loan note. The Company has also unconditionally guaranteed another affiliate's obligation under a $4,000 term loan agreement and a $1,000 line of credit. As of December 31, 1997, there was $3,800 outstanding under the term loan and no amounts outstanding under the line of credit. A principal stockholder of the Company has extended guarantees on behalf of the Company in the amount of $87,000 at December 31, 1997. Also in 1997, a company controlled by this stockholder purchased investments in the amount of $49,740 (see Note 6). The Company leases office space in West Chester, PA from certain stockholders of the Company. The lease expires in 2006. The Company has the option to extend the lease for an additional 10 years through 2016. On September 11, 1997, the office previously being leased in Chandler, Arizona was purchased from certain stockholders of the Company. The total purchase price of the building ($5,710) represents the carrying value to the stockholders. Amounts paid for these leases in 1996 and 1997 were $1,343 and $1,458, respectively. At December 31, 1996 and 1997, the Company had advances and notes receivable from affiliates other than AICL and AUSA of $22,988 and $36,501, respectively. Realization of these notes is dependent upon the ability of the affiliates to repay the notes. In management's opinion, these receivables are recorded at the net realizable value. 12. FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS The estimated fair value of financial instruments has been determined by the Company using available market information and appropriate methodologies; however, considerable judgment is required in interpreting market data to develop the estimates for fair value. Accordingly, these estimates are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that the Company could realize in a current market exchange. Certain of these financial instruments are with major financial institutions and expose the Company to market and credit risks and may at times be concentrated with certain counterparties or groups of counterparties. The creditworthiness of counterparties is continually reviewed, and full performance is anticipated. The methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of significant classes of financial instruments is set forth below: Available for sale investments. The fair value of these financial instruments was estimated based on market quotes, recent offerings of similar securities, current and projected financial performance of the company and net asset positions. Short-term borrowings. Short-term borrowings have variable rates that reflect currently available terms and conditions for similar borrowings. The carrying amount of this debt is a reasonable estimate of fair value. Long-term debt and due to affiliates. Long-term debt and due to affiliates have variable rates that reflect currently available terms and conditions for similar debt. The carrying amount of this debt is a reasonable estimate of fair value. F-21 128 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 13. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES The Company is involved in various claims incidental to the conduct of its business. Based on consultation with legal counsel, management does not believe that any claims to which the Company is a party will have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition or results of operations. Future minimum lease payments under operating leases that have initial or remaining noncancelable lease terms in excess of one year at December 31, 1997, are: 1998............................................... $ 7,805 1999............................................... 7,230 2000............................................... 6,463 2001............................................... 5,689 2002............................................... 2,338 Thereafter......................................... 36,404 ------- Total.................................... $65,929 =======
Rent expense amounted to $3,692, $5,520 and $6,709 for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Company has various purchase commitments for materials, supplies and capital equipment incidental to the ordinary conduct of business. As of December 31, 1997 the Company had commitments for capital equipment of approximately $27,000. In the aggregate, such commitments are not at prices in excess of current market. 14. ACQUISITION OF AMKOR ANAM TEST SERVICES, INC. On September 30, 1996, AEI and a principal stockholder each acquired 50% of the outstanding common stock of Amkor Anam Test Services, Inc. (AATS), formerly Navell Test Consultants, Inc., a provider of test engineering services for the semiconductor industry located in San Jose, California, for approximately $2,860. Subsequent to September 30, 1996, AEI purchased the 50% interest owned by a principal stockholder at the stockholder's original cost. The acquisition was accounted for using the purchase method of accounting and the results of AATS' operations are included in the Company's combined statements of income effective October 1, 1996. Accordingly, the total purchase price has been allocated to the combined assets and liabilities based upon their estimated respective fair values. This acquisition resulted in goodwill of approximately $2,356, which is being amortized over 20 years. F-22 129 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 15. BUSINESS SEGMENT AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION The Company is primarily engaged in one industry segment, namely, the packaging and testing of integrated circuits. Financial information, summarized by geographic area, is as follows:
UNITED STATES EUROPE PHILIPPINES ELIMINATIONS COMBINED ---------- -------- ----------- ------------ ---------- Year ended December 31, 1997: Net revenues from unaffiliated customers.................. $1,258,110 $197,651 $ -- $ -- $1,455,761 Net revenues from affiliates................. -- -- 256,895 (256,895) -- ---------- -------- -------- --------- ---------- Total net revenues............ 1,258,110 197,651 256,895 (256,895) 1,455,761 Income before income taxes and minority interest.......... 28,086 23,522 9,398 -- 61,006 Identifiable assets........... 352,503 21,873 506,397 (176,134) 704,639 Corporate assets.............. 146,299 ---------- Total assets.......... $ 850,938 ========== Year ended December 31, 1996: Net revenues from unaffiliated customers.................. $1,013,182 $157,819 $ -- $ -- $1,171,001 Net revenues from affiliates................. -- -- 198,637 (198,637) -- ---------- -------- -------- --------- ---------- Total net revenues............ 1,013,182 157,819 198,637 (198,637) 1,171,001 Income before income taxes and minority interest.......... 22,592 12,473 7,947 -- 43,012 Identifiable assets........... 245,781 19,422 424,653 (91,552) 598,304 Corporate assets.............. 199,309 ---------- Total assets.......... $ 797,613 ========== Year ended December 31, 1995: Net revenues from unaffiliated customers.................. $ 792,285 $140,097 $ -- $ -- $ 932,382 Net revenues from affiliates................. -- -- 128,164 (128,164) -- ---------- -------- -------- --------- ---------- Total net revenues............ 792,285 140,097 128,164 (128,164) 932,382 Income before income taxes and minority interest.......... 43,223 13,019 10,781 -- 67,023 Identifiable assets........... 235,707 18,699 270,185 (100,385) 424,206 Corporate assets.............. 211,662 ---------- Total assets.......... $ 635,868 ==========
Sales between affiliates are priced at customer selling price less material costs provided by the segment, less a sales commission. Net revenues from unaffiliated customers for the United States include $109,532, $160,507 and $208,062 of revenues from unaffiliated foreign customers for 1995, 1996 and 1997, respectively. Identifiable assets are those assets that can be directly associated with a particular geographic area. Corporate assets are those assets which are not directly associated with a particular geographic area and consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, investments and advances or loans to another geographic segment. F-23 130 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED) (U.S. DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA) 16. SUBSEQUENT EVENTS On April 14, 1998, Mr. and Mrs. James Kim and the Kim Family Trusts exchanged their interests in AEI for 9,746,766 shares and 4,873,383 shares of ATI common stock, respectively. On April 29, 1998 ATI issued 67,989,851 shares of common stock in exchange for all of the outstanding shares of AIH and its subsidiaries. Of such shares, 19,328,234 shares, 36,376,617 shares and 8,200,000 shares were gifted to Mr. and Mrs. James Kim, the Kim Family Trusts and other members of Mr. Kim's immediate family, respectively. In addition, ATI acquired all of the stock of AKI from the Kim Family Trusts for $3,000. Except for the acquisition of the shares of AKI which has been accounted for as a purchase transaction, the Reorganization described above is treated similar to a pooling of interests as it represents an exchange of equity interests among companies under common control. The purchase price for the AKI stock, which represents the fair value of these shares, approximates the book value of AKI. ATI filed an amended registration statement on April 29, 1998 with the Securities and Exchange Commission as part of a proposed plan to reduce outstanding borrowings and to increase the stockholders' equity. ATI intends to raise approximately $449,950 (after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses) from the sale of shares of common stock and convertible notes (the "Offerings"). The convertible notes will be 1) convertible into ATI common stock at a premium over the initial public offering price; 2) callable in certain circumstances after three years; 3) unsecured and subordinate to senior debt; 4) carry a coupon rate of approximately %; and 5) have a maturity of five years. Approximately $225,000 of the proceeds will be used to reduce short-term and long-term borrowings. Approximately $105,000 of the proceeds will be used to reduce amounts due to AUSA. In connection with the Offerings, certain existing stockholders intend to sell approximately 5,000,000 of their shares. The Company established stock option plans in 1998 pursuant to which 6,550,000 shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance upon the exercise of stock options granted to employees, consultants and directors. The options will be issued at fair value and generally will vest over five years. After the Offerings, the Company intends to purchase AICL's 40% interest in AAP for approximately $34,000. The Company will account for this transaction as a purchase which will result in the elimination of the minority interest liability reflected on the combined balance sheet and result in additional amortization of approximately $2,500 per year. 17. PRO FORMA ADJUSTMENTS Statement of Income Pro forma adjustments are presented to reflect a provision for income taxes as if AEI had not been an S Corporation for all of the periods presented. Pro forma net income per common share is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding as if the Exchange had occurred at the beginning of the period presented. Balance Sheet As discussed in Note 1, the Company reorganized prior to the effective date of the contemplated offering. AEI terminated its S Corporation status at which time additional deferred tax liabilities of $2,100 were recorded for existing temporary differences between the book and tax bases of assets and liabilities. If the termination of AEI's S Corporation status would have occurred on December 31, 1997, AEI would have declared a distribution of $27,700 of previously taxed income. The pro forma balance sheet is presented to reflect these changes as if they occurred on December 31, 1997. F-24 131 INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT To the Shareholders and Board of Directors Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. We have audited the consolidated balance sheets of Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, and the related consolidated statements of operations, capital surplus and retained earnings (accumulated deficit), and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997 (which financial statements are prepared under generally accepted accounting principles in the Republic of Korea and are not included in this Registration Statement). These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We did not audit the financial statements of Anam USA, Inc. ("Anam USA"), a wholly owned subsidiary, and Anam Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd. ("Anam Construction"), a 59.6% owned subsidiary, which statements reflect total assets of W913,721 million and W660,729 million as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, and total net income (loss) of W(10,011) million in 1997, W5,738 million in 1996 and W(2,925) million in 1995. Additionally, we did not audit the financial statements of Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. ("AAPI"), a 40% owned affiliate, the investment in which is reflected in the accompanying financial statements using the equity method of accounting. The Company's investment in AAPI was W38,612 million and W19,077 million as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, and the equity in its net income (loss) was W(44,491) million in 1997, W2,050 million in 1996 and W(1,570) million in 1995. The aforementioned financial statements were audited by other auditors whose reports have been furnished to us, and our opinion, insofar as it relates to the amounts included for Anam USA, Anam Construction and AAPI, is based solely on the reports of the other auditors. The auditors of Anam Construction and AAPI expressed uncertainties in their audit reports about the respective companies' ability to continue as a going concern. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards in the Republic of Korea, which are substantially the same as those followed in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits and the reports of other auditors provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, based on our audits and the reports of other auditors, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the Republic of Korea. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, in accordance with revised Financial Accounting Standards in the Republic of Korea effective in 1997 and 1996, respectively, the Company changed its method of accounting for unrealized foreign currency translation gains or losses on long-term assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. In 1997, such gains or losses are deferred and amortized over the lives or maturities of corresponding assets and liabilities using the straight-line method. In 1996, such gains or losses had been recorded as a capital adjustment to shareholders' equity. Prior to 1996, such gains or losses had been recognized currently. The financial statements referred to above have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 3 to the financial statements, the operations of the Company have been significantly affected, and will continue to be affected for the foreseeable future, by Korea's unstable economy caused by currency volatility and unstable finance markets in Korea. The Company has traditionally operated with a significant amount of debt relative to its equity and has a significant working capital deficit at F-25 132 December 31, 1997. Because of Korea's unstable economy and the Company's dependence on debt financing, there are significant uncertainties that may affect the Company's future operations and its ability to maintain or refinance certain debt obligations as they mature, which raise substantial doubt regarding the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. The ultimate outcome of these uncertainties cannot be determined presently and the financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from these uncertainties. Management's plans to address these matters are also included in Note 3. SAMIL ACCOUNTING CORPORATION Seoul, Korea March 20, 1998 F-26 133 INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT To the Board of Directors and Stockholders Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. We have audited the balance sheets of Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. (the Company) as of December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, and the related statements of operations and accumulated deficit and cash flows for the years then ended (not included in this Prospectus or elsewhere in this Registration Statement). These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards in the Republic of Korea which are substantially the same as those followed in the United States. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. as of December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, and the results of its operations and the changes in its accumulated deficit and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with generally accepted financial accounting standards in the Republic of Korea. The financial statements referred to above have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 20 to the financial statements, the operations of the Company have been significantly affected, and will continue to be affected for the foreseeable future, by Korea's unstable economy caused by the currency volatility and unstable financial markets in Korea. The Company has traditionally operated with a significant amount of debt relative to its equity. Because of Korea's unstable economy and the Company's dependence on debt financing, there are significant uncertainties that may affect the Company's future operations and its abilities to maintain or regarding the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. The ultimate outcome of these uncertainties cannot be determined presently and financial statements do not include adjustments that might result from these uncertainties. As discussed in Note 17 to the financial statements, the Company executed a merger in which the operations of Hanyong Corporation were combined with the Company as of July 31, 1997. This merger was accounted for as a transfer of assets and liabilities under common control at historical costs in a manner similar to a pooling of interest of U.S. GAAP reporting purposes. As discussed in Note 14 to financial statements, the Company sells its product to Anam Semiconductor Inc. (Anam Industrial Co., Ltd.) and other affiliated companies. The amounts of sales are W244,013 million, W313,894 million and W47,109 million during the year ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, and balances of account receivable are W31,844 million, W53,816 million and W79,316 million at December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995 respectively and balances of account payable are W4,834 million, W122 million and W403 million at December 31 of 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively. The amounts expressed in U.S. Dollars, presented solely for the convenience of the reader, have been translated on the basis set forth in Note 3 to financial statements. Chong Un & Company Seoul, Korea March 4, 1998 F-27 134 REPORT OF INDEPENDENT PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS The Stockholders and the Board of Directors Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. NSC Compound, Km. 22 East Service Road South Superhighway, Muntinlupa City We have audited the consolidated balance sheets of Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and Subsidiary as of December 31, 1997 and December 29, 1996, and the related consolidated statements of income and retained earnings (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997 (not included in this Prospectus or elsewhere in this Registration Statement). These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and Subsidiary as of December 31, 1997 and December 29, 1996, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the Philippines. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company, is not in compliance with certain debt agreements and has a net working capital deficiency at December 31, 1997. These matters raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to this matter are also described in Note 1. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co January 30, 1998 Makati City, Philippines F-28 135 INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT To the Board of Directors Anam USA, Inc. West Chester, Pennsylvania We have audited the balance sheets of Anam USA, Inc. (a Pennsylvania Corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Anam Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, ROK) as of December 31, 1997 and 1996 and the related statements of income, stockholder's equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Anam USA, Inc. as of December 31, 1997 and 1996 and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. SIANA CARR & O'CONNOR, LLP Paoli, Pennsylvania February 13, 1998 F-29 136 APPENDIX - DESCRIPTION OF GRAPHICS ---------------------------------- Inside Front Cover - Diagram of wafer fabrication, packaging and test operations. Page 53 - Diagram showing wafer fabrication process, starting with a raw wafer, packaging and final testing. Inside Back Cover - Photograph of manufacturing facilities; pictures of products. 137 ====================================================== NO DEALER, SALESPERSON OR ANY OTHER PERSON HAS BEEN AUTHORIZED TO GIVE ANY INFORMATION OR TO MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS OTHER THAN THOSE CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS IN CONNECTION WITH THE OFFER MADE BY THIS PROSPECTUS AND, IF GIVEN OR MADE, SUCH INFORMATION OR REPRESENTATIONS MUST NOT BE RELIED UPON AS HAVING BEEN AUTHORIZED BY THE COMPANY, THE SELLING STOCKHOLDER OR ANY OF THE UNDERWRITERS. NEITHER THE DELIVERY OF THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY SALE MADE HEREUNDER SHALL, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, CREATE ANY IMPLICATION THAT THERE HAS BEEN NO CHANGE IN THE AFFAIRS OF THE COMPANY SINCE THE DATES AS OF WHICH THE INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN THIS PROSPECTUS. THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER OR SOLICITATION BY ANYONE IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH SUCH OFFER OR SOLICITATION IS NOT AUTHORIZED OR IN WHICH THE PERSON MAKING SUCH OFFER OR SOLICITATION IS NOT QUALIFIED TO DO SO OR TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE SUCH SOLICITATION. ------------------ TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE ---- Prospectus Summary..................... 3 Risk Factors........................... 9 Reorganization......................... 26 Relationship with AICL................. 28 Use of Proceeds........................ 33 Dividend Policy........................ 33 Capitalization......................... 34 Dilution............................... 36 Selected Combined Financial Data....... 37 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations........................... 39 Business............................... 49 Management............................. 64 Certain Transactions................... 70 Principal and Selling Stockholders..... 73 Description of Capital Stock........... 74 Description of Convertible Notes....... 76 Shares Eligible for Future Sale........ 90 Certain United States Federal Tax Consequences to Holders of Common Stock and Convertible Notes.......... 92 Underwriting........................... 97 Legal Matters.......................... 101 Experts................................ 101 Additional Information................. 102 Glossary............................... 103 Index to Combined Financial Statements........................... F-1
------------------ Until , 1998 (25 days after the commencement of the Offerings), all dealers effecting transactions in the Common Stock and Convertible Notes, whether or not participating in this distribution, may be required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as Underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions. ====================================================== ====================================================== 35,000,000 SHARES COMMON STOCK $150,000,000 % CONVERTIBLE SUBORDINATED NOTES DUE 2003 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. [AMKOR LOGO] ------------ PROSPECTUS , 1998 ------------ SALOMON SMITH BARNEY BANCAMERICA ROBERTSON STEPHENS COWEN & COMPANY ====================================================== 138 Information contained herein is subject to completion or amendment. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These securities may not be sold nor may offers to buy be accepted prior to the time the registration statement becomes effective. This prospectus shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sale of these securities in any State in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to the registration or qualification under the securities laws of any such State. [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 29, 1998 PROSPECTUS 35,000,000 SHARES COMMON STOCK [AMKOR LOGO] $150,000,000 % CONVERTIBLE SUBORDINATED NOTES DUE 2003 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. ------------------ Amkor Technology, Inc. ("Amkor" or the "Company") hereby offers 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock, par value $.001 per share ("Common Stock"), and $150,000,000 aggregate principal amount of % Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2003 (the "Convertible Notes"). In addition, a stockholder of the Company (the "Selling Stockholder") is hereby offering 5,000,000 shares of Common Stock. The Convertible Notes will mature on , 2003. Interest on the Convertible Notes is payable on and of each year, commencing , 1998. The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of Common Stock at any time on or before the close of business on the last trading day prior to maturity, unless previously redeemed, at a conversion price of $ per share, subject to adjustment in certain events as described herein. The Convertible Notes are subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future Senior Debt (as defined) of the Company and effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of the Company's subsidiaries. The Convertible Notes are not redeemable by the Company prior to , 2001. On or after , 2001, the Convertible Notes are redeemable, in whole or from time to time in part, at the option of the Company, at the redemption prices set forth herein plus accrued interest, if the closing price of the Common Stock is at least 125% of the conversion price for at least 20 trading days within a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the fifth trading day prior to the notice of redemption. No sinking fund is provided for the Convertible Notes. In addition, following the occurrence of a Designated Event (i.e., a Change of Control or Termination of Trading (each as defined)), each holder has the right to cause the Company to purchase the Convertible Notes at 101% of their principal amount together with accrued and unpaid interest. See "Description of Convertible Notes." Of the 35,000,000 shares of Common Stock (the "Shares") and $150,000,000 aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes offered hereby, 7,000,000 Shares and $30,000,000 principal amount of Convertible Notes are being offered by the International Underwriters (as defined) outside the United States and Canada (the "International Offering") and 28,000,000 Shares and $120,000,000 principal amount of Convertible Notes are being offered by the U.S. Underwriters (as defined) in a concurrent offering in the United States and Canada (the "U.S. Offering" and, together with the International Offering, the "Offerings"), subject to transfers between the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters (collectively, the "Underwriters"). The Price to the Public and Underwriting Discount per Share and per Convertible Note will be identical for the International Offering and the U.S. Offering. See "Underwriting." The closing of the International Offering and U.S. Offering are conditioned upon each other. Following the Offerings, certain members of management and their family will beneficially own approximately 68.9% of the Company's outstanding Common Stock. See "Principal and Selling Stockholders." Prior to the Offerings, there has not been a public market for the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per share of the Common Stock will be between $10.00 and $12.00 per share. See "Underwriting" for a discussion of factors to be considered in determining the initial public offering price. The Common Stock has been approved for listing on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol "AMKR," subject to official notice of issuance. The Convertible Notes have been approved for quotation on the Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol "AMKRG." SEE "RISK FACTORS" BEGINNING ON PAGE 9 FOR A DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED BY PROSPECTIVE PURCHASERS OF THE SHARES AND THE CONVERTIBLE NOTES. ------------------ THESE SECURITIES HAVE NOT BEEN APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED BY THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION NOR HAS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION PASSED UPON THE ACCURACY OR ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE. ================================================================================
UNDERWRITING PROCEEDS TO PRICE TO DISCOUNTS AND PROCEEDS TO SELLING THE PUBLIC COMMISSIONS(1) THE COMPANY(2) STOCKHOLDERS(2) - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Per Share..................... $ $ $ $ Per Convertible Note.......... % % % -- Total Shares.................. $ $ $ $ Total Convertible Notes....... $ $ $ -- Total(3)...................... $ $ $ $ ======================================================================================================================
(1) For information regarding indemnification of the Underwriters, see "Underwriting." (2) Before deducting expenses payable by the Company, estimated at $5,000,000. (3) The Company has granted the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters 30-day options to purchase up to 1,050,000 and 4,200,000 additional shares of Common Stock, respectively, and $4,500,000 and $18,000,000 additional principal amount of Convertible Notes, respectively, solely to cover over-allotments, if any. If such options are exercised in full, the total Price to the Public, Underwriting Discounts and Proceeds to the Company will be $ , $ and $ , respectively. See "Underwriting." ------------------ The Shares and the Convertible Notes are offered subject to receipt and acceptance by the Underwriters, to prior sale and to the Underwriters' right to reject any order in whole or in part and to withdraw, cancel or modify the offer without notice. It is expected that delivery of the Shares and the Convertible Notes will be made at the office of Smith Barney Inc., 333 West 34th Street, New York, New York 10001 or through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, on or about , 1998. ------------------ SALOMON SMITH BARNEY INTERNATIONAL BA ROBERTSON STEPHENS INTERNATIONAL LIMITED , 1998 COWEN INTERNATIONAL L.P. 139 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] UNDERWRITING Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement (the "International Underwriting Agreement") among the Company, the Selling Stockholder and each of the underwriters named below (the "International Underwriters"), for whom Smith Barney Inc., BancAmerica Robertson Stephens International Limited and Cowen International L.P. are acting as representatives (the "International Representatives"), (i) the Company and the Selling Stockholder have agreed to sell to each of the International Underwriters and each of the International Underwriters has severally agreed to purchase from the Company and the Selling Stockholder the aggregate number of Shares set forth opposite its name in the table below and (ii) the Company has agreed to sell to certain of the International Underwriters and each such International Underwriter has severally agreed to purchase from the Company the principal amount of the Convertible Notes set forth opposite its name below.
PRINCIPAL AMOUNT OF NUMBER OF CONVERTIBLE INTERNATIONAL UNDERWRITERS SHARES NOTES -------------------------- --------- ------------ Smith Barney Inc. .......................... BancAmerica Robertson Stephens International Limited................................... Cowen International L.P..................... --------- ----------- Total............................. 7,000,000 $30,000,000 ========= ===========
The International Underwriting Agreement provides that the obligations of the International Underwriters to purchase the Shares and Convertible Notes listed above are subject to certain conditions set forth therein. The International Underwriters are committed to purchase all of the Shares and Convertible Notes agreed to be purchased by the International Underwriters pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement (other than those covered by the over-allotment options described below), if any Shares or Convertible Notes are purchased. In the event of default by any International Underwriter, the International Underwriting Agreement provides that, in certain circumstances, the purchase commitments of the non-defaulting International Underwriters may be increased or the International Underwriting Agreement may be terminated. The International Representatives have advised the Company and the Selling Stockholder that the International Underwriters propose initially to offer such Shares to the public at the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, and to certain dealers at such price less a discount not in excess of $ per share. The International Underwriters may allow, and such dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of $ per share on sales to certain other dealers. After the initial public offering of the Shares, the public offering price and such discounts may be changed. The International Representatives have also advised the Company that the relevant International Underwriters propose initially to offer such Convertible Notes to the public at the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, and to certain dealers at such price less a concession not in excess of % of the principal amount of such Convertible Notes. The relevant International Underwriters may allow, and such dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of % of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes on sales to certain other dealers. After the initial public offering of the Convertible Notes, the public offering price and such concessions may be changed. Purchasers of the Shares offered hereby may be required to pay stamp taxes and other charges in accordance with the laws and practices of the country of purchase in addition to the initial public offering price set forth on the cover page hereof. The Company and the Selling Stockholder also have entered into an underwriting agreement (the "U.S. Underwriting Agreement") with the U.S. Underwriters named therein, for whom Smith Barney Inc., BancAmerica Robertson Stephens and Cowen & Company are acting as representatives (the 97 140 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] "U.S. Representatives" and, together with the International Representatives, the "Representatives"), providing for the concurrent offer and sale of 28,000,000 of the Shares and $120,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes in the United States and Canada. The closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement is a condition to the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement, and the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the U.S. Underwriting Agreement is a condition to the closing with respect to the sale of the Shares and the Convertible Notes pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement. The initial public offering price and underwriting discount per Share and per Convertible Note for the International Offering and the U.S. Offering will be identical. Each International Underwriter has severally agreed that, as part of the distribution of the 7,000,000 Shares and $30,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes by the International Underwriters, (i) it is not purchasing any Shares or Convertible Notes for the account of any United States or Canadian Person, (ii) it has not offered or sold, and will not offer or sell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes or distribute any Prospectus to any person in the United States or Canada, or to any United States or Canadian Person and (iii) any dealer to whom it may sell any Shares or Convertible Notes will represent that it is not purchasing for the account of any United States or Canadian Person and agree that it will not offer or resell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes in the United States or Canada, or to any United States or Canadian Person or to any other dealer who does not so represent and agree. Each U.S. Underwriter has severally agreed that, as part of the distribution of the 28,000,000 Shares and $120,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes by the U.S. Underwriters, (i) it is not purchasing any Shares or Convertible Notes for the account of anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person, (ii) it has not offered or sold, and will not offer or sell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes or distribute any Prospectus relating to the U.S. Offering to any person outside of the United States or Canada, or to anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person and (iii) any dealer to whom it may sell any Shares or Convertible Notes will represent that it is not purchasing for the account of anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person and agree that it will not offer or resell, directly or indirectly, any Shares or Convertible Notes outside of the United States or Canada, or to anyone other than a United States or Canadian Person or to any other dealer who does not so represent and agree. The foregoing limitations do not apply to stabilization transactions or to certain other transactions specified in the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters. "United States or Canadian Persons" means any person who is a national or resident of the United States or Canada, any corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or Canada or of any political subdivision thereof, and any estate or trust the income of which is subject to United States or Canadian federal income taxation, regardless of its source (other than a foreign branch of such entity) and includes any United States or Canadian branch of a person other than a United States or Canadian Person. Pursuant to the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters, sales may be made between the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters of such number of Shares and such principal amount of the Convertible Notes as may be mutually agreed. The price of any Shares or Convertible Notes so sold shall be the initial public offering price thereof set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, less an amount not greater than the concession to securities dealers set forth above. To the extent that there are sales between the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters pursuant to the Agreement Between U.S. Underwriters and International Underwriters, the number of Shares and the principal amount of the Convertible Notes initially available for sale by the International Underwriters or by the U.S. Underwriters may be more or less than the amount specified on the cover page of this Prospectus. Each International Underwriter has severally represented and agreed that (i) it has not offered or sold and, prior to the expiration of six months from the closing of the International Offering, will not offer or sell 98 141 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] any Shares or Convertible Notes in the United Kingdom other than to persons whose ordinary activities involve them in acquiring, holding, managing or disposing of investments (whether as principal or agent) for the purposes of their businesses or otherwise in circumstances which have not resulted in and will not result in an offer to the public within the meaning of the Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995; (ii) it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the Financial Services Act 1986 with respect to anything done by it in relation to the Shares or the Convertible Notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom; and (iii) it has only issued or passed on and will only issue or pass on in the United Kingdom any document received by it in connection with the issue of the Shares or the Convertible Notes to a person who is of a kind described in Article 11(3) of the Financial Services Act 1986 (Investment Advertisements) (Exemptions) Order 1996 or is a person to whom such document may otherwise lawfully be issued or passed on. The Company has granted to the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters options to purchase up to an additional 1,050,000 and 4,200,000 Shares, respectively, and an additional $4,500,000 and $18,000,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, respectively, in each case at the applicable price to the public less the applicable underwriting discount set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus, solely to cover over-allotments, if any. Such options may be exercised at any time up to 30 days after the date of this Prospectus. To the extent such options are exercised, each of the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters will become obligated, subject to certain conditions, to purchase approximately the same percentage of such additional shares of Common Stock or such additional principal amount of Convertible Notes as the percentage it was obligated to purchase pursuant to the International Underwriting Agreement or the U.S. Underwriting Agreement, as applicable. The Company has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of (or enter into any transaction which is designed to, or could be expected to, result in the disposition (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any person in privity with the Company or any affiliate of the Company), directly or indirectly, or announce the offering of, any other shares of Common Stock (other than the Convertible Notes) or any securities or options convertible into, or exchangeable or exercisable for, shares of Common Stock for a period of 180 days following the date hereof without the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. In addition, each of the Company's officers, directors and stockholders has agreed with the Underwriters not to offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, or file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act with respect to any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction, for a period of 180 days after the date hereof unless pursuant to the Securities Loan Agreement (as described below) or with the prior written consent of Smith Barney Inc., subject to certain limited exceptions. Smith Barney Inc. currently does not intend to release any securities subject to such lock-up agreements, but may, in its sole discretion and at any time without notice, release all or any portion of the securities subject to such lock-up agreements. The International Underwriting Agreement and the U.S. Underwriting Agreement provide that the Company and the Selling Stockholder will indemnify the several International Underwriters and U.S. Underwriters against certain liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribute to payments the International Underwriters and the U.S. Underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof. BancAmerica Robertson Stephens International Limited is an affiliate of Bank of America, which will be repaid approximately $43 million of short-term loans to the Company from the net proceeds of the Offerings. See "Use of Proceeds." Because more than 10% of the net proceeds of the Offerings may be paid to Bank of America, the Offerings are being conducted in accordance with Rule 2710(c)(8) and Rule 2720 ("Rule 2720") of the Conduct Rules of the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Smith Barney Inc. will serve as a "qualified independent underwriter" in the Offerings and, in such capacity, will recommend 99 142 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] a price in compliance with Rule 2720 and has performed due diligence investigations in accordance with Rule 2720. Affiliates of Smith Barney Inc., Mr. James Kim and AICL are among the principal shareholders of a securities and investment banking firm in Korea. In addition, certain of the Underwriters and their affiliates have been engaged from time to time, and may in the future be engaged, to perform investment banking and other advisory-related services to the Company and its affiliates, including the Selling Stockholder, in the ordinary course of business. In connection with rendering such services in the past, such Underwriters and affiliates have received customary compensation, including reimbursement of related expenses. In connection with the Offerings, certain Underwriters and selling group members and their respective affiliates may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the Common Stock or the Convertible Notes. Such transactions may include stabilization transactions effected in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M, pursuant to which such persons may bid for or purchase Common Stock or Convertible Notes for the purpose of stabilizing their market price. The Underwriters also may create a short position for the account of the Underwriters by selling more Common Stock or Convertible Notes in connection with the Offerings than they are committed to purchase from the Company and the Selling Stockholder, and in such case may purchase Common Stock or Convertible Notes in the open market following completion of the Offerings to cover all or a portion of such short position. The Underwriters may also cover all or a portion of such short position, up to 5,250,000 shares of Common Stock and $22,500,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, by exercising the Underwriters' over-allotment options referred to above. In addition, the Representatives, on behalf of the Underwriters, may impose "penalty bids" under contractual arrangements with the Underwriters whereby it may reclaim from an Underwriter (or dealer participating in the Offerings), for the account of the other Underwriters, the selling concession with respect to Common Stock or Convertible Notes that is distributed in the Offerings but subsequently purchased for the account of the Underwriters in the open market. Any of the transactions described in this paragraph may result in the maintenance of the price of the Common Stock and the Convertible Notes at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. None of the transactions described in this paragraph is required, and, if they are undertaken, they may be discontinued at any time. In connection with the Offerings, Mr. and Mrs. Kim (referred to herein as the "Lenders") and Smith Barney Inc. intend to enter into a securities loan agreement (the "Securities Loan Agreement") which provides that, subject to certain restrictions and with the agreement of the Lenders, Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time until the maturity date or redemption date of the Convertible Notes borrow, return and reborrow shares of Common Stock from the Lenders (the "Borrowed Securities"); provided, however, that the number of Borrowed Securities at any time may not exceed 7,000,000 shares of Common Stock, subject to adjustment for certain dilutive events. The Securities Loan Agreement is intended to facilitate market-making activity in the Convertible Notes by Smith Barney Inc. Smith Barney Inc. may from time to time borrow shares of Common Stock under the Securities Loan Agreement to settle short sales of Common Stock (or to return Common Stock previously borrowed by Smith Barney Inc. to settle such short sales) entered into by Smith Barney Inc. to hedge any long position in the Convertible Notes resulting from its market-making activities. Such sales will be made on the Nasdaq National Market or in the over-the-counter market at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such market prices. Market conditions will dictate the extent and timing of Smith Barney Inc.'s market-making transactions in the Convertible Notes and the consequent need to borrow and sell shares of Common Stock. The availability of shares of Common Stock under the Securities Loan Agreement at any time is not assured and any such availability does not assure market-making activity with respect to the Convertible Notes. Any market-making engaged in by Smith Barney Inc. or any other Underwriter may cease at any time. The foregoing description of the Securities Loan Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to such agreement, which is an exhibit to the Securities Loan Registration Statement. 100 143 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] The Underwriters do not intend to confirm sales in the Offerings to any accounts over which they exercise discretionary authority. Prior to the Offerings, there has been no public market for the Common Stock. Accordingly, the initial public offering price for the Shares will be determined by negotiation among the Company, the Selling Stockholder and the Representatives. Among the factors considered in determining the initial public offering price will be the Company's record of operations, its current financial condition, its future prospects, the market for its services, the experience of management, the economic conditions of the Company's industry in general, the general condition of the equity securities market and the demand for similar securities of companies considered comparable to the Company and other relevant factors. There can be no assurance, however, that the prices at which the Common Stock will sell in the public market after the Offerings will not be lower than the price at which the Shares are sold by the Underwriters. LEGAL MATTERS The validity of the Shares and the Convertible Notes offered hereby will be passed upon for the Company by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Palo Alto, California. Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, New York, New York, is acting as counsel for the Underwriters in connection with certain legal matters relating to the Shares and the Convertible Notes offered hereby. EXPERTS The combined financial statements and schedule of Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc. as of December 31, 1995, 1996 and 1997, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 1997, included in this Prospectus and elsewhere in this Registration Statement have been audited by Arthur Andersen LLP, independent public accountants, as set forth in their reports dated February 3, 1998 (except with respect to the sale of the investment in Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL") common stock discussed in Note 6 to the Combined Financial Statements, as to which the date is February 16, 1998) with respect thereto, and are included herein in reliance upon the authority of said firm as experts in giving said reports. In those reports, such firm states that with respect to the investment in AICL its opinion is based on the report of other independent public accountants, namely Samil Accounting Corporation. Reference is made to said reports which include an explanatory paragraph with respect to the ability of Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc. to continue as a going concern as discussed in Note 1 of Notes to the Combined Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements of AICL as of December 31, 1996 and 1997, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 1997 (not included in this Prospectus or elsewhere in this Registration Statement) have been audited by Samil Accounting Corporation, independent public accountants, as set forth in their report dated March 20, 1998 with respect thereto, which report is included herein in reliance upon the authority of said firm as experts. In that report, such firm states that with respect to Anam Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. ("AEC") and AUSA, subsidiaries of AICL, and the investment in AAP, its opinion is based on the reports of other independent public accountants, namely Chong Un & Company, Siana, Carr and O' Connor, LLP and SyCip Gorres, Velayo & Co, respectively. Reference is made to the reports regarding AAP and AEC,which include explanatory paragraphs with respect to the ability of AAP and AEC, respectively, to continue as a going concern, and the report regarding AICL, which includes an explanatory paragraph regarding a change in accounting principles, the impact of the Korean economic situation on AICL and the ability of AICL to continue as a going concern. 101 144 [ALTERNATE PAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS] ====================================================== NO DEALER, SALESPERSON OR ANY OTHER PERSON HAS BEEN AUTHORIZED TO GIVE ANY INFORMATION OR TO MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS OTHER THAN THOSE CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS IN CONNECTION WITH THE OFFER MADE BY THIS PROSPECTUS AND, IF GIVEN OR MADE, SUCH INFORMATION OR REPRESENTATIONS MUST NOT BE RELIED UPON AS HAVING BEEN AUTHORIZED BY THE COMPANY, THE SELLING STOCKHOLDER OR ANY OF THE UNDERWRITERS. NEITHER THE DELIVERY OF THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY SALE MADE HEREUNDER SHALL, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, CREATE ANY IMPLICATION THAT THERE HAS BEEN NO CHANGE IN THE AFFAIRS OF THE COMPANY SINCE THE DATES AS OF WHICH THE INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN THIS PROSPECTUS. THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER OR SOLICITATION BY ANYONE IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH SUCH OFFER OR SOLICITATION IS NOT AUTHORIZED OR IN WHICH THE PERSON MAKING SUCH OFFER OR SOLICITATION IS NOT QUALIFIED TO DO SO OR TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE SUCH SOLICITATION. ------------------ TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE ---- Prospectus Summary..................... 3 Risk Factors........................... 10 Reorganization......................... 27 Relationship with AICL................. 29 Use of Proceeds........................ 34 Dividend Policy........................ 34 Capitalization......................... 35 Dilution............................... 37 Selected Combined Financial Data....... 38 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations........................... 40 Business............................... 51 Management............................. 66 Certain Transactions................... 72 Principal and Selling Stockholders..... 75 Description of Capital Stock........... 76 Description of Convertible Notes....... 78 Shares Eligible for Future Sale........ 92 Certain United States Federal Tax Consequences to Holders of Common Stock and Convertible Notes.......... 94 Underwriting........................... 97 Legal Matters.......................... 101 Experts................................ 101 Additional Information................. 102 Index to Combined Financial Statements........................... F-1
------------------ Until , 1998 (25 days after the commencement of the Offerings), all dealers effecting transactions in the Common Stock and Convertible Notes, whether or not participating in this distribution, may be required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as Underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions. ====================================================== ====================================================== 35,000,000 SHARES COMMON STOCK $150,000,000 % CONVERTIBLE SUBORDINATED NOTES DUE 2003 AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. [AMKOR LOGO] ------------ PROSPECTUS , 1998 ------------ SALOMON SMITH BARNEY INTERNATIONAL BA ROBERTSON STEPHENS INTERNATIONAL LIMITED COWEN INTERNATIONAL L.P. ====================================================== 145 PART II INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS ITEM 13. OTHER EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION The following table sets forth the costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts, commissions and certain accountable expenses, payable by the Company in connection with the sale of Common Stock and Convertible Notes being registered. All amounts are estimates except the SEC registration fee and the NASD filing fee. SEC Registration Fee........................................ $ 193,373 NASD Filing Fee............................................. 30,500 Nasdaq National Market System Listing Fee................... 95,000 Printing Fees and Expenses.................................. 350,000 Legal Fees and Expenses..................................... 1,750,000 Accounting Fees and Expenses................................ 2,200,000 Blue Sky Fees and Expenses.................................. 5,000 Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees........................... 50,000 Miscellaneous............................................... 326,127 ---------- Total............................................. $5,000,000 ==========
ITEM 14. INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to include in its charter documents, and in agreements between the corporation and its directors and officers, provisions expanding the scope of indemnification beyond that specifically provided by the current law. The Company's Certificate of Incorporation provides for the indemnification of directors to the fullest extent permissible under Delaware law. The Company's Bylaws provide for the indemnification of officers, directors and third parties acting on behalf of the Registrant if such person acted in good faith and in a manner reasonably believed to be in and not opposed to the best interest of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, the indemnified party had no reason to believe his conduct was unlawful. The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and executive officers, in addition to indemnification provided for in the Company's Bylaws, and intends to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. The form of U.S. Underwriting Agreement filed as Exhibit 1.1 hereto and the form of International Underwriting Agreement filed as Exhibit 1.2 hereto provide for the indemnification of the Company's directors and officers in certain circumstances as provided therein. ITEM 15. RECENT SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES Prior to the Offerings, in 1998, 82,610,000 shares of Common Stock were issued to Mr. James Kim and members of his family in exchange for their outstanding interests in the Amkor Companies. Such issuances were made pursuant to an exemption from registration under Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. See "Reorganization" in Part I hereof. The recipients of securities in each such transaction represented their intention to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof and appropriate legends were affixed to the share certificates issued in such transactions. All recipients had adequate access, through their relationships with the Company, to information about the Company. II-1 146 ITEM 16. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE (a) Exhibits 1.1 Form of U.S. Underwriting Agreement.** 1.2 Form of International Underwriting Agreement.** 2.1 Agreement and Plan of Reorganization dated April 14, 1998 between Amkor Technology, Inc. Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("AEI") and the stockholders of AEI. 2.2 Stock Purchase Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Guardian Assets, Inc. and the stockholders of AK Industries, Inc. 2.3 Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Cotswold Investments, Ltd. and Amkor Technology, Inc. 2.4 Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Turquoise Investments, Ltd. and Amkor Technology, Inc. 3.1 Certificate of Incorporation.** 3.2 Bylaws.** 4.1 Specimen Common Stock Certificate.** 4.2 Form of Indenture.** 5.1 Opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, as to the legality of the securities being registered. 10.1 Form of Indemnification Agreement for directors and officers.** 10.2 1998 Stock Plan and form of agreement thereunder.** 10.3 Receivables Purchase Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Amkor Receivables Corp., dated June 20, 1997.** 10.4 Form of Tax Indemnification Agreement between Amkor Technology, Inc., Amkor Electronics, Inc. and certain stockholders of Amkor Technology, Inc.** 10.5 Bridge Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc., Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. and the Korea Development Bank for $55,000,000, dated July 1997.** 10.6 Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and the Korea Development Bank for $71,000,000, dated March 28, 1996.** 10.7 Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and the Korea Development Bank for $50,000,000, dated September 7, 1995.** 10.8 Commercial Office Lease between Chandler Corporate Center Phase II, G.P. and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated September 6, 1993.** 10.9 Commercial Office Lease between the 12/31/87 Trusts of Susan Y., David D. and John T. Kim and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated October 1, 1996.** 10.10 Commercial Office Lease between the 12/31/87 Trusts of Susan Y., David D., and John T. Kim and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated June 14, 1996.** 10.11 Contract of Lease between Corinthian Commercial Corporation and Amkor/Anam Pilipinas Inc., dated October 1, 1990.** 10.12 Contract of Lease between Salcedo Sunvar Realty Corporation and Automated Microelectronics, Inc., dated May 6, 1994.** 10.13 Lease Contract between AAP Realty Corporation and Amkor/Anam Advanced Packaging, Inc., dated November 6, 1996.** 10.14 Immunity Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Motorola, Inc., dated June 30, 1993.+**
II-2 147 10.15 Assembly Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Intel Corporation, dated July 17, 1991.+** 10.16 1998 Director Option Plan and form of agreement thereunder.** 10.17 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.** 10.18 Performance Undertaking between Amkor Receivables Corp. and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd., dated June 20, 1997.** 10.19 Packaging and Test Services Agreement by and among Amkor Technology, Inc., Amkor Electronics, Inc., C.I.L. Limited, Anam USA, Inc. and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. dated January 1, 1998.+** 10.20 Foundry Services Agreement by and among Amkor Electronics, Inc., C.I.L. Limited, Anam Industries Co., Ltd. and Anam USA dated as of January 1, 1998.+** 10.21 Amendment to Technical Assistance Agreement dated as of September 29, 1997 between Texas Instruments Incorporated and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. and related portions of Technical Assistance Agreement dated as of January 28, 1997.+** 10.22 Form of Registration Rights Agreement between Amkor Technology, Inc. and Smith Barney Inc. in consideration of the Master Securities Loan Agreement.** 10.23 Manufacturing and Purchase Agreement between Texas Instruments Incorporated, Anam Industrial Co., Ltd and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated as of January 1, 1998.+** 10.24 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees. 12.1 Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges. 21.1 List of Subsidiaries of the Registrant. 23.1 Consent of Arthur Andersen LLP 23.2 Consent of Counsel (included in Exhibit 5.1). 23.3 Consent of Samil Accounting Corporation 23.4 Consent of Chong Un & Company 23.5 Consent of SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co 23.6 Consent of Siana Carr & O'Connor, LLP 24.1 Power of Attorney.** 25.1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1.** 27.1 Financial Data Schedule.
- --------------- ** Previously Filed. + Confidential Treatment requested as to certain portions of this exhibit. SCHEDULE II -- VALUATION AND QUALIFYING ACCOUNTS Schedules not listed above have been omitted because the information required to be set forth therein is not applicable or is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto. ITEM 17. UNDERTAKINGS The Registrant hereby undertakes to provide the Underwriters at the closing specified in the Underwriting Agreement certificates in such denominations and registered in such names as required by the Underwriters to permit prompt delivery to each purchaser. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the provisions described in Item 14 above, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, II-3 148 unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933, and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue. The undersigned Registrant undertakes that: (1) for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus as filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective, and (2) for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. II-4 149 SIGNATURES Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement on Form S-1 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of West Chester, State of Pennsylvania, on the 28th day of April 1998. AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. By: /s/ JAMES J. KIM ------------------------------------ James J. Kim Chief Executive Officer PURSUANT TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-1 HAS BEEN SIGNED BY THE FOLLOWING PERSONS IN THE CAPACITIES AND ON THE DATES INDICATED.
SIGNATURE TITLE DATE --------- ----- ---- /s/ JAMES J. KIM Chief Executive Officer and April 28, 1998 - --------------------------------------------------- Chairman James J. Kim * Chief Financial Officer and April 28, 1998 - --------------------------------------------------- Secretary (Principal Financial Frank J. Marcucci and Accounting Officer) * President and Director April 28, 1998 - --------------------------------------------------- John N. Boruch * Director April 28, 1998 - --------------------------------------------------- Thomas D. George * Director April 28, 1998 - --------------------------------------------------- Gregory K. Hinckley * /s/ JAMES J. KIM - --------------------------------------------------- James J. Kim Attorney-in-fact
II-5 150 INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES*
SEQUENTIALLY SCHEDULE NUMBERED NUMBER DESCRIPTION OF SCHEDULES PAGE - -------- ------------------------ ------------ Report of Independent Public Accountants.................... S-2 II Valuation and Qualifying Accounts........................... S-3
- --------------- * All other schedules are omitted as the required information is inapplicable or the information is presented in the financial statements or related notes. S-1 151 REPORT OF INDEPENDENT PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS To Amkor Technology, Inc.: We have audited in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the Combined Financial Statements of Amkor Technology, Inc. and AK Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries (See Note 1 to the Combined Financial Statements) included in this registration statement and have issued our report thereon dated February 3, 1998 (except with respect to the sale of the investment in Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. common stock discussed in Note 6 to the Combined Financial Statements as to which the date is February 16, 1998 and the Reorganization as to which the date is April 29, 1998). Our audit was made for the purpose of forming an opinion on the basic financial statements taken as a whole. Our report on the financial statements includes an explanatory paragraph with respect to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern as discussed in Note 1 to the Combined Financial Statements. The schedule listed in the index above is presented for the purpose of complying with the Securities and Exchange Commissions rules and is not part of the basic financial statements. This schedule has been subjected to the auditing procedures applied in the audit of the basic financial statements and, in our opinion, fairly states in all material respects the financial data required to be set forth therein in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole. ARTHUR ANDERSEN LLP Philadelphia, Pa. February 3, 1998 (except with respect to the sale of the investment in Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. common stock discussed in Note 6 to the Combined Financial Statements as to which the date is February 16, 1998 and the Reorganization as to which the date is April 29, 1998). S-2 152 SCHEDULE II AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND AK INDUSTRIES, INC. VALUATION AND QUALIFYING ACCOUNTS (AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS)
ADDITIONS BALANCE AT CHARGED BALANCE AT BEGINNING TO END OF PERIOD EXPENSE WRITE-OFFS OTHER OF PERIOD ---------- --------- ---------- ----- ---------- Year ended December 31, 1995: Allowance for doubtful accounts................. $ 487 $ 500 $ -- $56 $1,043 Year ended December 31, 1996: Allowance for doubtful accounts................. $1,043 $ 660 $(564) $40 $1,179 Year ended December 31, 1997: Allowance for doubtful accounts................. $1,179 $3,490 $(435) -- $4,234
S-3 153 INDEX TO EXHIBITS
EXHIBIT NUMBER DESCRIPTION ------- ----------- 1.1 Form of U.S. Underwriting Agreement.** 1.2 Form of International Underwriting Agreement.** 2.1 Agreement and Plan of Reorganization dated April 14, 1998 between Amkor Technology, Inc. Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("AEI") and the stockholders of AEI. 2.2 Stock Purchase Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Guardian Assets, Inc. and the stockholders of AK Industries, Inc. 2.3 Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Cotswold Investments, Ltd. and Amkor Technology, Inc. 2.4 Agreement dated April 29, 1998 between Turquoise Investments, Ltd. and Amkor Technology, Inc. 3.1 Certificate of Incorporation.** 3.2 Bylaws.** 4.1 Specimen Common Stock Certificate.** 4.2 Form of Indenture.** 5.1 Opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, as to the legality of the securities being registered. 10.1 Form of Indemnification Agreement for directors and officers.** 10.2 1998 Stock Plan and form of agreement thereunder.** 10.3 Receivables Purchase Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Amkor Receivables Corp., dated June 20, 1997.** 10.4 Form of Tax Indemnification Agreement between Amkor Technology, Inc., Amkor Electronics, Inc. and certain stockholders of Amkor Technology, Inc.** 10.5 Bridge Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc., Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. and the Korea Development Bank for $55,000,000, dated July 1997.** 10.6 Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and the Korea Development Bank for $71,000,000, dated March 28, 1996.** 10.7 Loan Agreement between Amkor/Anam Pilipinas, Inc. and the Korea Development Bank for $50,000,000, dated September 7, 1995.** 10.8 Commercial Office Lease between Chandler Corporate Center Phase II, G.P. and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated September 6, 1993.** 10.9 Commercial Office Lease between the 12/31/87 Trusts of Susan Y., David D. and John T. Kim and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated October 1, 1996.** 10.10 Commercial Office Lease between the 12/31/87 Trusts of Susan Y., David D., and John T. Kim and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated June 14, 1996.** 10.11 Contract of Lease between Corinthian Commercial Corporation and Amkor/Anam Pilipinas Inc., dated October 1, 1990.** 10.12 Contract of Lease between Salcedo Sunvar Realty Corporation and Automated Microelectronics, Inc., dated May 6, 1994.** 10.13 Lease Contract between AAP Realty Corporation and Amkor/Anam Advanced Packaging, Inc., dated November 6, 1996.** 10.14 Immunity Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Motorola, Inc., dated June 30, 1993.+** 10.15 Assembly Agreement between Amkor Electronics, Inc. and Intel Corporation, dated July 17, 1991.+** 10.16 1998 Director Option Plan and form of agreement thereunder.** 10.17 1998 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.** 10.18 Performance Undertaking between Amkor Receivables Corp. and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd., dated June 20, 1997.**
154
EXHIBIT NUMBER DESCRIPTION ------- ----------- 10.19 Packaging and Test Services Agreement by and among Amkor Technology, Inc., Amkor Electronics, Inc., C.I.L. Limited, Anam USA, Inc. and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. dated January 1, 1998.+ 10.20 Foundry Services Agreement by and among Amkor Electronics, Inc., C.I.L. Limited, Anam Industries Co., Ltd. and Anam USA dated as of January 1, 1998.+ 10.21 Amendment to Technical Assistance Agreement dated as of September 30, 1997 between Texas Instruments Incorporated and Anam Industrial Co., Ltd.+** 10.22 Form of Registration Rights Agreement between Amkor Technology, Inc. and Smith Barney Inc. in consideration of the Master Securities Loan Agreement.** 10.23 Manufacturing and Purchase Agreement between Texas Instruments Incorporated, Anam Industrial Co., Ltd and Amkor Electronics, Inc., dated as of January 1, 1998.+ 10.24 1998 Stock Option Plan for French Employees. 12.1 Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges. 21.1 List of Subsidiaries of the Registrant. 23.1 Consent of Arthur Andersen LLP 23.2 Consent of Counsel (included in Exhibit 5.1). 23.3 Consent of Samil Accounting Corporation 23.4 Consent of Chong Un & Company 23.5 Consent of SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co 23.6 Consent of Siana Carr & O'Connor, LLP 24.1 Power of Attorney.** 25.1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1.** 27.1 Financial Data Schedule.
- --------------- ** Previously Filed. + Confidential Treatment requested as to certain portions of this exhibit.
   1
                                                                     EXHIBIT 2.1


                      AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF REORGANIZATION


      THIS AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF REORGANIZATION (this "Agreement"), dated as of
April 14, 1998 by and among Amkor Technology, Inc., a Delaware corporation
("ATI"), Amkor Electronics, Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation ("AEI"), and the
stockholders of AEI as set forth on Exhibit A hereto (the "AEI Stockholders").


                                    PREAMBLE

      The Board of Directors of ATI and AEI have each determined that it is in
the best interests of both companies for AEI to be merged with and into ATI (the
"Merger") upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein.

      Accordingly, in consideration of the premises and the mutual covenants,
representations and warranties herein contained, the parties hereto agree as
follows:


                                    ARTICLE I

                                   THE MERGER

      SECTION 1.1. The Merger. At the Effective Time (as defined in Section 1.2)
and subject to the terms and conditions contained herein, AEI shall be merged
with and into ATI (AEI and ATI constituting together the "Constituent
Corporations"), in accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of
Delaware (the "DGCL") and the Pennsylvania Business Corporation Law ("PBCL"),
and the separate existence of AEI shall thereupon cease, and ATI shall be the
surviving corporation in the Merger (the "Surviving Corporation").

      SECTION 1.2. Closing; Effective Time. As promptly as practicable after
satisfaction or waiver of the applicable conditions set forth in Article IV
hereof, the parties hereto will cause an appropriate certificate of merger (the
"Certificate of Merger") and related documents, in such form or forms as may be
required by, and executed in accordance with, the relevant provisions of the
DGCL and the PBCL, to be filed with the Secretary of State of the State of
Delaware and the Secretary of State of Pennsylvania. The filing of the
Certificate of Merger is hereinafter referred to as the "Closing." The Merger
shall become effective at the time that the Certificate of Merger is duly filed
with the Secretary of State of the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania or at
such other time as is expressly set forth in the Certificate of Merger (the
"Effective Time"), in accordance with the applicable provisions of the DGCL and
PBCL.

      SECTION 1.3.  Effect of Merger.  At the Effective Time, the effect of the 
Merger shall be as provided in the applicable provisions of the DGCL and the
PBCL. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, and subject thereto, at
the Effective Time, all the property, rights, privileges, powers and

                                       -1-

   2

franchises of AEI shall vest in the Surviving Corporation, and all debts,
liabilities and duties of AEI shall become the debts, liabilities and duties of
the Surviving Corporation. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws of
ATI in effect immediately prior to the Effective Time shall be the Certificate
of Incorporation and Bylaws of the Surviving Corporation. The directors of ATI
immediately prior to the Effective Time shall be the directors of the Surviving
corporation, and the officers of ATI immediately prior to the Effective Time
shall be the officers of the Surviving Corporation, in each case until their
respective successors are duly elected or appointed and qualified.

      SECTION 1.4. Further Action. If, at any time after the Effective Time, any
further action is necessary or desirable to carry out the purposes of this
Agreement and to vest the Surviving Corporation with full right, title and
possession to all properties, rights, privileges, immunities, powers and
franchises of either of the Constituent Corporations, the officers of the
Surviving Corporation are fully authorized in the name of each Constituent
Corporation or otherwise to take, and shall take, all such lawful and necessary
action.

      SECTION 1.5. Conversion of Shares. At the Effective Time, by virtue of the
Merger and without any action on the part of AEI, ATI or any holder of any
shares of common stock of AEI, par value $.01 per share (the "AEI Shares"), each
AEI Share issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time shall
be converted into 32.48922 shares (the "Exchange Ratio") of common stock of ATI,
par value $0.001 ("ATI Shares").

      SECTION 1.6. Exchange of Certificates. At the Effective Time, each
certificate representing AEI Shares shall be canceled and become exchangeable
for a certificate representing the number of ATI Shares equal to the number of
AEI Shares set forth on the canceled AEI certificate multiplied by the Exchange
Ratio.

      SECTION 1.7. No Fractional Shares. No fraction of a share of ATI Shares
will be issued. In lieu thereof, the number of ATI Shares issuable to each
holder of shares of AEI Shares who would otherwise be entitled to a fraction of
a share of ATI Shares (after aggregating all fractional shares of ATI Shares to
be received by such holder of AEI Shares) shall be rounded down to the nearest
whole share number, and ATI shall pay to such holder the cash amount equal to
such fractional share multiplied by the fair market value of one share of Common
Stock as determined by the Board of Directors of ATI.

                                   ARTICLE II

           REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF AEI AND AEI STOCKHOLDERS

      AEI and the AEI Stockholders, jointly and severally, represent and warrant
to ATI as follows:

      SECTION 2.1. Organization. AEI and each of its subsidiaries is a
corporation duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws
of the jurisdiction of its incorporation and has the requisite corporate power
and authority to own its properties and carry on its business as it is now being
conducted.

                                       -2-

   3

      SECTION 2.2.  Authority Relative to this Agreement.

            (a) AEI and each AEI Stockholder have the requisite corporate power
and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to consummate the
transactions contemplated hereby. The execution and delivery of this Agreement
and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby have been duly
authorized, to the extent and if required, by the boards of directors and
stockholders of AEI, and no other corporate proceedings on the part of AEI is
necessary to authorize this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby.
This Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by AEI and each AEI
Stockholder and constitutes a valid and binding obligation of AEI and each AEI
Stockholder, enforceable against it in accordance with its terms, except that
such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, moratorium or
other similar laws affecting or relating to enforcement of creditors' rights
generally and is subject to general principles of equity.

            (b) No consent, approval, authorization or order of any court or
government al agency or body is required for the consummation by AEI or any AEI
Stockholder of the transactions contemplated herein, except such approvals as
have been obtained.

            (c) The consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein
will not conflict with, result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a
default under any law or the terms of any indenture or other agreement or
instrument to which AEI or any AEI Stockholder is a party or bound, or any
judgment, order or decree applicable to AEI or any AEI Stockholder of any court,
regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body or arbitrator having
jurisdiction over AEI or any AEI Stockholder.

      SECTION 2.3.  Capitalization.

            (a) The authorized capital stock of AEI consists of 500,000 AEI
Shares. As of the date hereof, (i) 450,000 AEI Shares are issued and
outstanding, all of which are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and
not subject to preemptive rights and (ii) no AEI Shares are held in AEI's
treasury. Except as set forth in this Section 2.3, there are no shares of
capital stock of AEI authorized, issued or outstanding and there are no
outstanding subscriptions, options, warrants, rights, stock-based or
stock-related awards or convertible or exchangeable securities issued by AEI, or
other agreements or commitments of any character to which the AEI is a party,
relating to the issued or unissued capital stock or other securities of AEI,
including, without limitation, any agreement or commitment obligating AEI to
issue, delver or sell, or cause to be issued, delivered or sold, or to make any
payments based upon the value of, shares of capital stock or other securities of
AEI or obligating AEI to grant, extend or enter into any subscription, option,
warrant, right, stock-based or stock-related plan or arrangement or convertible
or exchangeable security or other similar agreement or commitment (including,
without limitation, to any current or former employee or director of AEI). There
are no outstanding obligations of AEI or any of its subsidiaries to repurchase,
redeem or otherwise acquire any such capital stock or security. There are no
voting trusts, proxies or other agreements or understandings, with respect to
the voting of capital stock of AEI or any of its subsidiaries, to which AEI or
any of its subsidiaries is a party.



                                       -3-

   4



            (b) AEI is, directly or indirectly, the record and beneficial owner
of all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of, or all of the partnership
interests in, each of its subsidiaries. All of the outstanding shares of capital
stock of each subsidiary of AEI which is a corporation are validly issued, fully
paid and nonassessable and not subject to preemptive rights, and all shares of
capital stock or partnership interests of each subsidiary of AEI are owned by
AEI or a subsidiary thereof free and clear of all liens, options, claims or
encumbrances (including, without limitation, rights of first refusal or similar
rights) with respect to the ownership thereof. There are no outstanding
subscriptions, options, warrants, rights or convertible or exchangeable
securities issued by AEI or any subsidiary of AEI, or other agreements or
commitments of any character to which AEI or any subsidiary of AEI is a party,
relating to the issued or unissued capital stock or other securities or
partnership interests of any subsidiary of AEI, including, without limitation,
any agreement or commitment obligating AEI or any such subsidiary to issue,
deliver or sell, or cause to be issued, delivered or sell, or to make any
payments based upon the value of, shares of capital stock or other securities or
partnership interests of any such subsidiary, or obligating AEI or any such
subsidiary to grant, extend or enter into any subscription, option, warrant,
right, or convertible or exchangeable security or other similar agreement or
commitment.


                                   ARTICLE III

                      REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF ATI

      ATI represents and warrants to AEI as follows:

      SECTION 3.1. Organization and Qualification. ATI and each of its
subsidiaries is a corporation duly organized, validly existing and in good
standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation and has the
requisite corporate power and authority to own its properties and carry on its
business as it is now being conducted.

      SECTION 3.2. Authority Relative to this Agreement. ATI has the requisite
corporate power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to
consummate the transactions contemplated hereby. The execution and delivery of
this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby have
been duly authorized, to the extent and if required, by the boards of directors
and stockholders of ATI, and no other corporate proceedings on the part of ATI
is necessary to authorize this Agreement and the transactions contemplated
hereby. This Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by ATI and
constitutes a valid and binding obligation of ATI, enforceable against it in
accordance with its terms, except that such enforceability may be limited by
bankruptcy, insolvency, moratorium or other similar laws affecting or relating
to enforcement of creditors' rights generally and is subject to general
principles of equity.

      SECTION 3.3.  Capitalization.

                  3.3.1   The authorized capital stock of ATI consists of 
500,000,000 ATI Shares and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $.001
per share (the "ATI Preferred Shares"). As


                                       -4-

   5

of the date hereof, (i) nine ATI Shares are issued and outstanding, (ii) no ATI
Preferred Shares are outstanding, and (iii) no ATI Shares are held in ATI's
treasury. Except as set forth in this Section 3.3 or the Registration Statement
on Form S-1 (No. 333-37235) (the "Registration Statement") filed by ATI with the
Securities and Exchange Commission relating to the initial public offering by
ATI, there are no shares of capital stock of ATI authorized, issued or
outstanding and there are no outstanding subscriptions, options, warrants,
rights, stock-based or stock-related awards or convertible or exchangeable
securities issued by ATI, or other agreements or commitments of any character to
which the ATI is a party, relating to the issued or unissued capital stock or
other securities of ATI, including, without limitation, any agreement or
commitment obligating ATI to issue, deliver or sell, or cause to be issued,
delivered or sold, or to make any payments based upon the value of, shares of
capital stock or other securities of ATI or obligating ATI to grant, extend or
enter into any subscription, option, warrant, right, stock-based or
stock-related plan or arrangement or convertible or exchangeable security or
other similar agreement or commitment (including, without limitation, to any
current or former employee or director of ATI). There are no outstanding
obligations of ATI or any of its subsidiaries to repurchase, redeem or otherwise
acquire any such capital stock or security. There are no voting trusts, proxies
or other agreements or understandings, with respect to the voting of capital
stock of ATI or any of its subsidiaries, to which ATI or any of its subsidiaries
is a party.

                  3.3.2 The ATI Shares to be issued pursuant to the Merger will
be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will not be
issued in violation of or subject to any preemptive or other rights to subscribe
for or to purchase such securities created by the Certificate of Incorporation
or Bylaws of ATI or any agreement to which ATI is a party or by which it is
bound.

                                   ARTICLE IV

               REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF AEI STOCKHOLDERS


            The AEI Stockholders, jointly and severally, represent and warrant
to ATI that each AEI Stockholder has valid marketable title to the shares (the
"Shares") of AEI indicated next to such AEI Stockholder's name on Exhibit A,
free and clear of any pledge, lien, security interest, encumbrance, claim or
equitable interest.

                                    ARTICLE V

                                   CONDITIONS

      SECTION 5.1. Conditions to the Obligations of AEI and ATI. The obligations
of AEI and ATI to consummate the Merger are subject to the satisfaction, at or
before the Effective Time, of each of the following conditions:

                  5.1.1 The stockholders of each of ATI and AEI shall have duly
approved this Agreement and the Merger in accordance with the applicable
provisions of DGCL and PBCL and their respective Articles of Incorporation and
Bylaws.


                                       -5-

   6

                  5.1.2 The consummation of the Merger shall not be prohibited
by any applicable statute, rule or regulation or any order, decree or injunction
of a court of competent jurisdiction.

                  5.1.3 The Board of Directors of ATI, in its sole discretion,
shall have approved the consummation of the Merger.

                                   ARTICLE VI

              SURVIVAL OF REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES; INDEMNITY

      SECTION 6.1. Survival of Representations and Warranties. All of the
representations and warranties of AEI and the AEI Stockholders in this Agreement
or in any instrument delivered pursuant to this Agreement shall survive the
Merger and continue until 5:00 p.m., Pennsylvania time, on the date which is
eighteen (18) months following the Closing Date (the "Expiration Date").

      SECTION 6.2. Indemnification for Representations and Warranties. Each of
the AEI Stockholders (such persons being hereinafter referred to collectively as
the "Indemnifying Parties" and individually as an "Indemnifying Party") hereby
covenant and agree, severally and jointly, to indemnify, defend and hold
harmless ATI and the directors, officers, AEI Stockholders and other affiliates
(in each case, other than the AEI Stockholders) of ATI (such persons being
hereinafter referred to collectively as the "Indemnified Parties" and
individually as an "Indemnified Party"), from and against, and pay or reimburse
each of the Indemnified Parties for, any liabilities, obligations, losses,
claims, royalties, fines, deficiencies, damages, costs or expenses (whether
absolute, accrued or otherwise and whether or not resulting from third party
claims), including any interest and penalties with respect thereto and
reasonable out-of-pocket expenses and reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses
incurred in the investigation or defense of any of the same (individually and
collectively, "Losses"), arising out of or resulting from (i) any inaccuracy in
or breach of a representation or warranty of AEI or the AEI Stockholders
contained in this Agreement.

      SECTION 6.3. Indemnification Procedure. All claims for indemnification
under this Agreement (individually, a "Claim" and collectively, "Claims") shall
be asserted and resolved as follows:

            6.3.1 In the event that any Claim for which an Indemnifying Party
could be liable to an Indemnified Party hereunder is asserted against an
Indemnified Party, the Indemnified Party shall notify the Indemnifying Party of
such Claim, specifying the nature of such Claim and the amount or the estimated
amount thereof to the extent then feasible (which estimate shall not be used as
evidence with respect to, nor shall it be conclusive of, the final amount of
such Claim) (the "Claim Notice"). The Indemnifying Party shall have 30 days from
the date of the Claim Notice (the "Notice Period") to notify the Indemnified
Party whether or not the Indemnifying Party disputes the Indemnifying Party's
liability to the Indemnified Party hereunder with respect to such Claim. If the
Indemnifying Party does not notify the Indemnified Party within 30 days from the
date of such Claim Notice that the Indemnifying Party disputes such Claim, the
amount of such Claim shall be conclusively deemed a liability of the
Indemnifying Party hereunder. The Indemnified Party shall have the right, at the
cost and expense of


                                       -6-

   7

the Indemnifying Party, to defend by appropriate proceedings, which proceedings
shall be diligently settled or prosecuted by the Indemnified Party to a final
conclusion; provided that the Indemnifying Party shall have the right to approve
of the selection of counsel for the Indemnified Party, which approval shall not
unreasonably be withheld; and provided further that, unless the Indemnifying
Party otherwise consents in writing, which consent shall not be unreasonably
withheld, any monetary settlement by the Indemnified Party shall not be
conclusive of the amount of any indemnification obligation hereunder. The
Indemnified Party shall be entitled to recover from the Indemnifying Party the
amount of any settlement effected in accordance with the immediately preceding
sentence or any judgment and, on an ongoing basis, all indemnifiable costs and
expenses of the Indemnified Party with respect thereto, including interest from
the date such costs and expenses were incurred.

            6.3.2 The Indemnified Party's failure to give reasonably prompt
notice to the Indemnifying Party of any actual, threatened or possible claim or
demand that may give rise to a right of indemnification hereunder shall not
relieve the Indemnifying Party of any liability which the Indemnifying Party may
have to the Indemnified Party unless the failure to give such notice materially
and adversely prejudiced the Indemnifying Party.

                                   ARTICLE VII

                                  MISCELLANEOUS

      SECTION 7.1. Termination. This Agreement may be terminated and the Merger
contemplated hereby may be abandoned at any time prior to the Effective Time
upon written or oral notice of such by either ATI or AEI, whether prior to or
after approval by the stockholders of either ATI or AEI.

      SECTION 7.2. Effect of Termination. The representations, warranties and
agreements in this Agreement shall terminate upon the termination of this
Agreement pursuant to this Section 7, but in the event the Merger is
consummated, they shall survive the Effective Time.

      SECTION 7.3. Waiver and Amendment. Any provision of this Agreement may be
waived at any time by the party which is, or whose stockholders are, entitled to
the benefits thereof. No waiver, amendment or supplement shall be effective
unless in writing and signed by the party or parties sought to be bound thereby.

      SECTION 7.4. Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the entire
agreement among the parties hereto with respect to the Merger and the other
transactions contemplated hereby, and this Agreement supersedes all prior
agreements among the parties with respect to these matters.

      SECTION 7.5. Applicable Law. This Agreement shall be governed by and
construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Delaware without giving
effect to the conflicts of law principles thereof.


                                       -7-

   8

      SECTION 7.6.  Interpretation and Certain Defined Terms.

            (a) When a reference is made in this Agreement to subsidiaries of a
Person, the word "subsidiaries" means any corporation more than 50 percent of
whose outstanding voting securities, or any partnership, joint venture or other
entity more than 50 percent of whose total equity interest, is directly or
indirectly owned by such Person. For purposes of this Agreement, ATI shall not
be deemed to be an affiliate or subsidiary of AEI.

            (b) "Person" means and includes an individual, a partnership, a
joint venture, a corporation or trust, an unincorporated organization, a group
or a government or other department or agency thereof.

      SECTION 7.7. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of
counterparts, each of which shall be deemed to be an original but all of which
together shall constitute but one agreement.

      SECTION 7.8. Severability. Any term or provision of this Agreement which
is invalid or unenforceable in any jurisdiction shall, as to that jurisdiction,
be ineffective to the extent of such invalidity or unenforceability without
rendering invalid or unenforceable the remaining terms and provisions of this
Agreement or affecting the validity or enforceability of any of the terms or
provisions of this Agreement in any other jurisdiction. If any provision of this
Agreement is so broad as to be unenforceable, the provision shall be interpreted
to be only so broad as is enforceable.

      SECTION 7.9. Parties in Interest; Assignment. This Agreement is binding
upon and is solely for the benefit of the parties hereto and their respective
successors and permitted assigns, it being understood that all rights of AEI
hereunder shall accrue to the Surviving Corporation.


                                       -8-

   9


      IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have executed this Agreement and
Plan of Reorganization as of the date first above written.


AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.                   AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.



By: /S/ JAMES J. KIM                    By: /S/ JAMES J. KIM
   -------------------------------------   -------------------------------------
   James J. Kim, Chief Executive Officer   James J. Kim, Chief Executive Officer



AEI STOCKHOLDERS

/S/ JAMES J. KIM
- --------------------------------------
James J. Kim


John T. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/S/ MEMMA S. KILGANNON, Attorney-in-fact
- --------------------------------------
for John T. Kim, Trustee
Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon
              ------------------------


Susan Y. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/S/ MEMMA S. KILGANNON, Attorney-in-fact
- --------------------------------------
for Susan Y. Kim, Trustee
Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon
              ------------------------


David D. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/S/ MEMMA S. KILGANNON, Attorney-in-fact
- --------------------------------------
for David D. Kim, Trustee
Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon
              ------------------------



                                       -9-

   10

                                    Exhibit A

                                AEI STOCKHOLDERS

NAME AEI SHARES HELD ATI SHARES TO BE - ---- --------------- ---------------- RECEIVED -------- James J. Kim 300,000 9,746,760 John T. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987 50,000 1,624,460 Susan Y. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987 50,000 1,624,460 David D. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987 50,000 1,624,460
-10- 11 AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF REORGANIZATION Dated as of April 14, 1998 BY AND AMONG AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC. a Pennsylvania corporation AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. a Delaware corporation AND CERTAIN STOCKHOLDERS OF AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC. 12 TABLE OF CONTENTS ARTICLE I THE MERGER...........................................................1 SECTION 1.1. The Merger..................................................1 SECTION 1.2. Closing; Effective Time.....................................1 SECTION 1.3. Effect of Merger............................................2 SECTION 1.4. Further Action..............................................2 SECTION 1.5. Conversion of Shares........................................2 SECTION 1.6. Exchange of Certificates....................................2 SECTION 1.7. No Fractional Shares........................................2 ARTICLE II REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF AEI AND AEI STOCKHOLDERS ...............................................................2 SECTION 2.1. Organization................................................3 SECTION 2.2. Authority Relative to this Agreement........................3 SECTION 2.3. Capitalization..............................................3 ARTICLE III REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF ATI..............................4 SECTION 3.1. Organization and Qualification..............................4 SECTION 3.2. Authority Relative to this Agreement........................4 SECTION 3.3. Capitalization..............................................5 ARTICLE IV REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF AEI STOCKHOLDERS .................5 ARTICLE V CONDITIONS...........................................................5 SECTION 5.1. Conditions to the Obligations of AEI and ATI................5 ARTICLE VI SURVIVAL OF REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES; INDEMNITY...............6 SECTION 6.1. Survival of Representations and Warranties..................6 SECTION 6.2. Indemnification for Representations and Warranties...........6 SECTION 6.3. Indemnification Procedure...................................6 ARTICLE VII MISCELLANEOUS......................................................7 SECTION 7.1. Termination.................................................7 SECTION 7.2. Effect of Termination.......................................7 SECTION 7.3. Waiver and Amendment........................................7 SECTION 7.4. Entire Agreement............................................7 SECTION 7.5. Applicable Law..............................................8
13 SECTION 7.6. Interpretation and Certain Defined Terms....................8 SECTION 7.7. Counterparts................................................8 SECTION 7.8. Severability................................................8 SECTION 7.9. Parties in Interest; Assignment.............................8
   1
                                                                     EXHIBIT 2.2


                            STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT



      This STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT (the "Agreement") is made and entered into
as of April 29, 1998 by and between Guardian Assets, Inc., a Delaware
corporation ("Buyer"), and the stockholders of AK Industries, Inc., a Texas
corporation (the "Company"), listed on Schedule A ("Sellers").


                                    RECITALS

      A. The Boards of Directors of Buyer believes it is in the best interests
of Buyer and its stockholders that Buyer acquire all of the outstanding capital
stock of the Company (the "Acquisition").

      B. The Sellers desire to sell the capital stock of the Company held by
them to Buyer.

      C. The Sellers and Buyer desire to make certain representations and
warranties and other agreements in connection with the Acquisition.

      NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the covenants, promises and
representations set forth herein, and for other good and valuable consideration,
the parties agree as follows:


                                    ARTICLE I

                              THE PURCHASE AND SALE

      1.1 The Purchase and Sale. At the Closing (as defined in Section 1.2) and
subject to and upon the terms and conditions of this Agreement Sellers agree to
sell and deliver to Buyer and Buyer agrees to purchase from Sellers all of the
outstanding shares of the Company's Common Stock (the "Shares") free and clear
of all liens, claims and encumbrances.

      1.2 Purchase Price. The aggregate purchase price for the Shares shall be
$3,000,000.00. In lieu of cash Buyer may deliver to the Sellers promissory notes
(the "Notes") substantially in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A and in the
principal amounts indicated next to each Seller's name on Schedule A.

      1.3 The Closing. The closing of the Acquisition (the "Closing") will take
place on the date hereof (the "Closing Date"), at the offices of Buyer at 1345
Enterprise Drive, West Chester, PA 19380.



   2

      1.4 Deliveries by Sellers and the Company. At the Closing, each Seller
shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, share certificates representing the
Shares owned by such Seller as indicated on Schedule A, duly endorsed for
transfer to Buyer. With respect to the Company, Sellers shall deliver a properly
executed FIRPTA exemption certificate which meets the requirements of Treasury
Regulation Section 1.1445-2.

      1.5 Deliveries by Buyer. At the Closing, Buyer shall deliver the Notes
required by Section 1.2 hereof.


                                   ARTICLE II

                    REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF SELLERS

      Each Seller represents and warrants to Buyer as follows:

      2.1 Each Seller has all power and authority to enter into this Agreement,
to perform each Seller's respective obligations hereunder and to consummate the
transactions contemplated hereby.

      2.2 This Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by each Seller and
constitutes a legal, valid and binding obligation of each Seller enforceable
against each Seller in accordance with its terms, except as such enforceability
may be limited by principles of public policy and subject to the laws of general
application relating to bankruptcy, insolvency and the relief of debtors and
rules of law governing specific performance, injunctive relief or other
equitable principles.

      2.3 Each Seller has good and valid title to the Shares held by such
Seller, as reflected on Schedule A, and at the Closing good valid title to such
Shares will pass to Buyer free and clear of any liens, claims, encumbrances,
security interests, options, charges and restrictions of any kind.

      2.4     Representations as to the Company

              (a) Organization of the Company. The Company is a corporation duly
organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the State of
Texas. The Company has the corporate power to own its properties and to carry on
its business as now being conducted. The Company has delivered a true and
correct copy of its Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, each as amended to
date, to Buyer.

              (b) Company Capital Structure. The authorized capital stock of the
Company consists of 10,000 shares of common stock, no par value (the "Company
Capital Stock"), 1000 shares of which are issued and outstanding. All
outstanding shares of the Company Capital Stock are held solely by Sellers and
are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. As of the
Closing, there shall be no existing options, convertible securities, warrants,
calls, pledges,

                                       -2-

   3

transfer restrictions (except restrictions imposed by federal and state
securities laws), liens, rights of first offer, rights of first refusal,
antidilution provisions or commitments of any character relating to any issued
or unissued shares of Company Capital Stock. There are no preemptive or other
preferential rights applicable to the issuance and sale of securities of the
Company, including the Shares, created by statute, the Certificate of
Incorporation or Bylaws of the Company or any agreement, written or oral, to
which the Company is a party or by which it is bound.

              (c) Subsidiaries. The Company holds 1000 shares of common stock,
no par value (the "Subsidiary Shares"), of Amkor-Anam, Inc., a Texas corporation
(the "Subsidiary"), which Subsidiary Shares represent all of the authorized and
outstanding shares of the Subsidiary. Except for the Subsidiary, the Company
does not have and has never had any subsidiaries or affiliated companies and
does not otherwise own and has never otherwise owned any shares of capital stock
or any interest in, or control, directly or indirectly, any other corporation,
partnership, association, joint venture or other business entity.

              (d) No Undisclosed Liabilities. The Company does not have any
liability, indebtedness, obligation, expense, claim, deficiency, guaranty or
endorsement of any type, whether accrued, absolute, contingent, matured,
unmatured or other.

              (e) Operations. The Company has no employees, business or
operations, agreements with any third parties, governmental permits or licenses,
or, except for the Subsidiary Shares, assets or property of any kind.

              (f) Litigation. There is no action, suit, claim or proceeding of
any nature pending or to Sellers' knowledge threatened against the Company, its
properties or any of its officers or directors (with respect to the operations
of the Company), nor, to the knowledge of Sellers, is there any basis therefor.
There is no investigation pending or threatened against the Company, its
properties or any of its officers or directors (nor, to the best knowledge of
Sellers, is there any basis therefor) by or before any governmental entity. No
governmental entity has at any time challenged or questioned the legal right of
the Company to own the Subsidiary Shares.

              (g) Minute Books. The minute books of the Company made available
to counsel for Buyer are the only minute books of the Company and contain a
reasonably accurate summary of all meetings of directors (or committees thereof)
and stockholders or actions by written consent since the time of incorporation
of the Company.

      2.5 Representations Complete. None of the representations or warranties
made by Sellers contains any untrue statement of a material fact, or omits to
state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements contained
herein or therein, in the light of the circumstances under which made, not
misleading.


                                       -3-

   4

                                   ARTICLE III

                     REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF BUYER

      Buyer represents and warrants to Sellers as follows:

      3.1 Organization, Standing and Power. Buyer is a corporation duly
organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the State of
Delaware. Buyer has the corporate power to own its properties and to carry on
its business as now being conducted and is duly qualified to do business and is
in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the failure to be so qualified
would have a material adverse effect on the ability of Buyer to consummate the
transactions contemplated hereby.

      3.2 Authority. Buyer has all requisite corporate power and authority to
enter into this Agreement and to consummate the transactions contemplated
hereby. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and the consummation of the
transactions contemplated hereby have been duly authorized by all necessary
corporate action on the part of Buyer. This Agreement has been duly executed and
delivered by Buyer and constitutes the valid and binding obligations of Buyer,
enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as such enforceability may be
limited by principles of public policy and subject to the laws of general
application relating to bankruptcy, insolvency and the relief of debtors and
rules of law governing specific performance, injunctive relief or other
equitable remedies.


                                   ARTICLE IV

                              ADDITIONAL AGREEMENTS

      4.1 Expenses. All fees and expenses incurred in connection with the
Acquisition including, without limitation, all legal, accounting, financial
advisory, consulting and all other fees and expenses of third parties ("Third
Party Expenses") incurred by a party in connection with the negotiation and
effectuation of the terms and conditions of this Agreement and the transactions
contemplated hereby, shall be the obligation of Buyer.

      4.2 FIRPTA Compliance. On the Closing Date, Sellers shall cause the
Company to deliver to Buyer a properly executed statement in a form reasonably
acceptable to Buyer for purposes of satisfying Buyer's obligations under
Treasury Regulation Section 1.1445-2(c)(3).

      4.3 Additional Documents and Further Assurances. Each party hereto, at the
request of another party hereto, shall execute and deliver such other
instruments and do and perform such other acts and things as may be necessary or
desirable for effecting completely the consummation of this Agreement and the
transactions contemplated hereby.


                                       -4-

   5

                                    ARTICLE V

                               GENERAL PROVISIONS

      5.1 Amendment. This Agreement may be amended by the parties hereto at any
time by execution of an instrument in writing signed on behalf of each of the
parties hereto.


      5.2 Notices. All notices and other communications hereunder shall be in
writing and shall be deemed given if delivered personally or by commercial
delivery service, or mailed by registered or certified mail (return receipt
requested) or sent via facsimile (with acknowledgment of complete transmission)
to the parties at the following addresses (or at such other address for a party
as shall be specified by like notice):

            (a)   if to Buyer, to:

                  Kevin Heron
                  1345 Enterprise Drive
                  West Chester, PA 19380
                  Phone: (610) 431-9600
                  Fax: (610) 431-9967

                  with a copy to:

                  Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C.
                  650 Page Mill Road
                  Palo Alto, California 94304-1050
                  Attention:  Bruce McNamara

            (b)   if to Sellers, to:

                  Memma S. Kilgannon
                  1345 Enterprise Drive
                  West Chester, PA 19380
                  Phone: (610) 431-9600
                  Fax: (610) 431-9967


      5.3 Interpretation. The words "include," "includes" and "including" when
used herein shall be deemed in each case to be followed by the words "without
limitation." The table of contents and headings contained in this Agreement are
for reference purposes only and shall not affect in any way the meaning or
interpretation of this Agreement.


                                       -5-

   6



      5.4 Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in one or more
counterparts, all of which shall be considered one and the same agreement and
shall become effective when one or more counterparts have been signed by each of
the parties and delivered to the other party, it being understood that all
parties need not sign the same counterpart.

      5.5 Entire Agreement; Assignment. This Agreement, the schedules and
Exhibits hereto, and the documents and instruments and other agreements among
the parties hereto referenced herein: (a) constitute the entire agreement among
the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersede all prior
agreements and understandings, both written and oral, among the parties with
respect to the subject matter hereof; (b) are not intended to confer upon any
other person any rights or remedies hereunder; and (c) shall not be assigned by
operation of law or otherwise except as otherwise specifically provided, except
that Buyer may assign their respective rights and delegate their respective
obligations hereunder to their respective affiliates.

      5.6 Severability. In the event that any provision of this Agreement or the
application thereof, becomes or is declared by a court of competent jurisdiction
to be illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of this Agreement will
continue in full force and effect and the application of such provision to other
persons or circumstances will be interpreted so as reasonably to effect the
intent of the parties hereto. The parties further agree to replace such void or
unenforceable provision of this Agreement with a valid and enforceable provision
that will achieve, to the extent possible, the economic, business and other
purposes of such void or unenforceable provision.

      5.7 Other Remedies. Except as otherwise provided herein, any and all
remedies herein expressly conferred upon a party will be deemed cumulative with
and not exclusive of any other remedy conferred hereby, or by law or equity upon
such party, and the exercise by a party of any one remedy will not preclude the
exercise of any other remedy.

      5.8 Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in
accordance with the laws of the State of Delaware, regardless of the laws that
might otherwise govern under applicable principles of conflicts of laws thereof.

      5.9 Rules of Construction. The parties hereto agree that they have been
represented by counsel during the negotiation and execution of this Agreement
and, therefore, waive the application of any law, regulation, holding or rule of
construction providing that ambiguities in an agreement or other document will
be construed against the party drafting such agreement or document.

                                       -6-

   7

      IN WITNESS WHEREOF, Buyer and Sellers have caused this Agreement to be
signed by their duly authorized respective officers, all as of the date first
written above.

BUYER

GUARDIAN ASSETS, INC.

/s/ James J. Kim
- ---------------------------------------
James J. Kim, Chief Executive Officer



SELLERS

John T. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/s/ Memma S. Kilgannon, Attorney-in-Fact
- ---------------------------------------
for John T. Kim, Trustee

Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon 
              -------------------------



Susan Y. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/s/ Memma S. Kilgannon, Attorney-in-Fact
- ---------------------------------------
for Susan Y. Kim, Trustee

Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon
              -------------------------


David D. Kim Trust of December 31, 1987
/s/ Memma S. Kilgannon, Attorney-in-Fact
- --------------------------------------- 
for David D. Kim

Name (print): Memma S. Kilgannon
              -------------------------


                         ***STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT***

                                       -7-

   8

                                   Schedule A

                        AK Industries, Inc. Stockholders



NAME COMPANY SHARES PRINCIPAL AMOUNT OF - ---- -------------- ------------------- PROMISSORY NOTE TO BE --------------------- RECEIVED -------- John T. Kim Trust of 333.33 $1,000,000.00 December 31, 1987 Susan Y. Kim Trust of 333.34 $1,000,000.00 December 31, 1987 David D. Kim Trust of 333.33 $1,000,000.00 December 31, 1987
-8-
   1
                                                                     EXHIBIT 2.3

THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE the 29th day of April, 1998


BETWEEN:    (1)   COTSWOLD INVESTMENTS LTD of P.O. Box 309,George Town,
                  Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands (the "Vendor")

AND         (2)   AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC., a Delaware Corporation of 1345
                  Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 (the 
                  "Purchaser")

WHEREAS:-

The parties wish to record the arrangements made between them in relation to the
sale by the Vendor to the Purchaser of 63,904,851 Shares of US$0.01 nominal
value each (the "Shares") of Amkor International Holdings (the "Company"),
beneficially and legally owned by the Vendor.

NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows:

1.      The Vendor shall sell and the Purchaser shall purchase the legal and
        beneficial interest in the Shares effective on the date hereof (the
        "Closing Date"). On the Closing Date, the Purchaser shall issue to the
        Vendor 63,904,851 shares of stock of US$0.001 par value each of the
        Purchaser (the "Purchaser Shares"), issued as fully paid and non
        assessable, and the receipt by the Vendor of the Purchaser Shares issued
        by the Purchaser shall be good and sufficient discharge of the
        obligation of the Purchaser to pay the purchase price for the Shares and
        the receipt by the Purchaser of the Shares issued by Vendor shall be
        good and sufficient discharge of the obligation of the Purchaser to pay
        the purchase price for the Purchaser Shares.

2.      The Vendor hereby represents, warrants and acknowledges that:-

        (a)     The Vendor is the legal and beneficial owner of the Shares
                (having the nominal value described in the recital set out above
                and being fully paid) and has absolute right to sell, assign,
                convey, transfer and deliver the beneficial and legal title in
                such Shares which are free and clear of any liens, claims or
                encumbrances;

        (b)     The Vendor has duly executed and delivered this Agreement and
                this Agreement constitutes valid, legal and binding obligations
                of the Vendor enforceable against the Vendor in accordance with
                its terms;

        (c)     The Vendor has, so far as it is aware, complied with all
                applicable laws and regulations in any relevant jurisdiction
                with regard to the acquisition and transfer of



   2

                                      -2-

                the Shares.

3.      The Purchaser hereby represents, warrants and acknowledges that:

        (a)     The Purchaser has all requisite legal and corporate power and
                authority to execute and deliver this Agreement, to sell and
                issue the Purchaser Shares hereunder, and to carry out and
                perform its obligations under the terms of this Agreement.

        (b)     All corporate action on the part of the Purchaser, its directors
                and stockholders necessary for the authorization, execution,
                delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Purchaser, the
                authorization, sale, issuance and delivery of the Purchaser
                Shares and the performance of all of the Purchaser's obligations
                hereunder have been or will be taken prior to the Closing Date.

        (c)     This Agreement, when executed and delivered by the Purchaser,
                constitutes a valid and binding obligation of the Purchaser,
                enforceable in accordance with its terms, subject to laws of
                general application relating to bankruptcy, insolvency and the
                relief of debtors and rules of law governing specific
                performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies.

        (d)     The Purchaser Shares, when issued in compliance with the
                provisions of this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid
                and nonassessable.

        (e)     The Purchaser Shares will be free of any liens or encumbrances
                other than any liens or encumbrances created by or imposed upon
                the holders; provided, however, that the Purchaser Shares are
                subject to restrictions on transfer under state and/or federal
                securities laws and this Agreement.

4.      The parties hereto shall be responsible for their own costs in
        connection with the preparation and negotiation of this Agreement and
        the transactions contemplated hereby.

5.      The obligations of the Vendor under this Agreement will continue after
        payment of the purchase price of the Shares.

6.      The Purchaser acknowledges that in entering into this Agreement, it has
        not relied upon any representation and warranty given by the Vendor
        except as set out in Clause 2 above and in Exhibit A hereto, and the
        Vendor acknowledges that in entering into this Agreement, it has not
        relied upon any representation and warranty given by the Purchaser
        except as set out in Clause 3 above.

7.      Neither the Purchaser Shares nor any beneficial interest therein shall
        be transferred, encumbered or otherwise disposed of in any way except in
        accordance with the provisions 


   3

                                      -3-

        of this Agreement. Any transferee of the Purchaser Shares shall agree to
        be bound by the terms of this Agreement. The Vendor agrees to execute
        and deliver to Purchaser, concurrently with execution and delivery of
        this Agreement, the Investment Representation Statement attached hereto
        as EXHIBIT A.

8.      (a)     Vendor understands and agrees that Purchaser shall cause the
                legends set forth below or legends substantially equivalent
                thereto, to be placed upon any certificate(s) evidencing
                ownership of the Purchaser Shares together with any other
                legends that may be required by Purchaser or by applicable state
                or federal securities laws:

                THE SECURITIES REPRESENTED HEREBY HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED UNDER
                THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 (THE "SECURITIES ACT") AND MAY NOT BE
                OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED, PLEDGED OR HYPOTHECATED
                UNLESS AND UNTIL REGISTERED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OR, IN THE
                OPINION OF COUNSEL SATISFACTORY TO THE ISSUER OF THESE
                SECURITIES, SUCH OFFER, SALE OR TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR
                HYPOTHECATION IS IN COMPLIANCE THEREWITH.

        (b)     Stop-Transfer Notices. Vendor agrees that, in order to ensure
                compliance with the restrictions referred to herein, Purchaser
                may issue appropriate "stop transfer" instructions to its
                transfer agent, if any, and that, if Purchaser transfers its own
                securities, it may make appropriate notations to the same effect
                in its own records.

        (c)     Refusal to Transfer. The Company shall not be required (i) to
                transfer on its books any Purchaser Shares that have been sold
                or otherwise transferred in violation of any of the provisions
                of this Agreement or (ii) to treat as owner of such Purchaser
                Shares or to accord the right to vote or pay dividends to any
                purchaser or other transferee to whom such Purchaser Shares
                shall have been so transferred.

9.      This Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts, each of
        which shall be deemed originals, all of which together shall constitute
        one and the same instrument.

10.     This Agreement shall be binding on and inure for the benefit of the
        parties hereto and their respective successors and the parties each
        agree that they may not assign or transfer any of their rights and
        obligations under this Agreement.

11.     Every notice and communication under this Agreement shall:-

(a)     be in writing, delivered personally or by prepaid letter, telex or
        telecopier;

(b)     be deemed to have been received in the case of a telex or telecopier at
        the time of dispatch (provided that if the date of dispatch is not a
        business day in the country of 


   4

                                      -4-

        the addressee, it shall be deemed to have been received at the opening
        of business on the next such business day and in the case of a letter,
        when delivered personally or seven days after being put into the post,
        prepaid airmail), and

(c)     be sent to the address of the relevant party given above or to such
        other address notified for that purpose and in the case of a telecopy or
        telex, such number as may have been notified from time to time for such
        purpose.

12.     This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the
        laws of the Cayman Islands.

13.     In relation to any legal action or proceedings arising out of or in
        connection with this Agreement ("Proceedings"), the Vendor and the
        Purchaser irrevocably submit to the jurisdiction of the courts of the
        Cayman Islands and waive any objection to Proceedings in such courts,
        whether on the grounds that the Proceedings have been brought in an
        inconvenient forum or otherwise. This submission shall not affect the
        right of the Vendor or the Purchaser to take Proceedings in any other
        court of competent jurisdiction, nor shall the taking of Proceedings in
        any other court of competent jurisdiction preclude any party from taking
        Proceedings in any other court of competent jurisdiction (whether
        concurrently or not).

IN WITNESS WHEREOF this Agreement has been executed on the date first above
mentioned.



Signed for and on behalf of                     )
COTSWOLD INVESTMENTS LTD                        )
                                                )
by: per pro Commerce Advisory Services Limited  )
                                                )
/s/  illegible                                  )
____________________________                    )
                                                 
                                                 
                                                 
Signed for and on behalf of                     )
AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.                          )
by:                                             )
                                                )
/s/  Frank J. Marcucci                          )
____________________________                    )
Frank J. Marcucci, Secretary                    )

                                    EXHIBIT A
   5

                                      -5-

                       INVESTMENT REPRESENTATION STATEMENT

Vendor                  :           Cotswold Investments Ltd.

Purchaser               :           Amkor Technology, Inc.

Securities              :           Common Stock

Amount                  :           63,904,851 Shares of Common Stock

In connection with the purchase of the above-listed Securities, the undersigned
Vendor represents to Purchaser the following:

        (a) Vendor is aware of Purchaser's business affairs and financial
condition and has acquired sufficient information about Purchaser to reach an
informed and knowledgeable decision to acquire the Securities. Vendor is
acquiring these Securities for investment for Vendor's own account only and not
with a view to, or for resale in connection with, any "distribution" thereof
within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "SECURITIES
ACT").

        (b) Vendor acknowledges and understands that the Securities constitute
"restricted securities" under the Securities Act and have not been registered
under the Securities Act in reliance upon a specific exemption therefrom, which
exemption depends upon, among other things, the bona fide nature of Vendor's
investment intent as expressed herein. In this connection, Vendor understands
that, in the view of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the statutory basis
for such exemption may be unavailable if Vendor's representation was predicated
solely upon a present intention to hold these Securities for the minimum capital
gains period specified under tax statutes, for a deferred sale, for or until an
increase or decrease in the market price of the Securities, or for a period of
one year or any other fixed period in the future. Vendor further understands
that the Securities must be held indefinitely unless they are subsequently
registered under the Securities Act or an exemption from such registration is
available. Vendor further acknowledges and understands that Purchaser is under
no obligation to register the Securities. Vendor understands that the
certificate evidencing the Securities will be imprinted with a legend which
prohibits the transfer of the Securities unless they are registered or such
registration is not required in the opinion of counsel satisfactory to Purchaser
and any other legend required under applicable state securities laws.

        (c) Vendor is familiar with the provisions of Rule 144, promulgated
under the Securities Act, which, in substance, permits limited public resale of
"restricted securities" acquired, directly or indirectly from the issuer
thereof, in a non-public offering subject to the satisfaction of certain
conditions. The provisions of Rule 144 require the resale to occur not less than
one year after the later of the date the Securities were sold by Purchaser or
the date the Securities were sold by an affiliate of Purchaser, within the
meaning of Rule 144; and, in the case of acquisition of the 


   6

                                      -6-

Securities by an affiliate, or by a non-affiliate who subsequently holds the
Securities less than two years, the satisfaction of certain of the conditions
specified by Rule 144, including: (1) the resale being made through a broker in
an unsolicited "broker's transaction" or in transactions directly with a market
maker (as said term is defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934); and,
in the case of an affiliate, (2) the availability of certain public information
about Purchaser, (3) the amount of Securities being sold during any three month
period not exceeding the limitations specified in Rule 144(e), and (4) the
timely filing of a Form 144, if applicable.

        (d) Vendor further understands that in the event all of the applicable
requirements of 144 are not satisfied, registration under the Securities Act,
compliance with Regulation A, or some other registration exemption will be
required; and that, notwithstanding the fact that Rule 144 is not exclusive, the
Staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission has expressed its opinion that
persons proposing to sell private placement securities other than in a
registered offering and otherwise than pursuant to Rules 144 or 701 will have a
substantial burden of proof in establishing that an exemption from registration
is available for such offers or sales, and that such persons and their
respective brokers who participate in such transactions do so at their own risk.
Vendor understands that no assurances can be given that any such other
registration exemption will be available in such event.


                           Signature of Vendor:                
                                                               
                           per pro Commerce Advisory Services Limited
                           /s/  Illegible
                           ------------------------------------------
                           Signature of Authorized Signatory   
                                                               
                           Illegible                           
                           ------------------------------------------
                           Print Name and Title                


   1
                                                                     EXHIBIT 2.4



THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE the 29th day of April, 1998


BETWEEN: (1)  TURQUOISE INVESTMENTS LTD of P.O. Box 694,George Town,
              Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands (the "Vendor")

AND      (2)  AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC. a Delaware Corporation of 1345
              Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 (the 
              "Purchaser")


WHEREAS:-

The parties wish to record the arrangements made between them in relation to the
sale by the Vendor to the Purchaser of 4,085,000 Shares of US$0.01 nominal value
each (the "Shares") of Amkor International Holdings (the "Company"),
beneficially and legally owned by the Vendor.

NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows:

1.      The Vendor shall sell and the Purchaser shall purchase the legal and
        beneficial interest in the Shares effective on the date hereof (the
        "Closing Date"). On the Closing Date, the Purchaser shall issue to the
        Vendor 4,085,000 shares of stock of US$0.01 par value each of the
        Purchaser (the "Purchaser Shares"), issued as fully paid and non
        assessable, and the receipt by the Vendor of the Purchaser Shares issued
        by the Purchaser shall be good and sufficient discharge of the
        obligation of the Purchaser to pay the purchase price for the Shares and
        the receipt by the Purchaser of the Shares issued by Vendor shall be
        good and sufficient discharge of the obligation of the Purchaser to pay
        the purchase price for the Purchaser Shares.

2.      The Vendor hereby represents, warrants and acknowledges that:-

        (a)     The Vendor is the legal and beneficial owner of the Shares
                (having the nominal value described in the recital set out above
                and being fully paid) and has absolute right to sell, assign,
                convey, transfer and deliver the beneficial and legal title in
                such Shares which are free and clear of any liens, claims or
                encumbrances;

        (b)     The Vendor has duly executed and delivered this Agreement and
                this Agreement constitutes valid, legal and binding obligations
                of the Vendor enforceable against the Vendor in accordance with
                its terms;

        (c)     The Vendor has, so far as it is aware, complied with all
                applicable laws and regulations in any relevant jurisdiction
                with regard to the acquisition and transfer of


   2

                                      -2-


                the Shares.

3.      The Purchaser hereby represents, warrants and acknowledges that:

        (a)     The Purchaser has all requisite legal and corporate power and
                authority to execute and deliver this Agreement, to sell and
                issue the Purchaser Shares hereunder, and to carry out and
                perform its obligations under the terms of this Agreement.

        (b)     All corporate action on the part of the Purchaser, its directors
                and stockholders necessary for the authorization, execution,
                delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Purchaser, the
                authorization, sale, issuance and delivery of the Purchaser
                Shares and the performance of all of the Purchaser's obligations
                hereunder have been or will be taken prior to the Closing Date.

        (c)     This Agreement, when executed and delivered by the Purchaser,
                constitutes a valid and binding obligation of the Purchaser,
                enforceable in accordance with its terms, subject to laws of
                general application relating to bankruptcy, insolvency and the
                relief of debtors and rules of law governing specific
                performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies.

        (d)     The Purchaser Shares, when issued in compliance with the
                provisions of this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid
                and nonassessable.

        (e)     The Purchaser Shares will be free of any liens or encumbrances
                other than any liens or encumbrances created by or imposed upon
                the holders; provided, however, that the Purchaser Shares are
                subject to restrictions on transfer under state and/or federal
                securities laws and this Agreement.

4.      The parties hereto shall be responsible for their own costs in
        connection with the preparation and negotiation of this Agreement and
        the transactions contemplated hereby.

5.      The obligations of the Vendor under this Agreement will continue after
        payment of the purchase price of the Shares.

6.      The Purchaser acknowledges that in entering into this Agreement, it has
        not relied upon any representation and warranty given by the Vendor
        except as set out in Clause 2 above and in Exhibit A hereto, and the
        Vendor acknowledges that in entering into this Agreement, it has not
        relied upon any representation and warranty given by the Purchaser
        except as set out in Clause 3 above.

7.      Neither the Purchaser Shares nor any beneficial interest therein shall
        be transferred, encumbered or otherwise disposed of in any way except in
        accordance with the provisions 


   3

                                      -3-

        of this Agreement. Any transferee of the Purchaser Shares shall agree to
        be bound by the terms of this Agreement. The Vendor agrees to execute
        and deliver to Purchaser, concurrently with execution and delivery of
        this Agreement, the Investment Representation Statement attached hereto
        as EXHIBIT A.

8.      (a)     Vendor understands and agrees that Purchaser shall cause the
                legends set forth below or legends substantially equivalent
                thereto, to be placed upon any certificate(s) evidencing
                ownership of the Purchaser Shares together with any other
                legends that may be required by Purchaser or by applicable state
                or federal securities laws:

                THE SECURITIES REPRESENTED HEREBY HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED UNDER
                THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 (THE "SECURITIES ACT") AND MAY NOT BE
                OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED, PLEDGED OR HYPOTHECATED
                UNLESS AND UNTIL REGISTERED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OR, IN THE
                OPINION OF COUNSEL SATISFACTORY TO THE ISSUER OF THESE
                SECURITIES, SUCH OFFER, SALE OR TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR
                HYPOTHECATION IS IN COMPLIANCE THEREWITH.

        (b)     Stop-Transfer Notices. Vendor agrees that, in order to ensure
                compliance with the restrictions referred to herein, Purchaser
                may issue appropriate "stop transfer" instructions to its
                transfer agent, if any, and that, if Purchaser transfers its own
                securities, it may make appropriate notations to the same effect
                in its own records.

        (c)     Refusal to Transfer. The Company shall not be required (i) to
                transfer on its books any Purchaser Shares that have been sold
                or otherwise transferred in violation of any of the provisions
                of this Agreement or (ii) to treat as owner of such Purchaser
                Shares or to accord the right to vote or pay dividends to any
                purchaser or other transferee to whom such Purchaser Shares
                shall have been so transferred.

9.      This Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts, each of
        which shall be deemed originals, all of which together shall constitute
        one and the same instrument.

10.     This Agreement shall be binding on and inure for the benefit of the
        parties hereto and their respective successors and the parties each
        agree that they may not assign or transfer any of their rights and
        obligations under this Agreement.

11.     Every notice and communication under this Agreement shall:-

        (a)     be in writing, delivered personally or by prepaid letter, telex
                or telecopier;

        (b)     be deemed to have been received in the case of a telex or
                telecopier at the time of dispatch (provided that if the date of
                dispatch is not a business day in the country of 


   4

                                      -4-

                the addressee, it shall be deemed to have been received at the
                opening of business on the next such business day and in the
                case of a letter, when delivered personally or seven days after
                being put into the post, prepaid airmail), and

        (c)     be sent to the address of the relevant party given above or to
                such other address notified for that purpose and in the case of
                a telecopy or telex, such number as may have been notified from
                time to time for such purpose.

12.     This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the
        laws of the Cayman Islands.

13.     In relation to any legal action or proceedings arising out of or in
        connection with this Agreement ("Proceedings"), the Vendor and the
        Purchaser irrevocably submit to the jurisdiction of the courts of the
        Cayman Islands and waive any objection to Proceedings in such courts,
        whether on the grounds that the Proceedings have been brought in an
        inconvenient forum or otherwise. This submission shall not affect the
        right of the Vendor or the Purchaser to take Proceedings in any other
        court of competent jurisdiction, nor shall the taking of Proceedings in
        any other court of competent jurisdiction preclude any party from taking
        Proceedings in any other court of competent jurisdiction (whether
        concurrently or not).

IN WITNESS WHEREOF this Agreement has been executed on the date first above
mentioned.



Signed for and on behalf of                     )
TURQUOISE INVESTMENTS LTD                       )
                                                )

by: per pro Commerce Corporate Services Limited )
    /s/ Richard McMillan                        )
    ----------------------                      )



Signed for and on behalf of                     )
AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.                          )
by: /s/ James J. Kim                            )
    ----------------------     
                               
 
                                    EXHIBIT A

   5
                                      -5-



                       INVESTMENT REPRESENTATION STATEMENT

Vendor                  :           Turquoise Investments Ltd.

Purchaser               :           Amkor Technology, Inc.

Securities              :           Common Stock

Amount                  :           4,085,000 Shares of Common Stock

In connection with the purchase of the above-listed Securities, the undersigned
Vendor represents to Purchaser the following:

        (a) Vendor is aware of Purchaser's business affairs and financial
condition and has acquired sufficient information about Purchaser to reach an
informed and knowledgeable decision to acquire the Securities. Vendor is
acquiring these Securities for investment for Vendor's own account only and not
with a view to, or for resale in connection with, any "distribution" thereof
within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "SECURITIES
ACT").

        (b) Vendor acknowledges and understands that the Securities constitute
"restricted securities" under the Securities Act and have not been registered
under the Securities Act in reliance upon a specific exemption therefrom, which
exemption depends upon, among other things, the bona fide nature of Vendor's
investment intent as expressed herein. In this connection, Vendor understands
that, in the view of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the statutory basis
for such exemption may be unavailable if Vendor's representation was predicated
solely upon a present intention to hold these Securities for the minimum capital
gains period specified under tax statutes, for a deferred sale, for or until an
increase or decrease in the market price of the Securities, or for a period of
one year or any other fixed period in the future. Vendor further understands
that the Securities must be held indefinitely unless they are subsequently
registered under the Securities Act or an exemption from such registration is
available. Vendor further acknowledges and understands that Purchaser is under
no obligation to register the Securities. Vendor understands that the
certificate evidencing the Securities will be imprinted with a legend which
prohibits the transfer of the Securities unless they are registered or such
registration is not required in the opinion of counsel satisfactory to Purchaser
and any other legend required under applicable state securities laws.

        (c) Vendor is familiar with the provisions of Rule 144, promulgated
under the Securities Act, which, in substance, permits limited public resale of
"restricted securities" acquired, directly or indirectly from the issuer
thereof, in a non-public offering subject to the satisfaction of certain
conditions. The provisions of Rule 144 require the resale to occur not less than
one year after the later of the date the Securities were sold by Purchaser or
the date the Securities were sold by an affiliate of Purchaser, within the
meaning of Rule 144; and, in the case of acquisition of the 


   6

                                      -6-

Securities by an affiliate, or by a non-affiliate who subsequently holds the
Securities less than two years, the satisfaction of certain of the conditions
specified by Rule 144, including: (1) the resale being made through a broker in
an unsolicited "broker's transaction" or in transactions directly with a market
maker (as said term is defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934); and,
in the case of an affiliate, (2) the availability of certain public information
about Purchaser, (3) the amount of Securities being sold during any three month
period not exceeding the limitations specified in Rule 144(e), and (4) the
timely filing of a Form 144, if applicable.

        (d) Vendor further understands that in the event all of the applicable
requirements of 144 are not satisfied, registration under the Securities Act,
compliance with Regulation A, or some other registration exemption will be
required; and that, notwithstanding the fact that Rule 144 is not exclusive, the
Staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission has expressed its opinion that
persons proposing to sell private placement securities other than in a
registered offering and otherwise than pursuant to Rules 144 or 701 will have a
substantial burden of proof in establishing that an exemption from registration
is available for such offers or sales, and that such persons and their
respective brokers who participate in such transactions do so at their own risk.
Vendor understands that no assurances can be given that any such other
registration exemption will be available in such event.


                                    Signature of Vendor:
                                    per pro Commerce Corporate Services Limited
                                    /s/ Richard McMillan
                                    -----------------------------------------
                                    Signature of Authorized Signatory

                                    Richard McMillan
                                    -----------------------------------------
                                    Print Name and Title


   1
                                                                     EXHIBIT 5.1

                 [Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati letterhead]




                                 April 29, 1998


Amkor Technology, Inc.
1345 Enterprise Drive
West Chester, PA 19830


        RE: REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-1


Ladies and Gentlemen:

        We have examined the Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-37235)
(the "Registration Statement") to be filed by Amkor Technology, Inc. (the
"Company") with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or about April 29,
1998 (the "Registration Statement") in connection with the registration under
the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, of (i) up to 35,000,000 shares (the
"Shares") of common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the "Common Stock"),
30,000,000 of which will be sold by the Company (the "Company Shares") and
5,000,000 of which will be sold by a certain selling stockholder (the "Selling
Stockholder Shares"), (ii) up to an aggregate of $150,000,000.00 principal
amount of convertible subordinated notes due 2003 (the "Notes") and (iii) Common
Stock issuable upon conversion of the Notes (the "Underlying Common"). The Notes
are to be issued pursuant to an Indenture (the "Indenture"), the form of which
has been filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement, to be entered into
between the Company and State Street Bank and Trust Company, as Trustee (the
"Trustee"). The Shares and the Notes are to be sold pursuant to an Underwriting
Agreement (the "Underwriting Agreement") in substantially the form filed as an
exhibit to the Registration Statement. The Notes are to be issued in the form of
Note included in the Indenture.

        We have examined instruments, documents and records which we deemed
relevant and necessary for the basis of our opinion hereinafter expressed. In
such examination, we have assumed (a) the authenticity of original documents
and the genuineness of all signatures, (b) the conformity to the originals of
all documents submitted to us as copies and (c) the truth, accuracy and
completeness of the information, representations and warranties contained in
the records, documents, instruments and certificates we have reviewed.

        Based on such examination, we are of the opinion that:

        (i) The Company Shares, when issued and sold in the manner referred to
in the Registration Statement, will be legally and validly issued, fully paid
and nonassessable.

        (ii) The Selling Stockholder Shares are legally and validly issued,
fully paid and nonassessable and will continue to be so after their sale under
the Registration Statement.

        (iii) The Notes are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company,
entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

        (iv) The Underlying Common has been legally and validly authorized,
and when issued and delivered in accordance with the terms of the Indenture,
will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

        Our opinion that any document is legal, valid and binding is qualified
as to:

        (A) Limitations imposed by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization,
arrangement, fraudulent conveyance, moratorium or other laws relating to or
affecting the rights of creditors generally;

        (B) General principles of equity, including without limitation,
concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the
possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief, and
limitations of rights of acceleration regardless of whether such enforceability
is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.

        We consent to the use of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration
Statement, including the prospectus constituting a part thereof, and further
consent to the use of our name wherever it appears in the Registration Statement
and any amendments thereto.

                                Very truly yours,


                                WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI
                                Professional Corporation




                                /s/ WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI

   1
                                                                   EXHIBIT 10.19

                       PACKAGING & TEST SERVICES AGREEMENT

                                  BY AND AMONG

                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                             AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.

                                 C.I.L. LIMITED

                                 ANAM USA, INC.

                                       AND

                            ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.

                                 JANUARY 1, 1998
   2
                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                            Page

Article I                  Purpose                                             3

Article II                 Definitions                                         4

Article III                Marketing & Sales Services                          5

Article IV                 Purchase Commitments & Forecasts                    6

Article V                  Packaging Services                                  8

Article VI                 Specifications, Quality & Reliability               8

Article VII                Electronic Data & Information Exchange              9

Article VIII               Delivery & Risk of Loss                            10

Article IX                 Pricing & Invoicing                                10

Article X                  Packaging Services Warranty                        11

Article XI                 Intellectual Property Warranty & Indemnifications  12

Article XII                Intellectual Property Ownership & Licenses         13

Article XIII               Research & Development & Technology Ownership      15

Article XIV                Liability Limitations                              15

Article XV                 Term                                               15

Article XVI                Arbitration                                        16

Article XVII               Miscellaneous                                      17


                                       2
   3
                      PACKAGING AND TEST SERVICES AGREEMENT

         This Packaging and Test Services Agreement ("Agreement") is made and
entered into this 1st day of January 1998 ("Effective Date") by and among Amkor
Technology, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the
state of Delaware, with offices located at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West Chester,
Pennsylvania 19380; Amkor Electronics, Inc., a corporation organized and
existing under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, with offices
located at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380; C.I.L.
Limited, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the Cayman
Islands, with offices located at CIBC Building, Edward Street, Grand Cayman,
Cayman Islands; Anam USA, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the
laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, with offices located at 1345
Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380; and, Anam Industrial Co.,
Ltd., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the Republic of
Korea, with offices located at 280-8 Sungsu 2-ga, Sungdong-ku, Seoul 133-120,
Korea ("Parties").

                                    RECITALS

         WHEREAS, Amkor Technology, Inc. ("ATI") is the parent corporation of,
among other legal entities, Amkor Electronics, Inc. ("Amkor") and C.I.L. Limited
("CIL"); and

         WHEREAS, Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL"), a publicly traded Korean
company, is engaged in the business, inter alia, of performing various
semiconductor packaging and test services and desires to market said services to
the semiconductor industry through Amkor and CIL; and

         WHEREAS, Amkor and CIL are engaged in the business of marketing
subcontract packaging and test services to the semiconductor industry and desire
to purchase such services from AICL; and

         WHEREAS, Anam USA, Inc. ("Anam USA"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of
AICL, is a trading company that will establish financing arrangements for AICL,
Amkor and CIL with respect to the services and transactions contemplated
hereunder.

         NOW THEREFORE, in consideration for the mutual covenants and promises
contained herein and in reliance thereon, the Parties hereby agree as follows:

1.       ARTICLE I - PURPOSE

         The Parties hereto have enjoyed a well-established and synergistic
         business relationship whereby Amkor and CIL and their respective
         Affiliates have established numerous relationships with semiconductor
         companies to provide integrated circuit packaging and test services. A
         substantial portion of these services has been performed by AICL, who,
         in turn, has relied on Amkor and CIL for their worldwide marketing and
         sales capabilities.

         The purpose of this Agreement is to establish a long-term arrangement
         between the Parties to provide Packaging Services to the semiconductor
         industry. The Parties believe that such a long-term relationship, under
         the terms and conditions of this Agreement, is necessary to assure
         their respective long-term profitability and growth and is in their
         respective best interests.


                                       3
   4
2.       ARTICLE II - DEFINITIONS

         2.1      "Affiliate" of a Party shall mean an entity that is controlled
                  by such Party or by an entity controlling such Party. For the
                  purposes of the foregoing, "control" means ownership, directly
                  or indirectly, of at least fifty percent (50%) of the voting
                  stock of the controlled entity.

         2.2      "Bankruptcy Event" shall mean any of the following events or
                  circumstances with respect to a Party: (i) such Party ceases
                  conducting its business in the normal course; (ii) becomes
                  insolvent or becomes unable to meet its obligations as they
                  become due; (iii) make a general assignment for the benefit of
                  its creditors; (iv) petitions, applies for, or suffers or
                  permits with or without its consent the appointment of a
                  custodian, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy or similar officer
                  for all or any substantial part of its business or assets; or
                  (v) avails itself or becomes subject to any proceeding under
                  the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or any similar state, federal or
                  foreign, including Korean, statute relating to bankruptcy,
                  insolvency, reorganization, receivership, arrangement,
                  adjustment of debts, dissolution or liquidation, which
                  proceeding is not dismissed within sixty (60) days of
                  commencement thereof.

         2.3      "Customer" shall mean a third party with whom Amkor, CIL or
                  AICL, as the case may be, enters into a contractual
                  arrangement to provide Packaging Services.

         2.4      "Die" shall mean the semiconductor wafers and/or die supplied
                  to AICL by Customers for the Packaging Services.

         2.5      "Direct Material Costs" shall mean direct material costs
                  incurred in the performance of Packaging Services .

         2.6      "Customer Contract" shall mean a contract (including the Amkor
                  or CIL Quotation) between Amkor or CIL, as the case may be,
                  and a Customer to provide Packaging Services to such Customer.

         2.7      "Intellectual Property Rights" shall mean all rights in, to,
                  or arising out of: (i) any U.S., international or foreign
                  patent or any application therefor and any and all reissues,
                  divisions, continuations, renewals, extensions and
                  continuations-in-part thereof; (ii) inventions (whether
                  patentable or not in any country), invention disclosures,
                  improvements, trade secrets, proprietary information,
                  know-how, technology and technical data; (iii) copyrights,
                  copyright registrations, mask works, mask work registrations,
                  and applications therefor in the U.S. or any foreign country,
                  and all other rights corresponding thereto throughout the
                  world; and (iv) any other proprietary rights in or to
                  Technology anywhere in the world.

         2.8      "Packaging Services" shall mean providing integrated circuit
                  assembly, packaging and test services, or related services by
                  AICL with respect to Customer Die .

         2.9      "Products" shall mean integrated circuits assembled and/or
                  tested by AICL for Amkor, CIL or their respective Customers.


                                       4
   5
         2.10     "Qualified Facilities" shall mean any of AICL's four (4)
                  Korean factories which are qualified to perform Packaging
                  Services for Customer Products pursuant to Customer
                  requirements, specifications and other similar criteria.

         2.11     "Quotation" shall mean the written quotation provided by Amkor
                  or CIL to their Customers which contains the material terms of
                  agreement for Packaging Services.

         2.12     "Technology" shall mean all technology, however embodied,
                  including all know-how, show-how, techniques, processes,
                  specifications, recipes, mask works, design rules, trade
                  secrets, inventions (whether or not patented or patentable),
                  algorithms, routines, software, net lists, files, databases,
                  works of authorship, devices and hardware.

         2.13     "Term" shall mean the term of this Agreement as defined in
                  Section 15.1.

         2.14     "Total Device Revenue" shall mean all amounts billed to
                  Customers by Amkor or CIL for Packaging Services including 1)
                  base price, 2) material and process adders, 3) gold/silver
                  adders, 4) fast track premiums, and 5) lot charges, but
                  excluding packing/shipping materials (i.e., trays) and
                  miscellaneous charges such as tooling and non-recurring
                  engineering costs.

3.       ARTICLE III - MARKETING & SALES SERVICES

         3.1      Amkor will provide Packaging Services to Customers that
                  principally are located in the United States. CIL will provide
                  Packaging Services to Customers that principally are located
                  outside of the United States excluding the Republic of Korea
                  which will be serviced directly by AICL.

         3.2      Amkor and CIL, either directly or through their respective
                  Affiliates, will enter into Customer Contracts for Packaging
                  Services and, upon execution of same, will provide AICL with
                  the material terms and conditions thereof.

         3.3      Amkor and CIL will use commercially reasonable efforts to
                  enter into Customer Contracts so as to maximize the
                  utilization of AICL's manufacturing capacity consistent with
                  the respective interests of the Parties, their respective
                  obligations under the Agreement, and the operational and
                  business requirements of the manufacturing and packaging
                  facilities of ATI's Affiliates. In furtherance of the
                  foregoing, Amkor's and CIL's responsibilities to AICL will
                  include using reasonable commercial efforts to:

                  3.3.1    actively and diligently market Packaging Services to
                           potential and existing Customers;

                  3.3.2    provide timely Forecasts (as defined below in Section
                           4.1) to permit AICL to efficiently plan its capacity
                           requirements; and

                  3.3.3    arrange through an Affiliate of ATI, Amkor-Anam,
                           Inc., for the supply to AICL of all direct materials
                           to enable AICL to package and test products in
                           accordance with the relevant Customer Contract.


                                       5
   6
         3.4      CIL will have the sole discretion to have Packaging Services
                  performed by any of (Subject to the purchase commitment
                  described in Article IV below, Amkor and i) the Affiliates of
                  ATI, (ii) third parties, or (iii) AICL.

4.       ARTICLE IV - PURCHASE COMMITMENTS & FORECASTS

         4.1      Amkor and CIL shall have the right of first refusal with
                  respect to substantially all of the utilization of AICL's
                  capacity subject to the terms herein. In order to facilitate
                  an orderly and equitable capacity reservation and allocation
                  process, Amkor, CIL, and AICL agree that Amkor will coordinate
                  the process for commitment and allocation of AICL's capacity
                  among the Customers based on a mutually agreed upon set of
                  rules for equitably reserving and allocating AICL's capacity
                  (the "Commitment & Allocation Policy"). Amkor, CIL and AICL
                  shall use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain each month
                  from their Customers a six-month rolling forecast of such
                  Customers' requirements ("Forecasts"). Updates to said
                  Forecasts shall be communicated to Amkor as demand changes are
                  received from the Customers.

         4.2      AICL will provide Amkor and CIL, on a monthly basis, a
                  six-month rolling capacity plan ("Capacity Plan") by package,
                  for packaging services, and by test platform, for test
                  services. AICL will further provide a weekly notification to
                  Amkor and CIL of any changes in delivery schedules or
                  equipment ratings to the Capacity Plan since the last monthly
                  report. In order to facilitate AICL's capacity planning and
                  materials procurement services, Amkor and CIL will include
                  with their Forecasts to AICL their assessment of these
                  Forecasts. AICL will use the Customers' Forecasts and Amkor's
                  and CIL's assessment of these Forecasts only as a guide of
                  anticipated requirements, and such Forecasts and judgements
                  will not constitute a commitment by either (i) AICL to Amkor
                  or CIL, or (ii) by Amkor or CIL to AICL. Such Customer
                  Forecasts will not constitute a commitment by the Customers to
                  furnish Die for packaging or testing in amounts at least equal
                  to their respective Forecasts.

         4.3      In addition to the Forecasts, Amkor, CIL and AICL will
                  annually prepare a sales projection by month and by package
                  for the upcoming fiscal year ("Annual Plan") in order to
                  facilitate AICL's longer-range capacity and space planning.
                  AICL will use the Annual Plan only as a guide to anticipated
                  requirements and such projections will not constitute a
                  commitment by either (i) AICL to Amkor or CIL, or (ii) by
                  Amkor or CIL to AICL.

         4.4      Amkor and CIL will consult with AICL prior to making
                  commitments to its Customers with respect to processing
                  specifications or cycle time. AICL will be obligated to
                  process all Die received from Amkor's and CIL's Customers in
                  accordance with the processing and cycle time specifications
                  agreed to by Amkor and CIL and their Customers and in
                  accordance with the commitments of capacity made by Amkor and
                  CIL to their Customers.

         4.5      Immediately upon receipt of each lot of Die from the Customers
                  at either AICL's bonded warehouse in Korea or Amkor's shipping
                  office in San Jose, California, AICL will provide an accurate,
                  firm ship date for the completed packaged and/or


                                       6
   7
                  tested Products. For bulk Die receipts (i.e., Die shipments
                  from a given Customer for a given package that exceed the
                  current week's processing commitment as made by either Amkor
                  or CIL to the given Customer), AICL will immediately provide a
                  planned ship date for the quantity of Die exceeding the
                  current week's loading commitment. AICL shall commit that this
                  planned ship date will be considered a "not later than" ship
                  date by Amkor, CIL and the Customer.

         4.6      In the event that Customers of Amkor or CIL send Die that has
                  not been Forecasted or committed to AICL ("Unforecasted Die")
                  for Packaging Services, AICL will be obligated to perform the
                  requested services within the agreed upon cycle time for those
                  Customers, provided that AICL's capacity and raw materials
                  inventory, at that point in time, on the line in question is
                  sufficient to satisfy the cycle time commitments for the Die
                  already awaiting production plus the Unforecasted Die, and
                  also provided that Amkor or CIL has engaged such Customers'
                  business as evidenced by a Customer Contract.

         4.7      In the event that the volume of Customer Die awaiting
                  Packaging Services exceeds AICL's capacity or raw materials
                  inventory to process that Die within the cycle times agreed
                  upon with each Customer, Amkor shall manage AICL's capacity or
                  raw materials inventory among Amkor's, CIL's and AICL's
                  Customers in accordance with the Allocation Policy. For this
                  purpose, a packaging or test line is deemed to be "on
                  allocation" if the volume of Die in front of the line exceeds
                  one week's capacity on that line. Likewise, a particular raw
                  material component will be deemed to be "on allocation" if the
                  volume of Die requiring that particular component plus the
                  future loading commitments made that require that component
                  exceeds the current inventory plus the anticipated deliveries
                  of that component over the same time period.

   
         4.8      [*]
    

         4.9      Remediation for higher levels of capacity under-utilization
                  that persist for extended periods can be comprehended in the
                  quarterly contract price renegotiations between Amkor, CIL,
                  and AICL pursuant to this Agreement should all Parties agree
                  thereto. In the event that AICL adds capacity beyond the
                  levels suggested by the Customer Forecasts, Amkor's and CIL's
                  judgements of those Forecasts, and the Annual Plan, and such
                  capacity becomes unutilized, such unutilized capacity will not
                  be considered for possible remediation in the quarterly
                  contract price renegotiations between Amkor, CIL, and AICL.
                  Furthermore, in the event that persistently higher levels of
                  under-utilization of capacity result from AICL's failure to
                  procure sufficient supplies of raw materials, as suggested by
                  the Customer

   
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                                       7
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                  Forecasts, such under-utilized capacity will likewise not be
                  considered for possible remediation.

5.       ARTICLE V - PACKAGING SERVICES

         5.1      AICL will provide Packaging Services to Amkor and CIL, or on
                  behalf of Amkor and CIL to their respective Customers. Such
                  services will be in conformity with the obligations of Amkor
                  and CIL to their respective Customers as set forth in the
                  relevant Customer Contract and will otherwise permit Amkor and
                  CIL to fulfill their respective Customer obligations.

         5.2      In furtherance of the foregoing, AICL shall, among other
                  things, use its reasonable commercial efforts to:

                  5.2.1    maintain a coordinated tracking system capable of
                           identifying the status of Customer materials and Die
                           at any time;

                  5.2.2    participate with Amkor and CIL in compiling the
                           Annual Plan (as defined under Section 4.3) based on
                           annual demand as forecasted by Amkor and CIL and in
                           accordance with a worldwide management accounting
                           system to be prescribed by Amkor;

                  5.2.3    obtain, install and qualify required capacity
                           commensurate with demand as forecasted in the Annual
                           Plan, the six-month rolling Customer Forecasts (as
                           defined under Section 4.2) or such other level of
                           capacity as mutually agreed among Amkor, CIL and
                           AICL;

                  5.2.4    provide purchasing and custodial services for Amkor
                           and CIL regarding required direct materials and
                           tooling for Customer Contracts; and

                  5.2.5    engage in the R&D activities in cooperation with
                           Amkor, as set forth in Article XIII.

6.       ARTICLE VI - SPECIFICATIONS, QUALITY & RELIABILITY

         6.1      AICL shall manufacture and supply all Products to or on behalf
                  of Amkor and CIL in accordance with the specifications
                  provided to AICL by Amkor, CIL or their respective Customers.

         6.2      Amkor and CIL reserve the right to modify the specifications
                  as may be required by technological enhancements, cost
                  considerations, market conditions, or other similar factors.
                  Any such modifications shall be submitted to AICL who shall
                  take immediate actions to incorporate such changes in the
                  applicable Products as soon as reasonably possible.

         6.3      AICL will be responsible for meeting and maintaining quality
                  and reliability standards as reasonably specified by the
                  Customer Contracts.

         6.4      AICL will perform Packaging Services only at Qualified
                  Facilities.


                                       8
   9
         6.5      AICL will not implement Product changes and/or changes in
                  Product materials which may directly or indirectly impact
                  compliance with the Customer's specifications, unless such
                  changes have been approved by Amkor or CIL, as the case may
                  be.

7.       ARTICLE VII - ELECTRONIC DATA & INFORMATION EXCHANGE

         7.1      For purposes of satisfying Customer requirements and
                  optimizing the flow of business communications, Amkor, CIL,
                  AICL, and Customers will work jointly to effect the electronic
                  exchange of certain data and information as described below.

                  7.1.1    AICL will provide information from its internal
                           computer systems to Amkor and CIL, as agreed to by
                           Amkor, CIL, and AICL, to support Amkor's and CIL's
                           needs to perform certain functions including, but not
                           limited to, billing, lot tracking, product costing,
                           capacity commitments, order promising, annual and
                           long range planning, material planning, material
                           procurement and control, and quality tracking and
                           reporting.

                  7.1.2    Amkor and CIL will likewise provide information from
                           their internal computer systems to AICL to support
                           AICL's needs in certain areas including, but not
                           limited to, capacity planning, material procurement
                           services, and production scheduling.

                  7.1.3    Amkor, CIL, and AICL will work jointly to establish
                           and maintain an effectively linked electronic mail
                           system, communications network, data exchange
                           network, electronic document management and control
                           system, and workflow systems.

                  7.1.4    AICL will establish and maintain a FTP (File Transfer
                           Protocol) site and capability for the purpose of
                           receiving engineering, production, and other such
                           documents electronically from Amkor's and CIL's
                           Customers, and as a means for staging data required
                           by certain Customers.

                  7.1.5    AICL will provide Amkor's and CIL's Customers with
                           reports or other information directly, from time to
                           time, as deemed necessary by Amkor and CIL, or their
                           respective Customers, and in compliance with the
                           formats, means, and definitions prescribed by such
                           Customers.

                  7.1.6    When communicating information to Amkor and CIL or
                           their Customers, AICL will utilize definitions in
                           terms, data fields, and measurements as prescribed by
                           Amkor and CIL, or by Amkor's and CIL's Customers, as
                           the case may be.

                  7.1.7    AICL will provide Amkor and CIL with any necessary
                           information or assistance in meeting any Customers'
                           information exchange requirements that may directly
                           or indirectly affect AICL.


                                       9
   10
         7.2      Amkor, CIL, and AICL agree to notify and gain approval from
                  the other Parties should such Party desire to implement any
                  changes or upgrades to the foregoing systems and networks that
                  could potentially have an impact on the other Parties. The
                  data and information contemplated above shall be subject to
                  the confidentiality agreement pursuant to Section 17.1 hereof.

8.       ARTICLE VIII - DELIVERY & RISK OF LOSS

         8.1      Amkor and CIL shall be responsible for ensuring the delivery
                  of Customer Die or wafers to AICL. All return shipments of
                  Products by AICL shall be made in accordance with the terms
                  specified in the applicable Customer Contract.

         8.2      All Products shall be shipped in secure containers with
                  applicable labels identifying, as required, any Customer
                  specific Product numbering or lot number. Each shipment shall
                  also contain the agreed upon processing documentation such as
                  commercial invoices or bills of lading.

         8.3      AICL shall be responsible for the safe storage and handling of
                  Customer Die or wafers while in its possession. The liability
                  of AICL in regard to any damage or loss to said Die or wafers
                  while in its possession shall be determined in accordance with
                  the applicable Customer Contract, and AICL shall indemnify
                  Amkor or CIL to the extent of their liability under said
                  Contract.

9.       ARTICLE IX - PRICING & INVOICING

         9.1      Subject to any existing AICL agreements with third Partes,
                  Amkor and CIL will set independently the price at which they
                  provide Packaging Services to Customers in accordance with the
                  provisions of this Article IX.

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   11
   
                   [*]
    
10.      ARTICLE X - PACKAGING SERVICES WARRANTY

         10.1     Warranty

                  AICL warrants, at a minimum, that its Packaging Services and
                  Products (excluding Customer supplied Die and wafers) shall be
                  in conformance with the specifications provided by Amkor, CIL
                  or their respective Customers and will be free from defects in
                  workmanship and materials. In addition, AICL shall adhere to
                  those warranties specified in any Customer Contracts, provided
                  that copies of said warranties were made available to AICL
                  prior to the performance of Packaging Services under such
                  Customer Contracts.

         10.2     Remedy

                  Upon breach of any of the warranties made or referred to in
                  Section 10.1 above, AICL, at the sole option of Amkor or CIL,
                  shall either rework any nonconforming Product or issue a
                  credit for the amount of the associated Packaging Services.
                  Subject to Section 10.3 and Article XIV, AICL will indemnify,
                  defend, and hold harmless Amkor and CIL against all warranty
                  claims, settlement costs or damages arising out of AICL's
                  failure to comply with

   
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                                       11
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                  any warranties provided by Amkor or CIL under their respective
                  Customer Contracts.

         10.3     Limitation

                  THE WARRANTIES SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT ARE IN LIEU OF ALL
                  OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING,
                  WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES AS TO MERCHANTABILITY OR
                  FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT WILL ANY PARTY
                  BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT,
                  INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR SPECIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR
                  RESULTING FROM THE PERFORMANCE OF ANY OBLIGATIONS HEREUNDER.

11.      ARTICLE XI - INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY WARRANTY & INDEMNIFICATIONS
                        


   
                  [*]
    


   
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                                       12
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12.      ARTICLE XII - INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OWNERSHIP AND LICENSES

         12.1     Intellectual Property Ownership

                  12.1.1   Except as set forth herein, this Agreement shall not
                           affect a Party's Intellectual Property Rights
                           existing prior to the Effective Date.

                  12.1.2   Each Party shall own all Intellectual Property Rights
                           in Technology created or invented by such Party's
                           employees, as determined in accordance with
                           principles of United States law.

                  12.1.3   Any Technology created or invented by the employees
                           of more than one Party, and all Intellectual Property
                           Rights therein, will be jointly owned by the Parties
                           that are the employers of such employees, as
                           determined in accordance with principles of United
                           States law. Such joint ownership will be without the
                           duty to account. Such Parties shall cooperate in the
                           enforcement of such jointly-owned Intellectual
                           Property Rights against third-party infringers.

         12.2     Licenses

                  12.2.1   Amkor and CIL hereby grant to AICL and its Affiliates
                           a non-exclusive, non-sublicensable, perpetual,
                           worldwide, irrevocable license under all Intellectual
                           Property Rights that Amkor, CIL or any of their
                           Affiliates now or during the Term may hold or
                           acquire, and which they are free to license to third
                           parties without payment of any kind to (i) provide
                           Packaging Services, (ii) manufacture, use, sell and
                           import Products, and (iii) perform AICL's related
                           activities. Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates shall
                           disclose promptly to AICL any Technology to which
                           AICL would reasonably desire access in connection
                           with the performance of its obligations under this
                           Agreement, the provision of Packaging Services, or
                           the operation of its Packaging Services business.

                  12.2.2   AICL, on behalf of itself and its Affiliates, hereby
                           grants to Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates a
                           non-exclusive, fully sublicensable, perpetual,
                           worldwide, irrevocable license under all Intellectual
                           Property Rights that AICL or its Affiliates now or
                           during the Term may hold or acquire, and which they
                           are free to license to third parties without payment
                           of any kind to (i) provide Packaging Services, (ii)
                           have manufactured, use, sell and import Products, and
                           (iii) otherwise conduct activities related to the
                           Packaging Services. AICL shall disclose promptly to
                           Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates any Technology to
                           which Amkor and CIL would reasonably desire access in
                           order for Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates to operate
                           their Packaging Service businesses.

         12.3     Intellectual Property Protection

                  12.3.1   The Parties shall cooperate to obtain patents,
                           copyright and mask work registrations, and other
                           intellectual property protection with respect to any
                           Technology developed by any of them related to
                           Packaging Services or resulting from any joint
                           development hereunder. In the case of


                                       13
   14
                           jointly-owned Intellectual Property Rights, the
                           Parties shall equitably allocate the costs of
                           obtaining patent, copyright, mask work and other
                           protection for such Intellectual Property Rights
                           among themselves.

                  12.3.2   Notwithstanding the foregoing, each Party shall have
                           the right to file patent applications or copyright or
                           mask work registrations on any inventions made by, or
                           works authored by, its employees. Any patents or
                           registrations issuing from such applications shall be
                           exclusively owned by the Party that made such
                           application.

         12.4     Third Party Licenses

                  In the event that a Party intends to license Technology from a
                  third party, it will endeavor to obtain a license on equal
                  terms for any of the other Parties and their Affiliates to the
                  extent that such other Parties and Affiliates would benefit
                  from such a license.

         12.5     Enforcement of Intellectual Property

                  12.5.1   If a Party becomes aware that a third party is
                           infringing such Party's or any other Party's
                           Intellectual Property Rights, such Party shall
                           promptly notify the relevant other Parties thereof.

                  12.5.2   Where such Intellectual Property Rights are owned by
                           only one Party, such Party shall have the sole right
                           to determine whether or not to bring infringement or
                           unfair competition or related proceedings in
                           connection with any such infringement.

                  12.5.3   If such infringed Intellectual Property Rights are
                           owned by more than one Party, then within thirty (30)
                           days of receipt of such notice or otherwise becoming
                           aware of such infringement, such Parties shall
                           determine which of them, if any, shall bring an
                           infringement or unfair competition or related
                           proceedings in connection with such infringement. In
                           any event, all such parties shall cooperate in the
                           bringing of such action and, where required, join
                           such action. Any amount awarded with respect to any
                           proceeding shall be payable entirely to the Party or
                           Parties bringing such proceeding, unless otherwise
                           agreed by the Parties. Any disputes as to which Party
                           has the right to prosecute such proceeding, or as to
                           allocation of proceeds from such proceeding, shall be
                           settled by arbitration as provided in Article 16.

         12.6     Use of AICL Trademarks

                  AICL hereby grants to Amkor and CIL and their respective
                  Affiliates the right to use AICL's and Anam USA's respective
                  corporate names, trademarks and service marks ("AICL
                  Trademarks") in connection with the promotion of AICL's
                  Packaging Services and otherwise in connection with Amkor's
                  and CIL's Packaging Service operations. Amkor and CIL and
                  their respective Affiliates shall observe all instructions and
                  directions provided to them by AICL or Anam USA regarding the
                  use of the AICL Trademarks. Amkor and CIL and


                                       14
   15
                  their respective Affiliates shall not use the AICL Trademarks
                  in a manner that detracts from the goodwill associated with
                  such AICL Trademarks.

13.      ARTICLE XIII - RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

         13.1     Joint R&D Committee

                  Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates and AICL shall establish a
                  committee ("R&D Committee") to coordinate their respective
                  research and development activities and any joint research and
                  development projects. Amkor and AICL shall designate two (2)
                  individuals to serve on the R&D Committee. Such R&D Committee
                  shall meet from time to time during the Term, as it shall in
                  its discretion determine.

         13.2     Coordination

                  13.2.1   Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates and AICL shall
                           collaborate in and coordinate their respective
                           research and development activities, as well as those
                           of their respective Affiliates, so as to foster the
                           development of new and improved technologies related
                           to Packaging Services.

                  13.2.2   Unless otherwise agreed or determined by the R&D
                           Committee, (i) Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates will
                           have primary responsibility for developing new and
                           advanced packaging designs and technologies; and (ii)
                           AICL and its Affiliates will have primary
                           responsibility for developing new and advanced
                           technologies for packaging and test processes,
                           methods and systems.

         13.3     Funding

                  Unless specifically agreed in writing to the contrary, Amkor,
                  CIL and their Affiliates and AICL will fund their own (and
                  their respective Affiliates') research and development
                  efforts.

14.      ARTICLE XIV - LIABILITY LIMITATIONS

         14.1     Exclusion of Damages

                  EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN ARTICLE 11, IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY PARTY
                  BE LIABLE TO ANY OTHER PARTY HEREUNDER FOR ANY INDIRECT,
                  SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON
                  BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), PRODUCT
                  LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE, AND WHETHER OR NOT THE PARTY AGAINST
                  WHOM LIABILITY IS SOUGHT HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
                  OF SUCH DAMAGE.

15.      ARTICLE XV - TERM

         15.1     The Agreement will have an initial term of five (5) years,
                  commencing on the Effective Date, and thereafter may be
                  terminated by any Party upon five (5)


                                       15
   16
                  years' prior written notice at any time after the fifth (5th)
                  anniversary of the Effective Date.

         15.2     In addition, the Agreement will be terminable with respect to
                  a Party in the event of a material breach of such Party which
                  is not cured within thirty (30) calendar days from receipt of
                  a notice of such breach by any non-breaching Party.

         15.3     Any Party may terminate this Agreement upon one hundred eighty
                  days' written notice to the other Parties if a Bankruptcy
                  Event occurs with respect to another Party that is not an
                  Affiliate of the terminating Party.

         15.4     In the event of termination, the Parties shall mutually
                  determine the most reasonable disposition of any
                  work-in-progress and other Packaging Services so as to best
                  fulfill the requirements of the Customer Contracts.

16.      ARTICLE XVI - ARBITRATION

         16.1     Arbitration of Disputes

                  16.1.1   Any controversy, dispute or claim arising out of, in
                           connection with, or in relation to the
                           interpretation, performance or breach of this
                           Agreement, including any claim based on contract,
                           tort or statute, shall be settled, at the request of
                           any Party, by arbitration conducted in Santa Clara,
                           California, or such other location upon which the
                           Parties may mutually agree, before and in accordance
                           with the then-existing Rules of Commercial
                           Arbitration of the American Arbitration Association
                           ("AAA"), and judgment upon any award rendered by the
                           arbitrator may be entered by any state or federal
                           court having jurisdiction thereof.

                  16.1.2   The Parties hereby consent to the jurisdiction of an
                           arbitration panel and of the courts located in, and
                           venue in, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with respect to
                           any dispute arising under this Agreement.

                  16.1.3   Any controversy concerning whether a dispute is an
                           arbitrable dispute hereunder shall be determined by
                           one or more arbitrators selected in accordance with
                           Section 16.3.

                  16.1.4   The Parties intend that this agreement to arbitrate
                           be valid, specifically enforceable and irrevocable.

         16.2     Initiation of Arbitration

                  A Party may initiate arbitration hereunder by filing a written
                  demand for arbitration with each other Party to the dispute in
                  accordance with Section 17.10 and with the AAA. Arbitration
                  hereunder shall be conducted on a timely, expedited basis.


                                       16
   17
         16.3     Selection of Arbitrator

                  Any arbitration shall be held before a single arbitrator, who
                  shall be selected in accordance with the procedures of the
                  AAA, and shall be a member of the Large Complex Case Panel
                  with significant intellectual property (patent and copyright)
                  law and semiconductor manufacturing experience. If the Parties
                  are unable to agree on a single arbitrator, then each of AICL
                  and Amkor shall select an arbitrator and such arbitrators
                  shall select a third arbitrator. Such arbitration shall then
                  be held before such three (3) arbitrators.

         16.4     Awards

                  The arbitrator(s) may, in its discretion award to the
                  prevailing Party in an arbitration proceeding commenced
                  hereunder, and the court shall include in its judgment for the
                  prevailing Party in any claim arising hereunder, the
                  prevailing Party's costs and expenses (including expert
                  witness expenses and reasonable attorneys' fees) of
                  investigating, preparing and presenting such arbitration claim
                  or cause of action.

17.      ARTICLE XVII - MISCELLANEOUS

         17.1     Confidentiality

                  The Parties will enter into appropriate non-disclosure
                  agreements respecting the treatment of their respective
                  confidential technical and business information and
                  confidential information disclosed to any of them by third
                  Parties. AICL acknowledges that this Agreement may be required
                  to be filed or provided as supplemental information to the
                  U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. In the event of any
                  such filing or provision, ATI and its Affiliates agree to use
                  reasonable efforts to seek confidential treatment for portions
                  of such documents that ATI and its Affiliates conclude in
                  their discretion are appropriate subjects for such treatment.

         17.2     Audits

                  AICL will permit Customers to visit the Qualified Facilities
                  and to conduct audits of AICL in accordance with industry
                  norms and the terms and conditions specified in the Customer
                  Contracts.

         17.3     Assignability

                  AICL will not be permitted to assign, directly or indirectly,
                  any of its obligations or duties under the Agreement, without
                  the consent of the other Parties hereto. This Agreement shall
                  be binding on, and inure to the benefit of, all successors and
                  assignees of the Parties.

         17.4     Integration

                  This Agreement will supersede all contracts and agreements
                  currently existing between the Parties with respect to the
                  terms hereof. In the event of any


                                       17
   18
                  inconsistency between this Agreement and any existing
                  agreement or contract between the Parties, the terms of this
                  Agreement shall prevail.

         17.5     Force Majeure

                  No Party shall be liable for delay in performance or failure
                  to perform, in whole or in part, due to labor dispute, strike,
                  war or act of war, insurrection, riot, civil unrest, act of
                  public enemy, fire, flood, or other acts of God, or the acts
                  of any governmental authority, or other causes beyond the
                  control of such Party. The Party experiencing such cause or
                  delay shall immediately notify the other Parties of the
                  circumstances which may prevent or significantly delay its
                  performance hereunder, and shall use its best efforts to
                  alleviate the effects of such cause or delay.

         17.6     Export Laws

                  This Agreement is subject to all applicable United States laws
                  and regulations relating to exports and to all administrative
                  acts of the U.S. Government pursuant to such laws and
                  regulations. No Party shall export or re-export, directly or
                  indirectly, any technical data or semiconductor materials in
                  violation of the aforementioned export laws.

         17.7     Survival

                  The rights and obligations of those sections which by their
                  nature survive, including, but not limited to Articles , VIII,
                  X, XI, XII, XIII and XIV of this Agreement, shall survive and
                  continue after any expiration or termination of this Agreement
                  and shall bind the Parties and their legal representatives,
                  successors and assigns.

         17.8     Entire Agreement

                  This Agreement supersedes all prior and contemporaneous
                  agreements and representations made with respect to the same
                  subject matter and contains the entire agreement between the
                  Parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and shall
                  not be modified except by an instrument in writing signed by
                  duly authorized representatives of each Party.

         17.9     Governing Law

                  This Agreement and all questions relating to its validity,
                  interpretation, and enforcement shall be governed by and
                  construed, interpreted, and enforced in accordance with the
                  laws of the State of California without regard to that state's
                  choice of laws. The UN Convention on the International Sale of
                  Goods shall not apply to this Agreement, or any transactions
                  contemplated hereby or thereby.

         17.10    Notices

                  All notices, requests, demands, waivers, and other
                  communications required or permitted hereunder shall be in
                  writing and shall be deemed to have been duly


                                       18
   19
                  given: (i) when delivered by hand or confirmed facsimile
                  transmission; (ii) one (1) day after delivery by receipted
                  overnight delivery; or (iii) four (4) days after being mailed
                  by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested,
                  with postage prepaid to the appropriate address set forth at
                  the beginning of this Agreement or to such other person or
                  address as any Party shall furnish to the other Parties in
                  writing pursuant to the above.

         17.11    Counterparts

                  This Agreement may be executed in counterparts which taken
                  together shall constitute one and the same document.

INTENDING TO BE LEGALLY BOUND, the Parties hereto have caused this Agreement to
be executed as of the date first above written.

AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.                  ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.

By:    /s/ Frank J. Marcucci            By:     /s/ In Kil Hwang
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------
Name:    Frank J. Marcucci              Name:    In Kil Hwang
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------
Title:   CFO & Secretary                Title:   President
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------

AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.                 C.I.L. LIMITED

By:    /s/ Frank J. Marcucci            By:     /s/ Richard McMillan
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------
Name:    Frank J. Marcucci              Name:    Richard McMillan
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------
Title:   Executive Vice President       Title:
      ---------------------------              ---------------------------

ANAM USA, INC.

By:    /s/ Hong Taek Chung
      ---------------------------
Name:    Hong Taek Chung
      ---------------------------
Title:   President
      ---------------------------


                                       19
   1
                                                                   Exhibit 10.20

                                                


                                FOUNDRY AGREEMENT


   
THIS FOUNDRY AGREEMENT (this "Agreement"), dated as of November 1, 1997, (the
"Effective Date") is entered into by and among Amkor Technology, Inc. ("ATI") a
Delaware corporation with a place of business at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West
Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, Amkor Electronics, Inc. a Pennsylvania corporation
("Amkor (Pa.)"), with a place of business at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West
Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, C.I.L. Limited (Caymans) ("CIL"), a Cayman Islands
corporation with a place of business at CIBC Building, Edward Street, Grand
Cayman, Cayman Islands, Anam Industrial Co., Ltd. ("AICL") a Korean corporation
with a place of business at 280-8 Sungsu 2-ga, Sungdong-ku, Seoul 133-120, Korea
and Anam USA, Inc. ("Anam USA") a Pennsylvania corporation with a place of
business at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 (each, a
"Party"; together, the "Parties").
    


                              W I T N E S S E T H:

   
         WHEREAS, in connection with an initial public offering of the stock of
ATI (the "IPO"), Amkor (Pa.) will be merged into ATI;
    

   
         WHEREAS, following the IPO, ATI will commence operations including
engaging in those operations previously engaged in by Amkor (Pa.);
    

   
         WHEREAS, until the occurrence of the IPO, ATI will not assume the
responsibilities of Amkor (Pa.) under this Agreement;
    

   
         WHEREAS, ATI is, or will become the parent corporation of, among other
legal entities, CIL;
    

         WHEREAS, AICL, a publicly traded Korean company, is engaged in the
business, inter alia, of owning and operating a semiconductor foundry in Korea;

   
         WHEREAS, Amkor (Pa.) and CIL are engaged in the business of providing
foundry services to third parties, which foundry services will be performed by
AICL;
    

   
         WHEREAS, Anam USA is a wholly-owned subsidiary of AICL and is engaged
in (a) providing certain services to AICL, Amkor (Pa.) and CIL regarding the
obtaining and extending of credit to AICL, Amkor (Pa.) and CIL and (b) acting as
a trading company for the purpose of facilitating transactions between Amkor
(Pa.) and CIL, on the one hand, and AICL on the other;
    
   2
   
         WHEREAS, the Parties wish to set forth the terms and conditions under
which AICL will manufacture semiconductor wafers and otherwise perform foundry
services as a subcontractor to Amkor (as defined below) and CIL;
    

         WHEREAS, the Parties and their predecessor corporations have enjoyed a
well-established and synergistic business relationship whereby Amkor and CIL and
their respective affiliates have entered in numerous contracts with
semiconductor companies to provide semiconductor packaging and testing services
and have had some of such services performed by AICL;

         WHEREAS, the Parties wish to establish a long-term arrangement among
them to provide Foundry Services (as such term is herein defined) to the
semiconductor industry in a manner similar to the manner the Parties operate
their packaging services operations;

         WHEREAS, AICL and Amkor wish to coordinate their respective research
and development activities; and

         WHEREAS, the Parties believe that such a long-term relationship, under
the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement, is necessary to assure
their respective long-term profitability and growth, and is in their respective
best interest.

         NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the foregoing and the mutual
covenants and promises contained herein, the Parties hereby agree as follows:

                     ARTICLE 1. CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

         SECTION 1.1. CONSTRUCTION. (a) All references in this Agreement to
"Articles," "Sections" and "Exhibits" refer to the articles, sections and
exhibits of this Agreement.

                  (b) The words "hereof," "herein" and "hereunder" and other
words of similar import refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any
subdivision contained in this Agreement.

                  (c) The words "include" and "including" when used herein are
not exclusive and mean "include, without limitation" and "including, without
limitation," respectively.

         SECTION 1.2.  DEFINITIONS.  As used herein:

                  (a) "Affiliate" of a Party means an entity that is controlled
by such Party or by an entity controlling such Party. For the purposes of the
foregoing, "control" means ownership, directly or indirectly, of at least 50% of
the voting stock of the controlled entity.

   
                  (b) "Amkor" means, prior to the IPO, Amkor (Pa.), and
following the IPO, ATI.
    



                                       -2-
   3

                  (c) "Bankruptcy Event" means any of the following events or
circumstances with respect to a Party, such Party: (i) ceases conducting its
business in the normal course; (ii) becomes insolvent or becomes unable to meet
its obligations as they become due; (iii) makes a general assignment for the
benefit of its creditors; (iv) petitions, applies for, or suffers or permits
with or without its consent the appointment of a custodian, receiver, trustee in
bankruptcy or similar officer for all or any substantial part of its business or
assets; or (v) avails itself or becomes subject to any proceeding under the U.S.
Bankruptcy Code or any similar state, federal or foreign, including Korean,
statute relating to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership,
arrangement, adjustment of debts, dissolution or liquidation, which proceeding
is not dismissed within sixty (60) days of commencement thereof.

                  (d) "Change of Control" means, with respect to a Party: (A)
the direct or indirect acquisition of either (i) the majority of the voting
stock of such Party or (ii) all or substantially all of the assets of such
Party, by another entity in a single transaction or series of related
transactions; or (B) the merger of such Party with, or into, another entity. The
reincorporation of a Party shall not be considered a Change of Control.

                  (e) "Confidential Information" means any information: (i)
disclosed by one Party (the "Disclosing Party") to the other Party (the
"Receiving Party"), which, if in written, graphic, machine-readable or other
tangible form is marked as "Confidential" or "Proprietary", or which, if
disclosed orally or by demonstration, is identified at the time of initial
disclosure as confidential and such identification is reduced to writing and
delivered to the Receiving Party within thirty (30) days of such disclosure; or
(ii) which is otherwise deemed to be confidential by the terms of this
Agreement.

                  (f) "Customer" means a third party with whom Amkor, CIL and/or
AICL, as the case may be, enters into a contractual arrangement to provide
Foundry Services.

                  (g) "Customer Contract" means a contract (including a binding
purchase order) between Amkor or CIL, as the case may be, and a Customer to
provide Foundry Services to such Customer. Customer Contracts may include AICL
as a party.

                  (h) "Customer Payment" is the net amount payable by a Customer
to Amkor or CIL, as the case may be, for all services and deliverables under the
relevant Foundry Contract with respect to services performed, and wafers
produced, by AICL.

                  (i) "EDE System" means the electronic data exchange and
communications ("EDE") system to be established among the Parties and certain
Customers.

                  (j) "Foundry" means the semiconductor wafer foundry owned and
operated by AICL in Buchon, Korea and such other foundries as shall be owned and
operated by AICL during the Term.

                  (k) "Foundry Management System" means the computerized Foundry
operation and planning, management accounting, and accounting system, including
the EDE System, established by


                                       -3-
   4



the Parties for the purposes of planning, managing and coordinating among them
the provision of Foundry Services and the operation the Foundry.

   
                   [*]
    
                  (n) "Foundry Services" means the manufacturing and testing of
Products, including semiconductor wafers and die, and related services provided
to a Customer.

                  (o) "Indemnified Party" means a Party hereunder that receives
an indemnity from an Indemnifying Party hereunder in accordance with Article 13.

                  (p) "Indemnifying Party" means a Party hereunder providing an
indemnity to any other Party hereunder in accordance with Article 13.

                  (q) "Intellectual Property Rights" means all rights in, to, or
arising out of: (i) any U.S., international or foreign patent or any application
therefor and any and all reissues, divisions, continuations, renewals,
extensions and continuations-in-part thereof; (ii) inventions (whether
patentable or not in any country), invention disclosures, improvements, trade
secrets, proprietary information, know-how, technology and technical data; (iii)
copyrights, copyright registrations, mask works, mask work registrations, and
applications therefor in the U.S. or any foreign country, and all other rights
corresponding thereto throughout the world; and (iv) any other proprietary
rights in or to Technology anywhere in the world.

                  (r) "Products" means semiconductor wafers, die, and other
materials or deliverables manufactured by AICL for Customers in accordance with
this Agreement.

                  (s) "Technology" means all technology, however embodied,
including all know-how, show-how, techniques, processes, specifications,
recipes, mask works, design rules, trade secrets, inventions (whether or not
patented or patentable), algorithms, routines, software, net lists, files,
databases, works of authorship, devices and hardware.

                  (t) "Term" means the term of this Agreement defined in Section
15.1.


                         ARTICLE 2. MARKETING AND SALES

   
- -----------------
* Certain information on this page has been omitted and filed separately with
  the Commission. Confidential treatment has been requested with respect to the
  omitted portions.
    


                                       -4-
   5



         SECTION 2.1. EXCLUSIVITY. AICL shall not provide Foundry Services
directly to any Customer. Amkor and CIL shall together have the exclusive right,
in all countries, to enter into contracts with Customers to provide AICL's
Foundry Services to such Customers.

         SECTION 2.2. AMKOR AND CIL TERRITORIAL DIVISION. Amkor may provide
Foundry Services only to Customers that principally are located in the United
States. CIL may provide Foundry Services and Packaging Services to Customers
that principally are located outside of the United States.

         SECTION 2.3. CUSTOMER CONTRACTS. (a) Amkor and CIL, either directly or
thorough their respective Affiliates, shall enter into Customer Contracts, if
any, in a form generally approved by AICL.

                  (b) Amkor and CIL shall use commercially reasonable efforts to
enter into Customer Contracts to the extent consistent with the respective
interests of the Parties and their obligations set forth in this Agreement.

                  (c) AICL shall perform the Foundry Services required under
each Customer Contract on the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement
and such other terms and conditions as the Parties may deem necessary with
respect to such Customer Contract. AICL shall perform all such Foundry Services
in a manner that satisfies Amkor's and CIL's respective obligations pursuant to
such Customer Contracts.

                  (d) AICL shall act as an independent subcontractor to perform
Foundry Services for Amkor or CIL, as the case may be.

                  (e) Neither Amkor nor CIL shall have any authority to bind
AICL to any contract with a Customer.

                  (f) Upon execution of each Customer Contract, Amkor and CIL
shall provide to AICL a copy of such Customer Contract.

        
   
                   [*]
    


                    ARTICLE 3. OPERATION OF FOUNDRY BUSINESS

         SECTION 3.1. AICL'S GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES WITH RESPECT TO FOUNDRY
SERVICES. AICL shall:

   
- -----------------
* Certain information on this page has been omitted and filed separately with
  the Commission. Confidential treatment has been requested with respect to the
  omitted portions.
    


                                       -5-
   6



                  (a) participate with Amkor and CIL in compiling an annual
operational plan based on annual demand as forecasted by Amkor and CIL in
accordance with a worldwide management accounting basis to be prescribed by
Amkor;

                  (b) obtain, install and qualify required Foundry capacity
commensurate with demand as forecasted in the operational plan or such other
level of capacity as is mutually agreed among Amkor, CIL and AICL;

                  (c) purchase Customer tooling for wafer fabrication and wafer
testing, including photolithography masks and test fixtures;

                  (d) maintain a coordinated electronic tracking system able to
identify the status of Customer Products (including masks, tooling, wafers and
die and other materials) at any time; and

         SECTION 3.2. AMKOR'S AND CIL'S GENERAL OBLIGATIONS. Amkor and CIL shall
use commercially reasonable efforts to:

                  (a) actively and diligently market Foundry Services to
potential and existing Customers;

                  (b) provide Customer Forecasts (as defined below) to permit
AICL to efficiently plan its capacity requirements; and

                  (c) where required by a Customer Contract, cooperate with AICL
to arrange for the supply to AICL of all photolithography masks and related
materials to be used in the wafer fabrication process.

                           ARTICLE 4. FOUNDRY PRICING

        SECTION 4.1. FOUNDRY FEE. Amkor or CIL, as the case may be, shall pay to
Anam USA the Foundry Fee for Foundry Services performed by AICL in satisfaction
of Amkor's and CIL's Customer Contract obligations. Such Foundry Fee shall be
payable only to the extent that the Foundry Services provided by AICL conform
to the acceptance criteria specified in the relevant Customer Contract and
otherwise satisfy Amkor's and CIL's respective obligations under the relevant
Customer Contract. Anam USA shall pay AICL such fees and costs for Foundry
Services provided by AICL hereunder as AICL and Anam USA shall determine and
neither Amkor or CIL shall have any obligation hereunder to make payments to
AICL for Foundry Services provided by AICL hereunder. 

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                   [*]
    

                   ARTICLE 5. FORECASTS AND ORDER COORDINATION

         SECTION 5.1. FOUNDRY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. (a) Amkor, CIL and AICL shall
cooperate to acquire, install and operate a computerized Foundry Management
System which, among other things, will facilitate:

                  (i)      EDE (as set forth below) between the Parties and
                           Customers;

                  (ii)     Customer order processing;

                  (iii)    Supply chain optimization and decision support;

                  (iv)     Foundry capacity forecasting;

                  (v)      Foundry utilization monitoring and optimization; and

                  (vi)     Management accounting.

                  (b) Amkor shall be responsible for engaging third-party
consultants for the purpose of installing the Foundry Management System.

                  (c) Amkor shall be responsible for acquiring a license from i2
Technologies (or other vendor) and such other software vendors as may be chosen
by Amkor for software that will perform the features of the Foundry Management
System and such other functions as the Parties may deem desirable.

   
                   [*]
    

   
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                                       -8-
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                   [*]
    
                  (e) No Party may implement any change or upgrade to the
Foundry Management System that potentially could have a material detrimental
impact on any other Party or its business without the consent of each such
Party.

         SECTION 5.2. ELECTRONIC DATA EXCHANGE. (a) For purposes of satisfying
Customer requirements and optimizing the flow of business communications among
Amkor, CIL, AICL and Customers, Amkor and AICL shall establish, as part of the
Foundry Management System or otherwise, an EDE System.

                  (b) Such EDE System shall include an electronic mail system, a
communications network, a data exchange network, and electronic document
interchange systems.

                  (c) AICL shall provide to Amkor and CIL, through such EDE
System or otherwise, the manufacturing information and reports needed to enable
Amkor and CIL to satisfy their respective obligations pursuant to their
respective Customer Contracts on a timely basis and to plan their respective
business operations.

                  (d) Without limiting the foregoing, AICL shall provide Amkor
and CIL the following information on a regular basis and also on an as requested
basis:

                  (i)      inventory levels including wafers and/or die and
                           work-in-process and rejects;

                  (ii)     production schedule status and shipment dates;

                  (iii)    engineering and quality data for yield loss analysis;

                  (iv)     Foundry loading levels; and

                  (v)      cycle time data.

         SECTION 5.3. CUSTOMER FORECASTS. Amkor and CIL shall use commercially
reasonable efforts to obtain each month from each of their respective Customers
a six (6)-month rolling forecast of such Customer's requirements, by work week,
for Foundry Services ("Customer Forecasts"). Amkor and CIL shall provide such
Customer Forecasts to AICL. AICL shall use such Customer Forecasts only as a
guide to anticipated requirements, and such forecasts shall not constitute a
commitment by either (i) AICL to Amkor or CIL or (ii) by Amkor or CIL to AICL.

         SECTION 5.4. ORDER COORDINATION. Prior to entering into a Customer
Contract, or otherwise agreeing to provide Foundry Services, Amkor and CIL shall
consult with AICL for the purposes of



   
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                                       -9-
   10
determining, or shall otherwise determine, that AICL has the Foundry capacity to
provide such Foundry Services. In furtherance of the foregoing:

                           (i)      upon Amkor's or CIL's request, AICL shall
                                    provide a response, in writing or through
                                    the EDE System to be developed hereunder, as
                                    to whether, and in what time-frame, AICL can
                                    provide the specified Foundry Services;

                           (ii)     upon receipt of written wafer start releases
                                    from Amkor or CIL, AICL shall provide
                                    accurate delivery dates for completed
                                    associated wafers and/or die; and

                           (iii)    AICL shall schedule wafer starts to conform
                                    to the cycle time requirements of the
                                    Customers.

         SECTION 5.5. ALLOCATION. At all times when the demand of all Customers
exceeds AICL's available Foundry capacity, subject to any preexisting agreements
of AICL, Amkor or CIL with third parties, Amkor and CIL, at their sole
discretion, shall have the right to allocate AICL's Foundry capacity among their
Customers.

   
         SECTION 5.6. TI AGREEMENT. (a) Amkor and AICL acknowledge that: (i)
AICL entered into a certain Technical Assistance Agreement with TI, dated as of
January 28, 1997 (the "TAA"), pursuant to which, inter alia, TI agreed to
purchase from AICL, and AICL agreed to sell to TI, semiconductor wafers; (ii)
TI subsequently agreed with AICL, by an amendment to the TAA dated September
29, 1997 (the "Amendment"), that certain transactions respecting the purchase
and sale of wafers contemplated by the TAA could be conducted between TI and
Amkor directly; [*]
    

         SECTION 5.7. HANDLING OF CUSTOMER MATERIALS. Unless a particular
Customer Contract provides otherwise, to the extent, if at all, that the
relevant Customer provides any masks, tapes, wafers, tooling or other materials
directly or through Amkor or CIL to AICL, such materials shall remain the
property of the Customer. AICL shall be responsible for secured storage handling
and accounting for such Customer materials in accordance with the terms of the
relevant Customer Contract. AICL shall keep confidential all Customer materials
to the extent set forth in the relevant Customer Contract or otherwise agreed
between the Customer and Amkor or CIL, as the case may be.




   
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                                      -10-
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                      ARTICLE 6. SHIPMENTS, PAYMENTS , ETC.

         SECTION 6.1. CUSTOMER SHIPMENTS. (a) Amkor and CIL shall be responsible
for ensuring the delivery to Customers of wafers and other products manufactured
by AICL; provided, however, that AICL shall assume such obligation upon Amkor's
and CIL's request.

         (b) AICL shall ship all such products in secure containers with labels
identifying, as required, any Customer-specific product numbering or lot number.
Each shipment shall also contain the agreed-upon processing documentation such
as commercial invoices or bills of lading.

         SECTION 6.2. STORAGE. AICL shall be responsible for the safe storage
and handling of Customer products in AICL's possession. The liability of AICL
with regard to any damage to or loss of such Products shall be determined in
accordance with the applicable Customer Contract, and, in accordance with
Section 13.3, AICL shall indemnify Amkor and CIL to the extent of their
liability under such Customer Contract.

                            ARTICLE 7. RECORDS, ETC.

         SECTION 7.1. RECORDS. (a) Each Party shall timely create and keep
complete and accurate books and records ("Records") regarding its operations
hereunder, including any records or materials that relate to or form the basis
for any payment or other obligation of such Party to any other Party hereunder.

                  (b) Each Party shall maintain its Records for at least three
(3) years from the date such records were created.

                  (c) Each Party shall make available, at no cost, to each other
Party and its authorized representatives (the "Requesting Party"), copies of, or
access to, such Records as may be relevant under this Agreement to the
Requesting Party and as the Requesting Party may reasonably request.

         SECTION 7.2. ACCESS. (a) Amkor, CIL and AICL shall each allow free
access to its respective premises by employees of any of them.

                  (b) Without limiting the foregoing, AICL shall make available
office space and resources, including access to its Foundry Management System,
to Amkor and CIL employees for the purpose of coordinating the operations of the
Parties hereunder.

                  (c) Each Party shall be responsible for the conduct of its
employees while they are on the premises of another Party and, during such time,
such employees shall abide by all rules and regulations of the Party on whose
premises they are.


                                      -11-
   12



         SECTION 7.3. AUDIT. (a) Each Party (the "Audited Party") shall, during
the Term and for three (3) years thereafter, at its sole cost and expense
(except as provided below), provide reasonable assistance to any other Party
(the "Auditing Party"), including providing access to the Audited Party's
facilities and Records, to enable the Auditing Party and third-party auditors
and examiners selected by the Auditing Party to conduct audits and examinations
of the Records and operations of the Audited Party relating to this Agreement.

         (b) An Auditing Party shall provide the Audited Party with at least ten
(10) business days' notice prior to conducting any audit hereunder. Each such
audit shall be conducted at reasonable hours and in a manner that does not
materially interfere with the Audited Party's operations. Each Party may audit
each other Party as described herein not more than two (2) times each calendar
year, unless otherwise required by law or regulation.


                       ARTICLE 8. CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION

         SECTION 8.1. CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION EXCLUSIONS. Notwithstanding the
provisions of Section 1.2(d), Confidential Information shall exclude information
that the Receiving Party can demonstrate: (i) was independently developed by the
Receiving Party without any use of the Disclosing Party's Confidential
Information or by the Receiving Party's employees or other agents (or
independent contractors hired by the Receiving Party) who have not been exposed
to the Disclosing Party's Confidential Information; (ii) becomes known to the
Receiving Party, without restriction, from a source other than the Disclosing
Party without breach of this Agreement and that had a right to disclose it;
(iii) was in the public domain at the time it was disclosed or becomes in the
public domain through no act or omission of the Receiving Party; or (iv) was
rightfully known to the Receiving Party, without restriction, at the time of
disclosure.

         SECTION 8.2. COMPELLED DISCLOSURE. In the event that a Receiving Party
discloses Confidential Information of a Disclosing Party pursuant to the order
or requirement of a court, administrative agency, or other governmental body;
such Receiving Party shall provide prompt notice thereof to such Disclosing
Party and shall use its best efforts to obtain a protective order or otherwise
prevent public disclosure of such information.

         SECTION 8.3. CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATION. The Receiving Party shall
treat as confidential all of the Disclosing Party's Confidential Information and
shall not use such Confidential Information except as expressly permitted under
this Agreement. Without limiting the foregoing, the Receiving Party shall use at
least the same degree of care which it uses to prevent the disclosure of its own
confidential information of like importance, but in no event with less than
reasonable care, to prevent the disclosure of the Disclosing Party's
Confidential Information. To the extent consistent with the foregoing, a
Receiving Party may use any knowledge, confidential information, trade secrets
or proprietary information constituting Confidential Information of a Disclosing
Party that is retained in              


                                      -12-
   13
                                              




the memory of such Receiving Party's employees or that constitutes any such
employee's general knowledge or skill, even if acquired in connection with this
Agreement, for any purpose whatsoever.

         SECTION 8.4. REMEDIES. Unauthorized use by a Party of another Party's
Confidential Information will diminish the value of such information. Therefore,
if a Party breaches any of its obligations with respect to confidentiality or
use of Confidential Information hereunder, the relevant Disclosing Party shall
be entitled to seek equitable relief to protect its interest therein, including
but not limited to injunctive relief, as well as money damages.

         SECTION 8.5. NO CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION OF OTHER PARTIES. Each Party
represents and warrants that it has not and shall not use in the course of its
performance hereunder, and shall not disclose to any other Party, any
confidential information of any third party, unless such Party expressly is
authorized by such third party to do so.


                     ARTICLE 9. ANAM USA'S RESPONSIBILITIES

         SECTION 9.1. CREDIT FUNCTIONS. Anam USA shall use its best efforts to
obtain lines of credit at lowest commercially available rates of interest to
permit letters of credit to be opened, with AICL as beneficiary, for payment for
AICL's performance of Foundry Services.


            ARTICLE 10. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OWNERSHIP AND LICENSES

         SECTION 10.1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OWNERSHIP. (a) Except as set forth
herein, this Agreement shall not affect a Party's Intellectual Property Rights
existing prior to the Effective Date.

                  (b) Each Party shall own all Intellectual Property Rights in
Technology created or invented by such Party's employees, as determined in
accordance with principles of United States law.

                  (c) Any Technology created or invented by the employees of
more than one Party, and all Intellectual Property Rights therein, will be
jointly owned by the Parties that are the employers of such employees, as
determined in accordance with principles of United States law. Such joint
ownership will be without the duty to account. Such Parties shall cooperate in
the enforcement of such jointly-owned Intellectual Property Rights against
third-party infringers.

         SECTION 10.2. LICENSES. (a) Amkor and CIL hereby grant to AICL and its
Affiliates a non-exclusive, non-sublicensable, perpetual, worldwide,
irrevocable license under all Intellectual Property Rights that Amkor or CIL now
or during the Term may hold or acquire, and which they are free to license to
third parties without payment of any kind, to (i) provide Foundry Services, (ii)
manufacture, use, sell and import Products, and (iii) otherwise operate the
Foundry and perform AICL's related activities. Amkor and CIL shall disclose
promptly to AICL any Technology to which AICL reasonably 




                                      -13-
   14




would desire access in connection with the performance of its obligations under
this Agreement, the provision of Foundry Services, or the operation of its
Foundry business.

                  (b) AICL, on behalf of itself and its Affiliates, hereby
grants to Amkor, CIL and their Affiliates a non-exclusive, fully sublicensable,
perpetual, worldwide, irrevocable, license under all Intellectual Property
Rights that AICL or its Affiliates now or during the Term may hold or acquire,
and which they are free to license to third parties without payment of any kind,
to (i) provide Foundry Services, (ii) have manufactured, use, sell and import
Products, and (iii) otherwise conduct activities related to the Foundry
Services. AICL shall disclose promptly to Amkor and CIL any Technology to which
Amkor and CIL would reasonably desire access in order to perform their
obligations under the Agreement or to otherwise operate their Foundry Service
businesses.

         SECTION 10.3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION. (a) The Parties shall
cooperate to obtain patents, copyright and mask work registrations, and other
intellectual property protection with respect to any Technology developed by any
of them related to Foundry Services or resulting from any joint development
hereunder. In the case of jointly-owned Intellectual Property Rights, the
Parties shall equitably allocate the costs of obtaining patent, copyright, mask
work and other protection for such Intellectual Property Rights among
themselves.

                  (b) Notwithstanding the foregoing, each Party shall have the
right to file patent applications or copyright or mask work registrations on any
inventions made by, or works authored by, its employees. Any patents or
registrations issuing from such applications shall be exclusively owned by the
Party that made such application.

         SECTION 10.4. THIRD PARTY LICENSES. In the event that a Party intends
to license Technology from a third party, it will endeavor to obtain a license
on equal terms for any of the other Parties to the extent that such other
Parties would benefit from such a license.

         SECTION 10.5. ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. (a) If a Party
becomes aware that a third party is infringing such Party's or any other Party's
Intellectual Property Rights, such Party shall promptly notify the relevant
other Parties thereof.

                  (b) Where such Intellectual Property Rights are owned by only
one Party, such Party shall have the sole right to determine whether or not to
bring infringement or unfair competition or related proceedings in connection
with any such infringement.

                  (c) If such infringed Intellectual Property Rights are owned
by more than one Party, then within thirty (30) days of receipt of such notice
or otherwise becoming aware of such infringement, such Parties shall determine
which of them, if any, shall bring an infringement or unfair competition or
related proceedings in connection with such infringement. In any event, all such
Parties shall cooperate in the bringing of such action, and, where required,
join such action. Any amount awarded with respect to any such proceeding shall
be payable entirely to the Party or Parties bringing such proceeding, unless 


                                      -14-
   15
otherwise agreed by the Parties. Any disputes as to which Party has the
right to prosecute such proceeding, or as to allocation of proceeds from such
proceeding, shall be settled by arbitration as provided in Article 16.

         SECTION 10.6. USE OF AICL TRADEMARKS. (a) AICL hereby grants to Amkor
and CIL (and their respective Affiliates) the right to use AICL's and Anam USA's
respective corporate names, trademarks and service marks ("AICL Trademarks") in
connection with the promotion of AICL's Foundry Services and otherwise in
connection with Amkor's and CIL's Foundry Service operations. Amkor and CIL (and
their respective Affiliates) shall observe all instructions and directions
provided to them by AICL or Anam USA regarding the use of the AICL Trademarks.
Amkor and CIL (and their respective Affiliates) shall not use the AICL
Trademarks in a manner that detracts from the goodwill associated with such AICL
Trademarks.

         (b) To the extent required by or advisable under Korean law, the
Parties will enter into a separate trademark agreement in accordance with the
terms set forth in Section 10.6(a) and register such license agreement with the
appropriate Korean authorities.


                      ARTICLE 11. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

         SECTION 11.1. JOINT R&D COMMITTEE. Amkor and AICL shall establish a
committee (the "R&D Committee") to coordinate their respective research and
development activities and any joint research and development projects. Amkor
and AICL shall designate two (2) individuals to serve on a the R&D Committee.
Such R&D Committee shall meet from time to time during the Term, as it shall in
its discretion determine.

         SECTION 11.2. COORDINATION. (a) Amkor and AICL shall collaborate in,
and coordinate, their respective research and development activities, as well as
those of their respective Affiliates, so as to foster the development of new and
improved technologies related to Foundry Services.

                  (b) Unless otherwise agreed or determined by the R&D
Committee, (i) AICL will have primary responsibility for, and will confine its
research and development activities to, the development of process technology
used in the operation of the Foundry and (ii) Amkor will have primary
responsibility for, and will confine its research and development activities to,
the specification of required process technology features, the development and
creation of design cell libraries, design tools and designs optimized for AICL's
foundry processes.

         SECTION 11.3. FUNDING. Unless specifically agreed in writing to the
contrary, Amkor and AICL will fund their own (and their respective Affiliates')
research and development efforts.

                             ARTICLE 12. WARRANTIES


                                      -15-
   16
                                                

         SECTION 12.1. GENERAL WARRANTY. Each Party hereby represents and
warrants to the other Parties that (i) such Party has the right, power and
authority to enter into this Agreement and to fully perform all its obligations
hereunder; and (ii) the making of this Agreement does not violate any agreement
existing between such Party and any third party.

         SECTION 12.2. AICL FOUNDRY SERVICES WARRANTY. (a) AICL warrants to
Amkor and CIL, with respect to Foundry Services, that:

                  (i)      the relevant Products will be manufactured by AICL
                           using processes that conform to the processes that
                           have been specified and qualified by the relevant
                           Customer for such Product; and

                  (ii)     as delivered by AICL to Amkor and CIL or their
                           respective Customers, the relevant Products shall
                           conform to the specifications (including as to yield
                           and defect levels) set forth in the relevant Customer
                           Contract.

         (b) AICL shall grant to Amkor and CIL, for the benefit of their
Customers, such other warranties with respect to Foundry Services and Products
as Amkor and CIL provide to their respective Customers in the relevant Customer
Contracts, or as may be imposed by law, provided that AICL has received notice
of such warranties prior to its manufacture of such Products.

         SECTION 12.3. REMEDIES. In the event of a breach by AICL of the
warranties set forth in Section 12.2, AICL shall provide to Amkor or CIL, as the
case may be, or on its behalf, to its Customer, the same remedy that Amkor or
CIL, as the case may be, is required to provide to such Customer pursuant to the
relevant Customer Contract.

         SECTION 12.4. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY WARRANTY. (a) AICL warrants that
(i) its performance of the Foundry Services and any other services hereunder,
and (ii) the Products and any other material or things delivered by it to Amkor
and CIL and Customers hereunder, will not infringe or misappropriate any third
party's Intellectual Property Rights.

                  (b) Notwithstanding the foregoing, AICL shall have no
responsibility for infringement arising from any Foundry Service performed for,
or Product delivered to, Amkor or CIL for a Customer to the extent that such
infringement arises solely from AICL's compliance with or use of specifications,
processes, instructions or materials as provided by such Customer.

                  (c) If any Foundry Services or Products infringe or
misappropriate, or in Amkor's or CIL's, as the case may be, reasonable
determination is likely to infringe or misappropriate, any third party's
Intellectual Property Rights, in addition to the obligations set forth in
Article 13, AICL shall, at Amkor's and CIL's choice and at AICL's sole expense,
either (i) obtain from such third party the right to continue to operate the
Foundry and provide Foundry Services and Products, or (ii) to the extent
permitted, modify the Foundry, Foundry Services and Products to avoid and
eliminate such 




                                      -16-
   17
                                                

infringement or misappropriation, as the case may be; provided, however, that
such Foundry Services and Products shall at all times comply with all relevant
specifications.

         SECTION 12.5. DISCLAIMERS. Except as may be agreed to in writing by
AICL, Amkor and CIL shall disclaim and limit their warranties and limit their
liability to their respective Customers to at least the same extent that AICL
limits its warranties and disclaims liability to Amkor and CIL hereunder.

         SECTION 12.6. NO LIENS. AICL represents and warrants that all Products
delivered by it to Amkor, CIL or their respective Customers will be free of all
third-party liens, security interests and other encumbrances.


                             ARTICLE 13. INDEMNITIES

         SECTION 13.1. AICL INDEMNITY. AICL and Anam USA shall, jointly and
severally, indemnify and hold Amkor and CIL and their Affiliates, and each of
their respective employees, directors, distributors, agents, customers,
licensees, successors and assigns harmless from and against all costs,
liabilities, losses, damages, expenses and judgments resulting from or arising
out of (i) any breach of any warranty made by AICL hereunder, including pursuant
to Article 12, (ii) in connection with any claim, action or proceeding, in a
court or otherwise, related to any such breach, (iii) or resulting from AICL's
breach of, or failure to perform under, any agreement among AICL, Amkor and any
Customer; or (iv) any breach by AICL of any agreement between AICL and TI. AICL
and Anam USA shall settle or defend, at their option, all such claims, actions
and proceedings at AICL's and Anam USA's sole cost and expense.

         SECTION 13.2. AMKOR INDEMNITY. Amkor and CIL shall, jointly and
severally, indemnify and hold AICL and Anam USA and their Affiliates, and each
of their respective employees, directors, distributors, agents, customers,
licensees, successors and assigns harmless from and against all costs,
liabilities, losses, damages, expenses and judgments resulting from or arising
out of any breach of (i) any warranty made by Amkor or CIL hereunder, including
pursuant to Article 12, or in connection with any claim, action or proceeding,
in a court or otherwise, related to any such breach or (ii) any breach of any
agreement between Amkor and TI. Amkor and CIL shall settle or defend, at their
option, all such claims, actions and proceedings at Amkor's and CIL's sole cost
and expense.

         SECTION 13.3. LIMITATION. An Indemnifying Party shall have no
obligation with respect to any claim, action or proceeding (a "Claim") pursuant
to this Article 13 unless (i) such Indemnifying Party is promptly notified by
the Indemnified Party of such Claim, (ii) such Indemnifying Party has sole
control of the defense and settlement of such Claim, and (iii) the associated
Indemnified Party provides such Indemnifying Party with reasonable assistance,
at such Indemnifying Party's expense, in the defense and settlement of such
Claim.


                                      -17-
   18
                                                
         SECTION 13.4. PAYMENTS. In the event that AICL is required to make any
indemnity payment to Amkor, CIL or any of their respective Affiliates, such
indemnified Party and AICL shall comply with the Korean government regulations
necessary to enable AICL to obtain approval to make such payments in United
States currency.


                        ARTICLE 14. LIABILITY LIMITATIONS

         SECTION 14.1. EXCLUSION OF DAMAGES. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN ARTICLE 13,
IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY PARTY BE LIABLE TO ANY OTHER PARTY HEREUNDER FOR ANY
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON BREACH
OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), PRODUCT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE, AND
WHETHER OR NOT THE PARTY AGAINST WHOM LIABILITY IS SOUGHT HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

         SECTION 14.2. FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. The limitations specified
in this Article shall survive and apply even if any limited remedy specified in
this Agreement is found to have failed of its essential purpose.


                        ARTICLE 15. TERM AND TERMINATION

         SECTION 15.1. TERM. (a) The initial term of this Agreement shall
commence on the Effective Date and continue unless terminated in accordance with
this Article 15.

                  (b) Any Party may terminate this Agreement for any or no
reason with respect to such Party, upon on five (5) years' written notice given
to all other Parties at any time after the fifth (5th) anniversary of the
Effective Date.

         SECTION 15.2. DEFAULT. If a Party (a "Breaching Party") defaults in the
performance of any of its material obligations to another Party or Parties
hereunder (the "Non-Breaching Party"), the Breaching Party shall use its best
efforts to correct such default within ninety (90) days after written notice
thereof from the Non-Breaching Party. If any such default is not corrected
within such ninety (90)-day period, then provided that the Non-Breaching Party
is not an Affiliate of the Breaching Party, the Non-Breaching Party shall have
the right, in addition to any other remedies it may have, to terminate this
Agreement by giving written notice to all Parties.

         SECTION 15.3. TERMINATION FOR INSOLVENCY. Any Party may terminate this
Agreement upon one hundred eighty (180) days' written notice to the other
Parties if a Bankruptcy Event occurs with respect to another Party that is not
an Affiliate of the terminating Party.

                                      -18-
   19
                                                
         SECTION 15.4. EFFECT OF TERMINATION. Upon any expiration or termination
of this Agreement (i) AICL shall complete all work in progress with respect to
Customer Contracts entered into prior to such termination, (ii) each Party shall
satisfy its payment obligations hereunder that arose prior to such termination
or incurred in connection with any completion of work in progress, and (iii)
each Party shall return all property, including copies of all Confidential
Information, to the Party that owns such property.

         SECTION 15.5. SURVIVAL. The following Articles and Sections shall
survive any termination or expiration of this Agreement: 1, 7.1, 7.3, 8, 10,
11.1, 11.3, 11.5, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18.


                             ARTICLE 16. ARBITRATION

         SECTION 16.1. ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES. (a) Any controversy, dispute or
claim arising out of, in connection with, or in relation to the interpretation,
performance or breach of this Agreement, including any claim based on contract,
tort or statute, shall be settled, at the request of any Party, by arbitration
conducted in Santa Clara County, California, USA or such other location upon
which the Parties may mutually agree, before and in accordance with the
then-existing Rules of Commercial Arbitration of the American Arbitration
Association ("AAA"), and judgment upon any award rendered by the arbitrator may
be entered by any State or Federal court having jurisdiction thereof.

                  (b) The Parties hereby consent to the jurisdiction of an
arbitration panel and of the courts located in, and venue in, Santa Clara
County, California, USA, with respect to any dispute arising under this
Agreement.

                  (c) Any controversy concerning whether a dispute is an
arbitrable dispute hereunder shall be determined by the one or more arbitrators
selected in accordance with Section 16.3.

                  (d) The Parties intend that this agreement to arbitrate be
valid, specifically enforceable and irrevocable.

         SECTION 16.2. INITIATION OF ARBITRATION. A Party may initiate
arbitration hereunder by filing a written demand for arbitration with each other
Party to the dispute in accordance with Section 17.11 and with the AAA.
Arbitration hereunder shall be conducted on a timely, expedited basis.

         SECTION 16.3. SELECTION OF ARBITRATOR. Any arbitration shall be held
before a single arbitrator, who shall be selected in accordance with the
procedures of the AAA, and shall be a member of the Large Complex Case Panel
with significant intellectual property (patent and copyright) law and
semiconductor manufacturing experience. If the Parties are unable to agree on
single arbitrator, then each of AICL and Amkor shall select an arbitrator and
such arbitrators shall select a third arbitrator. Such arbitration shall then be
held before such three arbitrators.


                                      -19-
   20
                                                

         SECTION 16.4. AWARDS. The arbitrator(s) may, in its discretion, award
to the prevailing Party in any arbitration proceeding commenced hereunder, and
the court shall include in its judgment for the prevailing Party in any claim
arising hereunder, the prevailing Party's costs and expenses (including expert
witness expenses and reasonable attorneys' fees) of investigating, preparing and
presenting such arbitration claim or cause of action.


                            ARTICLE 17. MISCELLANEOUS

         SECTION 17.1. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS. The Parties hereto are
independent contractors. Nothing contained herein or done pursuant to this
Agreement shall constitute any Party the agent of any other Party for any
purpose or in any sense whatsoever, or constitute the Parties as partners or
joint venturers.

         SECTION 17.2. BANKRUPTCY. (a) All rights and licenses with respect to
Intellectual Property Rights licensed to a Party pursuant to this Agreement are,
and shall otherwise be deemed to be, for purposes of Section 365(n) of the
United States Bankruptcy Code, licenses to rights of "intellectual property" as
defined thereunder. Notwithstanding any provision contained herein to the
contrary, if a Party (the "Bankrupt Party") is under any proceeding under the
Bankruptcy Code and the trustee in bankruptcy of such Party, or such Party, as a
debtor in possession, rightfully elects to reject this Agreement, the other
Parties that are not Affiliates of the Bankrupt Party may, pursuant to 11 U.S.C.
Section 365(n)(1) and (2), retain any and all rights granted to them hereunder,
to the maximum extent permitted by law, subject to the payments specified
herein.

         SECTION 17.3. ASSIGNABILITY. AICL and Anam USA shall not assign or
delegate this Agreement, or any of AICL's or Anam USA's rights or duties
hereunder, directly, indirectly, by operation of law, or otherwise, or in
connection with a Change of Control, and any such purported assignment or
delegation shall be void, except with the express written permission of Amkor.
Without limiting the foregoing, any permitted assigns or successors of the
Parties shall be bound by all terms and conditions of this Agreement and this
Agreement shall inure to the benefit of such permitted successors or assigns.

         SECTION 17.4. ENTIRE AGREEMENT. The terms and conditions herein
contained constitute the entire agreement between the Parties with respect to
the subject matter hereof and supersede all previous and contemporaneous
agreements and understandings, whether oral or written, between the Parties with
respect to the subject matter hereof.

         SECTION 17.5. AMENDMENT. No alteration, amendment, waiver, cancellation
or any other change in any term or condition of this Agreement shall be valid or
binding on any Party unless mutually assented to in writing by all Parties.

         SECTION 17.6. FORCE MAJEURE. No Party shall be liable for delay in
performance or failure to perform, in whole or in part, to the extent due to
labor dispute, strike, war or act of war, insurrection, 

                                      -20-
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riot, civil unrest, act of public enemy, fire, flood, or other acts of God, or
the acts of any governmental authority, or other causes beyond the control of
such Party. The Party experiencing such cause or delay shall immediately notify
the other Parties of the circumstances which may prevent or significantly delay
its performance hereunder, and shall use its best efforts to alleviate the
effects of such cause or delay.

         SECTION 17.7. EXPORT LAWS. This Agreement is subject to all applicable
United States laws and regulations relating to exports and to all administrative
acts of the U.S. Government pursuant to such laws and regulations. No Party
shall export or re-export, directly or indirectly, any technical data or
semiconductor or other materials in violation of the any U.S. export or similar
laws.

         SECTION 17.8. GOVERNING LAW. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE
LAWS OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA WITHOUT REGARD TO THAT STATE'S CHOICE OF LAWS.
THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS SHALL NOT APPLY
TO THIS AGREEMENT OR ANY TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

         SECTION 17.9. NO WAIVER. The failure of a Party to enforce at any time
any of the provisions of this Agreement, or the failure to require at any time
performance by any other Party of any of the provisions of this Agreement, shall
in no way be construed to be a present or future waiver of such provisions, nor
in any way affect the validity thereof or a Party's right to enforce each and
every such provision thereafter. The express waiver by a Party of any provision,
condition or requirement of this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of any
future obligation to comply with such provision, condition or requirement.

         SECTION 17.10. SEVERABILITY. If, for any reason, a court of competent
jurisdiction finds any provision of this Agreement, or portion thereof, to be
invalid or unenforceable, such provision of the Agreement will be enforced to
the maximum extent permissible so as to effect the intent of the Parties, and
the remainder of this Agreement will continue in full force and effect. The
Parties agree to negotiate in good faith an enforceable substitute provision for
any invalid or unenforceable provision that most nearly achieves the intent and
economic effect of such provision.

         SECTION 17.11. NOTICES. All notices, requests, demands, waivers, and
other communications required or permitted hereunder shall be in writing and
shall be deemed to have been duly given: (i) when delivered by hand or confirmed
facsimile transmission; (ii) one day after delivery by receipted overnight
delivery; or (iii) four days after being mailed by certified or registered mail,
return receipt requested, with postage prepaid to the appropriate address set
forth at the beginning of this Agreement or to such other person or address as
any Party shall furnish to the other Parties in writing pursuant to the above.

         SECTION 17.12. TITLES AND SUBTITLES. The titles and subtitles used in
this Agreement are used for convenience only and are not to be considered in
construing or interpreting this Agreement.


                                      -21-
   22





         SECTION 17.13. COUNTERPARTS. This Agreement may be executed in
counterparts which, taken together, shall constitute one and the same document.

         IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Parties have caused this Agreement to be
executed by their duly authorized officers or representatives to be effective as
of the date first above written.


AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.                    ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.


By:___________________________________    By:___________________________________
         Name:                                     Name:
         Title:                                    Title:


AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.                   ANAM USA, INC.


By:___________________________________    By:___________________________________
         Name:                                     Name:
         Title:                                    Title:


C.I.L. LIMITED


By:_________________________________
         Name:
         Title:




                                      -22-
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                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

ARTICLE 1. CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITIONS.........................................................................-2- Section 1.1. Construction........................................................................-2- Section 1.2. Definitions.........................................................................-2- ARTICLE 2. MARKETING AND SALES..................................................................................-4- Section 2.1. Exclusivity.........................................................................-4- Section 2.2. Amkor and CIL Territorial Division..................................................-4- Section 2.3. Customer Contracts..................................................................-4- Section 2.4. Customer Pricing....................................................................-5- ARTICLE 3. OPERATION OF FOUNDRY BUSINESS........................................................................-5- Section 3.1. AICL's General Responsibilities with Respect to Foundry Services....................-5- Section 3.2. Amkor's and CIL's General Obligations...............................................-5- ARTICLE 4. FOUNDRY PRICING......................................................................................-6- Section 4.1. Foundry Fee.........................................................................-6- Section 4.2. Additional Non-Recurring Engineering Costs..........................................-6- Section 4.3. Determination of Foundry Factor.....................................................-6- Section 4.4. Payment Obligation..................................................................-7- Section 4.5. Payment Flow........................................................................-7- ARTICLE 5. FORECASTS AND ORDER COORDINATION.....................................................................-7- Section 5.1. Foundry Management Systems..........................................................-7- Section 5.2. Electronic Data Exchange............................................................-8- Section 5.3. Customer Forecasts..................................................................-9- Section 5.4. Order Coordination..................................................................-9- Section 5.5. Allocation..........................................................................-9- Section 5.6. TI Agreement........................................................................-9- Section 5.7. Handling of Customer Materials.....................................................-10- ARTICLE 6. SHIPMENTS, PAYMENTS , ETC...........................................................................-10- Section 6.1. Customer Shipments.................................................................-10- Section 6.2. Storage............................................................................-10- ARTICLE 7. RECORDS, ETC........................................................................................-10- Section 7.1. Records............................................................................-10- Section 7.2. Access.............................................................................-11- Section 7.3. Audit..............................................................................-11-
-i- 24
ARTICLE 8. CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION............................................................................-11- Section 8.1. Confidential Information Exclusions................................................-11- Section 8.2. Compelled Disclosure...............................................................-11- Section 8.3. Confidentiality Obligation.........................................................-12- Section 8.4. Remedies...........................................................................-12- Section 8.5. No Confidential Information of Other Parties.......................................-12- ARTICLE 9. ANAM USA'S RESPONSIBILITIES.........................................................................-12- Section 9.1. Credit Functions...................................................................-12- ARTICLE 10. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OWNERSHIP AND LICENSES.......................................................-12- Section 10.1. Intellectual Property Ownership...................................................-12- Section 10.2. Licenses..........................................................................-13- Section 10.3. Intellectual Property Protection..................................................-13- Section 10.4. Third Party Licenses..............................................................-13- Section 10.5. Enforcement of Intellectual Property..............................................-14- Section 10.6. Use of AICL Trademarks............................................................-14- ARTICLE 11. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...........................................................................-14- Section 11.1. Joint R&D Committee...............................................................-14- Section 11.2. Coordination......................................................................-15- Section 11.3. Funding...........................................................................-15- ARTICLE 12. WARRANTIES..........................................................................................-15- Section 12.1. General Warranty..................................................................-15- Section 12.2. AICL Foundry Services Warranty....................................................-15- Section 12.3. Remedies..........................................................................-15- Section 12.4. Intellectual Property Warranty....................................................-16- Section 12.5. Disclaimers.......................................................................-16- Section 12.6. No Liens..........................................................................-16- ARTICLE 13. INDEMNITIES........................................................................................-16- Section 13.1. AICL Indemnity....................................................................-16- Section 13.2. Amkor Indemnity...................................................................-16- Section 13.3. Limitation........................................................................-17- Section 13.4. Payments..........................................................................-17- ARTICLE 14. LIABILITY LIMITATIONS .............................................................................-17- Section 14.1. Exclusion of Damages..............................................................-17- Section 14.2. Failure of Essential Purpose......................................................-17- ARTICLE 15. TERM AND TERMINATION...............................................................................-17-
-ii- 25
Section 15.1. Term..............................................................................-17- Section 15.2. Default...........................................................................-17- Section 15.3. Termination for Insolvency........................................................-18- Section 15.4. Effect of Termination.............................................................-18- Section 15.5. Survival..........................................................................-18- ARTICLE 16. ARBITRATION .......................................................................................-18- Section 16.1. Arbitration of Disputes...........................................................-18- Section 16.2. Initiation of Arbitration.........................................................-19- Section 16.3. Selection of Arbitrator...........................................................-19- Section 16.4. Awards ...........................................................................-19- ARTICLE 17. MISCELLANEOUS......................................................................................-19- Section 17.1. Independent Contractors...........................................................-19- Section 17.2. Bankruptcy........................................................................-19- Section 17.3. Assignability.....................................................................-19- Section 17.4. Entire Agreement..................................................................-20- Section 17.5. Amendment.........................................................................-20- Section 17.6. Force Majeure.....................................................................-20- Section 17.7. Export Laws.......................................................................-20- Section 17.8. Governing Law.....................................................................-20- Section 17.9. No Waiver ........................................................................-20- Section 17.10. Severability.....................................................................-20- Section 17.11. Notices..........................................................................-21- Section 17.12. Titles and Subtitles.............................................................-21- Section 17.13. Counterparts.....................................................................-21-
-iii- 26 FOUNDRY AGREEMENT by and among AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.; AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.; C.I.L. LIMITED (CAYMANS); ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.; and ANAM USA dated as of November 1, 1997
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                                                                   Exhibit 10.23







                              MANUFACTURING AND

                              PURCHASE AGREEMENT

                                   BETWEEN

                       TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED,

                          ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.

                                     AND

                           AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.

                         DATED AS OF JANUARY 1, 1998
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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                            Page




Article 1. Definitions.......................................................1

Article 2. Items and Cooperation to be Supplied by Anam and/or Amkor.........3

Article 3. Specifications, Quality Inspection, Testing and Customer Service..5

Article 4. Manufacturing Changes............................................12

Article 5. TI Loading Obligations and Option................................12

Article 6. TI Forecasts and Purchase Orders.................................15

Article 7. Pricing .........................................................18

Article 8. Shipping, Payment and Packaging .................................21

Article 9. Warranties and Liability Limitations.............................23

Article 10. Amendment of Certain Prior Agreements...........................26

Article 11. Term............................................................26

Article 12. Confidentiality.................................................26

Article 13. Termination and Dispute Resolution..............................27

Article 14. Miscellaneous...................................................30





                                
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                     MANUFACTURING AND PURCHASE AGREEMENT

This Manufacturing and Purchase Agreement (this "Agreement") dated as of January
1, 1998 (the "Effective Date") is made by and among TEXAS INSTRUMENTS
INCORPORATED, a Delaware, U.S.A. corporation, with its principal place of
business at 13500 North Central Expressway, Dallas, Texas 75265, U.S.A. ("TI"),
ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD., a corporation of the Republic of Korea, with its
principal place of business at Seoul, Republic of Korea ("Anam"), and AMKOR
ELECTRONICS INC., a Pennsylvania, U.S.A. corporation, with its principal place
of business at 1345 Enterprise Drive, West Chester, Pa 19380 ("Amkor"). TI, Anam
and Amkor are hereinafter referred to individually by their respective names or
as Party and collectively as Parties.


                                   RECITALS

      WHEREAS, Anam is engaged in the business of, among other things, operating
a semiconductor foundry in Korea;

      WHEREAS Amkor is in the business of, among other things contracting with
third parties to sell semiconductor wafers and die manufactured by Anam;

      WHEREAS, the Parties desire to implement certain provisions of the
Technical Assistance Agreement dated as of January 28, 1997 ("Phase 1 TAA")
between TI and Anam and the Technical Assistance Agreement of even date herewith
("Phase 2 TAA") between TI and Anam for the purchase by TI from Amkor, and the
sale by Amkor to TI, of TI Products (as hereinafter defined) to be manufactured
by Anam;

      WHEREAS, TI and Anam desire to amend and supersede certain provisions of
the Phase 1 TAA related to matters covered by this Agreement; and

      WHEREAS, the Parties desire to address manufacturing requirements,
loading, pricing and other purchase-related terms and conditions for both Phase
1 Products, Phase 2 Products;

      NOW, THEREFORE, for and in consideration of the mutual promises and
covenants contained herein, the Parties, intending to be legally bound, hereby
agree as follows:

                                  ARTICLE 1.

                                  DEFINITIONS

For purposes of this Agreement, the following words, terms and phrases shall
have the meanings assigned to them in this Article 1 unless specifically
otherwise stated. Furthermore, any defined term herein shall have a constant
meaning regardless of whether it is used in its singular or plural form.


                               
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ADVANCED AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY means, as the context herein requires, "Advanced
Available Technology" as defined in the Phase 1 TAA and/or "Advanced Available
Technology" as defined in the Phase 2 TAA.

CUSTOMER QUALIFICATION means that a TI customer has qualified a particular TI
Product device manufacturable by Anam hereunder for sale by TI to such customer,
as reflected in TI's written notification thereof to Anam.

FACILITY means the completed wafer fabrication plant known as Anam Fabrication
Buchon (AFB) 1, located at 222, Dodang-dong, Wonmi-gu, Buchon, Kyunggi-do, Korea
420-130 which Anam constructed, in connection with the Phase 1 TAA, which
Facility includes only a single 60 meter by 100 meter clean room. The term
Facility includes a wafer fabrication facility and equipment only, and shall not
include facilities or equipment for assembly and testing of Products.

PHASE 1 means that portion of the clean room within the Facility, the process
capability of which, as currently contemplated by the Parties, is sufficient to
manufacture approximately 15,000 wafer starts per month under the provisions of
the Phase 1 TAA.

PHASE 1 PRODUCTS means "TI Products," as defined in the Phase 1 TAA.

PHASE 2 means that portion of the clean room within the Facility, the process
capability of which, as currently contemplated by the Parties, is sufficient to
manufacture approximately 10,000 wafer starts per month under the provisions of
the Phase 2 TAA.

PHASE 2 PRODUCTS means "TI Products," as defined in the Phase 2 TAA.

PROCESS QUALIFICATION means TI's written certification that a unique process
flow within the broader C10-node or C07-node (e.g., the split-gate C10 process
flow and the split-gate C07 process flow) in operation at the Facility, which
unique process flow cannot be qualified by similarity to another already
qualified process flow, is qualified per the standards referred to within TI as
the "QSS standards."

PROCESS QUALIFICATION COSTS means all costs incurred during the period of
operation preceding Process Qualification relating to (i) the fabrication of
prototype wafers, (ii) the Process Qualification testing of those wafers,
including but not limited to costs relating to the acquisition, production,
testing (including but not limited to final test, life test and environmental
test), assembly and/or qualification testing of sample materials (including but
not limited to wafers), and (iii) the failure analysis of failed units.

PRODUCTS means Phase 1 Products and Phase 2 Products, as defined herein.

PRODUCT QUALIFICATION means, with respect to TI Products, the process, as
described herein, resulting in TI issuing its written certification that such TI
Products and their 




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manufacture have achieved a level of quality, consistency and reliability that
meets or exceeds the Specifications in accordance with this Agreement.

PRODUCT QUALIFICATION COSTS means all costs incurred during Product
Qualification relating to (i) the fabrication of prototype wafers, (ii) the
Product Qualification testing of those wafers, including but not limited to
costs relating to the acquisition, production, testing (including but not
limited to final test, life test and environmental test), assembly and/or
qualification testing of sample materials (including but not limited to wafers),
and (iii) the failure analysis of failed units; provided, however, that Product
Qualification Costs shall not in any event include Process Qualification Costs.

QUALIFICATION COSTS means Product Qualification Costs and Process Qualification
Costs.

SPECIFICATIONS means specifications related to a specific process flow which are
supplied to Anam in writing by TI to describe, characterize, circumscribe and
define the design characteristics, quality and performance of TI Products,
manufacturing processes, manufacturing equipment or Product Qualification and
which are consistent with Specifications which are applicable to the same
process flow manufactured by a TI facility comparable to the Facility.

TERM means the period during which this Agreement is in effect, as more
specifically set forth in Article 11 of this Agreement.

TI PRODUCTS means TI Products as defined in the Phase 1 TAA and as defined in
the Phase 2 TAA.

Unless otherwise provided herein, other capitalized terms herein shall have the
meaning assigned to them in either or both the Phase 1 TAA or the Phase 2 TAA,
as the context herein requires.

                                  ARTICLE 2.
          ITEMS AND COOPERATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY ANAM AND/OR AMKOR

2.01 MANUFACTURE. In accordance with the Phase 1 TAA, Phase 2 TAA, or any other
applicable Technical Assistance Agreement ("TAA") executed between the Parties,
Anam shall manufacture the TI Products to be sold by Amkor to TI hereunder.

2.02 COSTS, EXPENSES AND FEES. Except as otherwise expressly provided for in
this Agreement, any applicable TAA or as may otherwise be agreed between the
Parties, Amkor and Anam shall be solely responsible for any and all costs,
expenses, fees and the like for equipment, labor, facilities, materials and
other items required in connection with Anam's and Amkor's performance of their
obligations hereunder or under any applicable TAA.

2.03 QUALIFICATION COSTS. TI shall bear all Product Qualification Costs
associated with the initial Product Qualification of each TI Product other than
those costs relating to mask sets that, pursuant to Section 2.04 below, shall be
borne by either Anam or TI. Without limiting the application of Section 2.02
above, Anam shall bear all Process Qualification 



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Costs.



2.4  MASK SETS.

      2.04.01     For each TI Product which is to be manufactured by Anam for TI
                  and which requires a specific mask design, TI agrees to
                  provide to Anam the design data base and Technical Information
                  necessary for Anam to manufacture or have manufactured mask
                  sets, including any such additional mask sets (or portions
                  thereof) as may be redesigned by TI from time to time, to be
                  used for manufacturing such product.

      2.04.02     Subject to Sections 2.04.03, 2.04.04 and 5.04, Anam shall bear
                  the costs of all mask sets ordered prior to January 1, 1999
                  relating to Phase 1 Products.

      2.04.03     TI shall bear the costs of (i) the initial mask set relating
                  to each Phase 2 Product and (ii) the initial mask set ordered
                  on or after January 1, 1999 for each Phase 1 Product. Anam
                  shall bear the cost of the mask sets used solely in connection
                  with Process Qualification under the Phase 1 TAA and the Phase
                  2 TAA; provided, however, that if, and to the extent (i) the
                  same mask set used in Process Qualification is used in
                  production, and (ii) TI would otherwise be obligated to have
                  paid for such production mask set under this Section 2.04.03,
                  then Anam and TI shall share equally the cost of purchasing
                  such qualification mask set.

      2.04.04     Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this
                  Section 2.04, TI shall bear the cost of any reasonable mask
                  redesign and mask manufacturing costs associated with
                  modifications or changes to the original mask sets which are
                  necessitated by design errors or changes by TI or TI's
                  Customers with respect to the initial mask sets. For any
                  wafers that have been manufactured in whole or in part that
                  are required to be scrapped due to any such design error or
                  change of TI or TI's customers, TI shall pay Amkor an amount
                  (the "Wafer Termination Amount") equal to:

   
                   [*]
    

- ---------------
* Certain information on this page has been omitted and filed separately with
  the Commission. Confidential Treatment has been requested with respect to the 
  omitted portions.

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*
    
      2.04.05     Anam shall be responsible for the costs of all masks and mask
                  sets for which TI is not otherwise responsible pursuant to
                  Sections 2.04.03, 2.04.04 and 5.04.04.

2.05 TI MASK SET PROTECTION. Anam shall protect all mask sets as Trade and
Industrial Secrets of TI according to Article 10 of the applicable TAA. When any
mask set is no longer usable by Anam for the purposes of this Agreement, Anam
shall either return the mask set to TI immediately, or, upon TI's instructions,
destroy the mask set and provide TI with written certification of any such
destruction.

2.06 MATERIAL QUALITY REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT USAGE. TI will provide to Anam
the most current version of TI's manufacturing Specifications, test programs and
other test procedures needed by Anam to manufacture TI Products. In the process
of qualifying the Facility and the manufacture of each TI Product, Anam shall,
unless it obtains TI's consent to the contrary, use the same materials, recipes,
processes, specifications and equipment directly relating to the manufacture of
TI Products that TI uses in its commercial production of such TI Products as may
have been disclosed by TI to Anam or as otherwise instructed by TI.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, where required by local availability of materials
and supplies, with the consent of TI, which consent shall not unreasonably be
withheld or delayed, Anam may use materials, recipes, processes, specifications
and equipment that are different from those used by TI.

                                  ARTICLE 3.
       SPECIFICATIONS, QUALITY INSPECTION, TESTING AND CUSTOMER SERVICE

3.01 CHANGE TO SPECIFICATIONS. TI has the right to modify, change or alter the
Specifications from time-to-time, at its sole discretion and upon reasonable
written notice to Anam. In the event TI makes a change to the Specifications,
the Parties, through good faith negotiations, shall agree upon the delivery
schedule of the TI Products resulting from said change and TI's and Anam's
respective responsibilities, in accordance with Section 3.02 for the costs
incurred by Anam in connection with such changes, within thirty (30) days
following any such notice. All Specification changes shall be consistent with
TI's own Specification changes and shall not require Anam to perform changes not
otherwise generally performed by TI with respect to comparable process flows
under comparable circumstances.

3.02  SPECIFICATION CHANGE COSTS.





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      3.02.01     In the event TI changes the Specifications pursuant to Section
                  3.01, then:

                  (a)   If the change results in an improvement in the
                        manufacture of Products in general, including the
                        process for manufacturing the Products in general, then
                        Anam shall bear all costs associated with the change to
                        the extent that they relate to such improvements and
                        result in savings to Anam; or

                  (b)   Subject to Section 3.02.01(a), TI shall bear all costs
                        associated with the change.

      3.02.02     TI shall give Anam reasonable notice prior to exercising its
                  option to change Specifications, and TI and Anam shall
                  exercise reasonable efforts to resolve any hardships which
                  Anam would suffer from such change in the Specifications. For
                  purposes of this Section 3.02, "costs" shall include, but not
                  be limited to, costs relating to wafers, assembly, testing,
                  Qualification Costs, engineering for failure analysis,
                  incremental equipment to run qualification lots, and the like.

3.03 TI RESIDENT INSPECTOR. Anam agrees that TI employee safety and well-being,
product quality and reliability assurance, and the protection of TI's
intellectual property, including but not limited to Technical Information, are
of material importance to TI. Therefore, throughout the Term, TI shall have the
right to maintain at the Facility, at TI's sole discretion, one or more resident
representatives, as reasonably approved by Anam, for the purpose of monitoring
compliance with this Agreement, the Specifications, and TI safety and
environmental standards for the protection of TI personnel, and protecting TI's
intellectual property, including but not limited to Technical Information. Anam
shall provide suitable office space for use by such representatives, and shall
provide reasonable access to the manufacturing processes for the TI Products as
may be required for monitoring said compliance. Such representatives shall not
interfere with Anam's operation of the Facility.

3.04 TI CUSTOMER RIGHT OF INSPECTION. Upon reasonable notice, Anam agrees to
allow TI customer representatives (who have been approved by TI), to conduct
quality control and Specification audits and certification/qualification of the
Facility, and manufacturing process, provided that, where requested by Anam, a
TI employee accompanies such customer during its audit in the Facility, subject
to reasonable rules of Anam relating to visitors.

3.05 TI RIGHT TO MONITOR PRODUCTION. Throughout the Term, during completion of
production lots for TI, TI may perform monitoring tests and may recommend
disposition or corrective action where variance to the Specifications exists.
Anam will support this activity with quality trend reports and such other
documentation as shall be reasonably requested by TI from time-to-time. In
addition, if at any other time TI detects variances or deviations from
Specifications, TI may recommend corrective actions to Anam.

3.06 VISITS AND SECRECY AGREEMENT. Anything to the contrary in this Article 3
notwithstanding, each and every personnel of TI or TI's customers who shall be
given 





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access to the Anam Facility pursuant to this Agreement, including, without
limitation, pursuant to Section 3.03, 3.04 and 3.05 shall execute an agreement,
which shall include reasonable terms governing the protection of Anam
confidential information, as a condition precedent to admission or access to
such Facility or receipt of technical information of Anam pursuant to this
Agreement. All such personnel shall fully abide by all Facility rules and
regulations. TI shall be fully liable for any personal injury or property damage
resulting from any act or omission of TI's personnel while on the premises of
Anam. All transitory visits of TI and TI customers shall be arranged at such
times and in such manner as to minimize interference with the activities of
Anam.

3.07 ANAM CORRECTIVE ACTIONS. During the Term, Anam agrees to use reasonable
commercial efforts to make corrective actions as may be reasonably recommended
by TI as soon as practicable, after written notification of the problem;
provided, however, that TI shall use reasonable commercial efforts to assist
Anam in taking such action recommended by TI or in solving problems.

   
3.08 CYCLE TIME. Anam agrees to supply TI Products to TI in cycle times which
shall be competitive with merchant world-class foundry companies. In any event,
Anam agrees that the maximum production cycle time (i.e., the period from the
start date for production specified in the TI Start Plan (as defined below) by
TI to Anam's shipment of TI Products) shall be [*] except where otherwise
expressly provided for herein.
    

   
3.09 EXPEDITED PRODUCTION. On production lots specified by TI, Anam shall
expedite cycle time to a [*], or such other cycle time as may be agreed (such
expedited lots herein referred to as "Hot Lots"). Regardless of the stage of the
production process at which a normal lot is converted into a Hot Lot, for each
such Hot Lot shipped within such cycle time, TI shall pay Anam a fee of [*];
provided, however, that:
    

   
      (a)   Unless otherwise agreed, Anam shall not be obligated to so expedite
            production, through March 31, 1998, on more than [*] at any one
            time; from April 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998, on more than [*] at
            any one time; and thereafter, on more than [*] at any one time; and
    

      (b)   Any lots required to be expedited pursuant to Section 8.05, below
            shall not count against the limits described in Section 3.09.00(a)
            above.

3.10 TESTING. Anam shall perform multi-probe testing in a manner consistent with
TI practice, to the extent disclosed by TI to Anam, at Anam's Buchon, Republic
of Korea site on all TI Products delivered to TI hereunder and, without limiting
its obligations elsewhere provided for herein, shall be responsible, at its sole
expense, for having sufficient facilities, test equipment, labor, test programs
and other items in place on such site to meet required quantities and cycle
times. Notwithstanding the foregoing, TI shall be responsible, solely at its
expense, for furnishing to Anam in a timely manner copies of the multi-probe
test

   
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programs necessary for Anam to perform multiprobe testing on the required
quantities and within the required cycle times; provided, however, that TI shall
be under no obligation to furnish test programs compatible with any test
equipment other than the test equipment TI uses in its wholly-owned facilities
for comparable wafers. All test programs required to be implemented by Anam in
accordance with this Section 3.10 shall be consistent with TI's own test
programs and shall not require Anam to perform testing not otherwise generally
performed by TI with respect to comparable products. Anam shall use no other
test programs on TI Products other than those furnished or approved by TI. TI
agrees to purchase any testers used by Anam for TI Products at the end of Anam's
use of such testers on TI Products. TI's purchase price for such equipment shall
be equal to Anam's original purchase price for such equipment depreciated on a
five-year straight line basis and subject to a discount in price for excessive
wear and tear.

3.11  TI INCOMING TESTING AND INSPECTION.

      3.11.01     TI shall furnish to Anam from time to time, as required,
                  quality and reliability Specifications applicable to TI
                  Products. Among other things, those Specifications will
                  specify the quality standards referred to within TI as the
                  "Category 1" standards. Such Specification shall be consistent
                  with specifications applicable to the Category 1
                  specifications met by TI's own facilities. Following receipt
                  of each shipment, TI may perform incoming tests on each
                  shipment of TI Products. In the event such tests demonstrate
                  that such TI Products fail to conform to the then-applicable
                  quality and reliability Specifications furnished by TI and
                  such Specifications conform to the foregoing, TI shall have
                  the right to return, after confirmation of failures, such TI
                  Products to Anam for rework or replacement at no cost to TI.
                  TI has the right to recommend corrective action to address
                  variances from Specifications. Such return shipments shall be
                  made by TI, F.O.B. the destination from which they were
                  originally shipped by Anam. A return material authorization
                  ("RMA") form previously issued by Anam must accompany any such
                  returned TI Products.

      3.11.02     TI agrees to perform incoming inspection of TI Products for
                  conformance with applicable Specifications within ninety (90)
                  days of delivery, and to advise Anam and Amkor of rejections
                  by written or electronic notice within five (5) business days
                  after inspection. If any delivery of products by Anam or Amkor
                  does not conform in any material respect to TI's order for
                  such TI Products or is found to fail applicable inspection, TI
                  shall have the right to reject such delivery by giving timely
                  notice to Anam and Amkor to that effect. TI will thereupon
                  return the non-conforming TI Products to Amkor or Anam (as the
                  case may be) at Amkor's or Anam's cost and risk, for, as may
                  be agreed between Amkor and TI, credit or rescreen and
                  replacement. If it is agreed that such TI Products shall be
                  rescreened, Anam and Amkor shall use reasonable efforts to
                  rescreen and replace such non-





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                  conforming wafers or dies and to do so, if at all, within
                  forty-five (45) days after the receipt thereof. TI will
                  provide Anam and Amkor with a report specifying the reason for
                  any rejection. All rejected products may be subjected to
                  inspection by Anam or Amkor to confirm that they are
                  defective. Any TI Product not rejected by TI within ninety
                  (90) days plus five (5) business days after receipt by TI
                  shall be deemed accepted. In the event that it determined that
                  TI's rejection of a TI Product was not justified in accordance
                  with the foregoing, TI shall reimburse Anam or Amkor, as the
                  case may be, for all costs incurred in connection with such
                  rejection, including without limitation in connection with the
                  shipping and testing of such TI Product.

      3.11.03     Nothing in this Section 3.11 shall limit TI's rights under
                  Section 3.12 below.

3.12  CONFORMANCE TO QUALITY AND RELIABILITY STANDARDS; STOP SHIPMENTS.

      3.12.01     Prior to any shipment of TI Products to TI, Anam shall:

                  (a)   Visually inspect such outgoing TI Products in accordance
                        with applicable Specifications; and

                  (b) electrically test such TI Products to determine whether:

                        (i)   such TI Products conform to the relevant Category
                              1 standards (as defined in Section 3.11 above), as
                              may be applicable to such TI Products in
                              accordance with Section 3.11; and

                        (ii)  the defective parts per million ("DPPM") levels of
                              such shipment (as determined under then-current TI
                              practice applied by TI to comparable products
                              manufactured by TI) for such TI Products conform
                              to the DPPM levels agreed upon by the Parties
                              provided that such DPPM levels shall not be lower
                              than those demonstrated by the manufacturing
                              process, as qualified, in use at a TI wholly-owned
                              facility, which process is most comparable to the
                              one in use at the Facility.

      3.12.02     Unless otherwise permitted by TI, Anam shall assure that the
                  TI Products meet, and shall not ship TI Products to TI that do
                  not meet, the standards set forth in Section 3.12.01 above.

      3.12.03     If it is determined by TI within 90 days of the shipment of TI
                  Products to TI that such TI Products do not conform to the
                  standards set forth in Section 3.12.01, above, then
                  notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein and
                  upon written notice by TI, Anam shall stop all 




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                  further shipments of such TI Products to TI, and TI shall be
                  under no obligation to accept or pay for any such shipments,
                  until TI shall be reasonably satisfied that appropriate
                  corrective actions have been taken by Anam to address the
                  nonconformance to such Category 1 standards and/or DPPM levels
                  in accordance with Section 3.12.01 above.

   
      3.12.04     Notwithstanding Section 3.11 above, or Sections 3.12.03 and
                  3.12.02 above, TI shall discuss with Anam in good faith the
                  disposition of those TI Products produced and held hereunder
                  that fail to satisfy Category 1 standards [*].
    

3.13 SECURITY AND DESTRUCTION OF SCRAP. Anam shall not assign, consign, deliver,
transfer or otherwise provide TI Products, and shall undertake security measures
(including but not limited to scrap and non-conforming TI Product destruction)
sufficient to prevent TI Products (including all defective TI Products which do
not meet Specifications) from being sold, assigned, consigned, delivered,
transferred or otherwise provided, to any third party without the express
written consent of TI. Unless otherwise specified in writing by TI, (a) all
defective TI Products which cannot be repaired economically shall be scrapped
and destroyed and (b) such defective TI Products shall not be transferred to any
third party. TI shall have the right, from time-to-time, to review (i) Anam's
security and scrap destruction procedures and (ii) Anam's compliance with such
procedures.

   
3.14 PRODUCTION HOLDS. At TI's request, Anam shall hold production on any lot
without charging TI an extra fee for that service for the [*]. With respect to
lots for which the hold is made prior to the backgrind stage and which hold
exceeds [*], TI will pay Anam [*]. TI shall not be required to pay Anam a hold
fee with respect to lots for which the hold is made from and following the
backgrind stage. If any hold on a lot exceeds [*], TI, at its option, will
thereupon either (i) release the lot for cancellation pursuant to Section 8.06,
or (ii) release the lot for further processing. In the event that a lot which is
on hold is canceled in accordance with Section 8.06, TI shall pay Anam only the
cancellation charge provided under Section 8.06.
    

   
3.15 WAFER BANK. Upon TI's request Anam agrees to store, at no additional
expense to TI, up to [*] (or such other amount as may be agreed from time to
time) unfinished wafers that have been processed up to the contact or "via"
stage of processing for a period not to exceed 365 days. After Anam has stored
such wafer for 60 days, Amkor shall have the right to invoice TI for, and TI
shall purchase, such wafers at the Fixed Wafer Price therefor; provided that, in
such case, Anam shall complete the processing of, and 
    

   
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delivery of, such wafers upon TI's request at no additional cost.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, upon shipment of such wafer to TI, the Price for
such wafer shall be recalculated in accordance with Article 7 and if such
recalculated Price is different from the Fixed Wafer Price paid, Amkor shall
issue a credit or debit to TI, as the case may be, for such difference. Any
wafers so purchased by TI, while in the possession of Anam, shall be owned by TI
and retained by Anam on a consignment basis and Anam shall continue to be
responsible for any loss or damage to such wafers while they are in Anam's
possession. In the event that either Anam or Amkor is responsible for a wafer
for which TI has paid in accordance with the foregoing not being ultimately
saleable to TI in accordance with this Agreement, Amkor shall credit TI the
amount paid for such wafer.

3.16  IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION.

      3.16.01     Unless otherwise instructed by TI, and except as provided in
                  Section 2.06, Anam shall, in accordance with this Agreement
                  and the applicable TAA, implement all Technical Information
                  provided under the applicable TAA as well as any manufacturing
                  improvements (including TI Product performance improvements)
                  as and when the Technical Information is furnished by TI to
                  Anam.

      3.16.02     Anam shall establish failure analysis capability reasonably
                  satisfactory to TI, prior to Product Qualification.

3.17 TEST CORRELATION PROCEDURES. TI and Anam agree that quality and reliability
assurance are of prime importance to TI's customers; therefore, both companies
agree to establish test correlation procedures to assure compliance with TI
customer requirements.

3.18 ANAM PROCESS RECORDS. Anam shall maintain, for a period of three (3) years
from each date of origin, accurate records describing processing detail on a per
die-lot basis.

3.19 OBSOLETE PRODUCTS. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained
herein, if over any six-month period the quantity of TI's orders for TI Products
falling within any particular process flow (e.g., the 33C10.c3 process flow)
constitutes less than the lower of (i) one percent (1%) of the Anam total wafer
manufacturing capacity in such period or (ii) 1,500 wafers, then Anam may notify
TI in writing of its intention to exercise its rights under this Section 3.19,
and after two and one-half years following such notice, Anam may refuse any
further order for TI Products so falling within such process flow; provided,
however, that if TI has (i) the same process flow qualified at a TI wholly-owned
facility and (ii) available capacity for the manufacturing of such TI Products
at such facility, then Anam may refuse any such further order after nine (9)
months following such notice.

3.20 PERFORMANCE METRICS. TI and Anam shall share with each other, on a periodic
basis, their respective data under the performance metrics as may be agreed
between them and reports of their respective performance against such metrics.



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                                   ARTICLE 4.
                            MANUFACTURING CHANGES

Both TI and Anam understand that the particular TI Product to be provided to TI
for initial Product Qualification and as qualified by TI will define the
applicable manufacturing process with respect to the manufacture of TI Products.
After Product Qualification is successfully completed, Anam shall not make any
changes to said manufacturing process(es) or the Specifications without the
prior written instruction and consent of TI. Any unauthorized manufacturing
changes by Anam which affect the form, fit, function or reliability of the TI
Products shall render them unqualified. TI assumes no liability for the
manufacture of unqualified TI Products. Any particular TI Product and its
manufacture can become unqualified after Product Qualification if such formerly
qualified TI Product subsequently falls below applicable Specifications. Changes
to a particular TI Product or its manufacture may necessitate re-qualification.
TI or Anam shall bear the costs associated with the foregoing as determined
under the applicable TAA and this Agreement.

                                  ARTICLE 5.
                      TI LOADING OBLIGATIONS AND OPTION

5.01  LOADING OBLIGATIONS.

      5.01.01     Throughout the Term, TI and/or TI's Affiliates (individually
                  or collectively) shall, subject to only the conditions set
                  forth in Section 5.03, purchase from Amkor, and Amkor shall
                  sell (subject, inter alia, to Section 6.03) to TI, no less
                  than the quantities of TI Products provided in this Section
                  5.01, as follows:

   
                  [*]
    

   
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                  [*]
    

      5.01.02     For the purpose of the foregoing the term "month" means
                  calendar month; provided, however, that if the Phase 2
                  Qualification Date does not occur at the beginning of a
                  calender month, the Parties shall adjust the time periods set
                  forth in Section 5.01.01 above accordingly.

      5.01.03     TI shall purchase TI Products in accordance with Article 6
                  below. Such purchases shall be at such prices and upon such
                  terms as are set forth in this Agreement.

      5.01.04     Notwithstanding the foregoing, TI shall not be deemed to be in
                  breach of Sections 5.01.01(a) and 5.01.01(d) for so long as TI
                  meets its minimum purchases obligations under such sections as
                  determined on a rolling six-month average basis.

      5.01.05     Anam and Amkor agree to take all reasonable commercial efforts
                  to work with TI with respect to this Section 5.01.

5.02 CAPACITY. Regardless of Anam's actual manufacturing capacity, "Capacity"
means, with respect to Phase 1, 15,000 wafer starts per month, and, with respect
to Phase 2, 10,000 wafer starts per month, unless otherwise agreed.

5.03 CONDITIONS TO TI PURCHASE OBLIGATIONS. TI shall be relieved by Anam and
Amkor of TI's obligation to purchase TI Products from Amkor pursuant to Section
5.01 only during the period and to the extent that: (i) Amkor and Anam have
failed to achieve a sufficient number of Customer Qualifications to support such
purchase obligations, such failure is the fault of Amkor or Anam and TI has used
reasonable commercial efforts to obtain such Customer Qualifications; or (ii)
Anam has materially failed to meet Specifications and TI Product performance
specifications (e.g., cycle time, yield and delivery targets), and provided that
in such case Anam and TI shall work together to remedy such failure.


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5.04  C12 PRODUCTS.

      5.04.01     Anam shall manufacture the 33C12X3L devices listed on Annex C
                  that TI has redesigned for manufacture with the 25C10 process
                  node ("C12 Products"). TI shall purchase from Amkor and Amkor
                  shall sell to TI such C12 Products manufactured by Anam in
                  quantities of, in 1998, [*], at a Fixed Wafer Price for wafers
                  started through the first half of 1998 of [*], and for wafers
                  started from and after the second half of 1998, [*], provided
                  that the second half 1998 the Fixed Wafer Price will be
                  increased as needed to maintain a 1998 average amount payable
                  for all C12 Products of [*].
    

   
      5.04.02     [*]
    

      5.04.03     The C12 Products purchased pursuant to this Section 5.04 shall
                  not apply to TI's loading obligations set forth in Section
                  5.01.01.

      5.04.04     Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein,
                  including in Section 2.04, TI shall be responsible for the
                  cost of any mask set used in the Product Qualification for any
                  C12 Product and the initial mask set used in the manufacture
                  of a C12 Product.

      5.04.05     Except as otherwise provided in this Section 5.04, all C12
                  Products will be treated as Phase 1 Products are treated
                  hereunder.

                                  ARTICLE 6.
                       TI FORECASTS AND PURCHASE ORDERS

6.01 ANNUAL QUANTITY PROJECTIONS. By the 15th of May of each year during the
Term, TI shall provide to Amkor the annual quantities of Wafer Outs by
technology node (e.g., C10, C07) estimated to be purchased from Amkor by TI for
the upcoming three (3) to five (5) year time period (the "Annual Quantity
Projections"). For purposes of this Agreement, "Wafer Outs" means finished
wafers. Such Annual Quantity Projections shall be a good faith estimate by TI
but shall be for informational purposes only and not constitute a binding
purchase obligation of TI. The Annual Quantity Projections may be issued
electronically.

6.02 FIXED LOADINGS. Subject to Article 5 above, TI shall purchase from Amkor,
Amkor shall sell, and Anam shall manufacture, quantities and types of TI
Products to the extent such quantities and types are deemed fixed in Forecasts
and TI Start Plans issued in 





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accordance with the following provisions of this Article 6.

6.03  MONTHLY FORECASTS.

      6.03.01     At least two weeks prior to the start of each month, TI shall
                  issue to Amkor a forecast (the "Forecast") of the monthly
                  quantity of wafer starts by technology node (e.g., C10, C07)
                  and process flow (e.g., 33c10x4L) to be purchased by TI from
                  Amkor during the next twelve months. The first three months
                  included in each Forecast shall be deemed fixed as to the
                  quantity of wafer starts and the related technology nodes.
                  Accordingly, the quantities of wafer starts and technology
                  nodes specified for the first and second months of each
                  Forecast shall be the same as the quantities of wafer starts
                  and technology nodes specified for the second and third months
                  of the immediately preceding Forecast.

      6.03.02     The last nine months included in each Forecast shall be deemed
                  fixed as to the quantity of wafer starts, except that in each
                  Forecast, TI may increase or decrease the quantity of wafer
                  starts specified for any of the last nine months of such
                  Forecast (a "Subject Month") by up to an amount equal to five
                  (5) percentage points of the Capacity specified in such
                  Forecast for the corresponding month immediately preceding the
                  Subject Month. Such forecasted amount, adjusted in accordance
                  with the foregoing, shall be deemed fixed as to the quantity
                  of wafer starts, unless further varied in subsequent Forecasts
                  issued in accordance with this Section 6.03.02.

      6.03.03     Nothing in this Section 6.03 shall restrict TI from specifying
                  in its Forecasts quantities less than its minimum loading
                  requirements under Section 5.01, provided TI satisfies those
                  requirements on a six-month rolling average basis as set forth
                  in Section 5.01.04.

6.04  DAILY LOADING REQUIREMENTS AND WEEKLY FORECAST.

      6.04.01     On a daily basis, Monday through Friday, TI shall issue to
                  Amkor a seven-day TI Start Plan (the "TI Start Plan"). The TI
                  Start Plan shall specify device types, and quantities in terms
                  of wafer starts for TI Products the production of which is to
                  commence for each of the seven days covered by the TI Start
                  Plan. TI shall issue each TI Start Plan at least 24 hours in
                  advance of the first date (Korea time) covered by such TI
                  Start Plan. The TI Start Plan will be issued electronically.
                  The following table sets forth the day of the week (determined
                  on the basis of Dallas, U.S., local time) on which each TI
                  Start Plan is issued and the corresponding day (or days) of
                  the week ("Fixed Days"), determined on the basis of Korean
                  local time, for which the quantities set forth in such TI
                  Start Plan shall be deemed fixed as to device






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types and quantities in terms of wafer starts:


          TI Start Plan issuance Date, by            Fixed Days          
          5:00pm Dallas, U.S. Local Time:                                
          Monday                                     Wednesday           
          Tuesday                                    Thursday            
          Wednesday                                  Friday              
          Thursday                                   Saturday            
          Friday                                     Sunday, Monday and  
                                                     Tuesday             


         6.04.02         Anam shall commence production of such device types
                           in such quantities as specified for each such Fixed
                           Day. The remaining days of each TI Start Plan shall
                           be for informational purposes only and shall not be
                           deemed fixed to any extent.

         6.04.03         Anam shall produce TI Products, through the third
                           quarter of 1998, in lots of 6, 12 or 24 wafers, as
                           specified in TI Start Plans, and after such period,
                           in lot sizes to be agreed upon by the Parties, which
                           agreement shall be based in part on whether Anam
                           incurs materially higher per-die costs in the
                           production of smaller lot sizes.

6.05    SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS. On Monday of each week, TI shall provide Amkor a
        Shipping Instruction Report identifying wafer shipments (including
        shipment destinations) that need to be made in the current week
        starting on that Monday.

6.06    FURTHER AGREEMENT. Nothing in this Article 6 shall restrict the Parties
        from agreeing from time to time on quantities and types of TI Products
        different from those deemed fixed pursuant to the foregoing provisions.

6.07    YIELD ESTIMATES.

        6.07.01          Anam shall provide to TI accurate multi-probe yield
                           ("MPY") and process yields estimates for Anam's
                           production of each TI Product device on a weekly
                           basis, or more frequently if there is a material
                           change in the estimated MPY or process yield last
                           communicated to TI.


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         6.07.02  Anam acknowledges that the quantities of Wafer Outs TI
                    specifies in TI Forecasts and of wafer starts TI specifies
                    in the TI Start Plans are dependent on the accuracy of such
                    MPY and process yield estimates, as provided by Anam.
                    Therefore, if with respect to any particular TI Product
                    device type, Anam's actual integrated yield (i.e., the
                    cumulation of the MPY and the process yield) exceeds the
                    integrated yield estimate last furnished by Anam to TI in
                    time to allow TI to adjust its Forecast or the TI Start Plan
                    accordingly, then the other provisions of this Article 6
                    notwithstanding, but subject to TI's rights elsewhere
                    provided in this Agreement relating to inspection, quality,
                    reliability, warranty and the like, TI shall purchase such
                    excess of such device type, but only up to the Acceptable
                    Yield Variance. For purposes hereof, the "Acceptable Yield
                    Variance" means, through 1998,  [*]  and, after December 31,
                    1998, [*]. Any such excess so purchased by TI shall count
                    against TI's loading requirements elsewhere provided for
                    hereunder.
    

6.08 UNNECESSARY VARIATIONS. TI and Anam shall each use commercially reasonable
efforts to minimize unnecessary variations in order to achieve as nearly as
possible linear weekly shipments.

6.09 PURCHASE ORDER PROCESS. Two weeks prior to the start of each quarter, at
the same time as the Quarterly Forecast, TI shall supply to Amkor a written
blanket purchase order. The purchase order shall be issued solely for
administrative/invoicing purposes and shall only provide the estimated amount
payable by TI to Amkor in U.S. Dollars. The purchase order shall not be binding
in any respect. Any terms and conditions expressed in any purchase order or
acknowledgment shall have no force and effect between the Parties.

6.10 REVISIONS. The Parties may agree in writing from time to time to revise the
periods covered by the rolling forecasts, the forecasting and ordering process,
the forecast and ordering data, and/or the technology by which the forecasts and
orders are communicated to take advantage of more efficient and effective means
of transacting business. During the Phase 1 node start-up period and until March
31, 1998, TI shall provide forecasted volume by device name. These data are for
informational purposes only and do not constitute a formal start plan commitment
by TI.

                                   ARTICLE 7.
                                     PRICING

7.01    PRICING.

   
         7.01.01  For TI Products delivered to TI in accordance with this 
                    Agreement, TI shall pay Amkor an amount (the "Price")
                    calculated in accordance with this Article 7. [*] 
    

   
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                                      [*]

    



   
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                                       [*]
    





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                                      [*]
    

   
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                                      [*]
    



                                   ARTICLE 8.
                         SHIPPING, PAYMENT AND PACKAGING

8.01 SHIPMENTS. Shipments shall be made FCA (INCO Terms), Facility (the "FCA



   
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Point"), in accordance with the routing and "ship to" instructions in TI's
shipping instructions. All title and risk of loss or damage shall pass from
Amkor to TI upon Anam's delivery to the FCA Point, provided Anam has shipped the
TI Products in accordance with TI's reasonable routing and "ship to"
instructions and any other packing and shipping instructions. TI shall be
responsible for all shipping, handling and insurance costs from the FCA Point to
the destination of the shipment.

8.02   PAYMENT PROCEDURES.

    8.02.01 On the day Anam makes shipment, Amkor shall send to TI a shipping
                 notice containing the number of TI Products shipped, estimated
                 amount payable, lot number, and purchase order number. Amkor
                 shall also provide, at the end of each week, a weekly invoice
                 and reconciliation statement showing all shipments made during
                 the week and any special or incidental fees incurred that week
                 as authorized by this Agreement (e.g., Hot Lot fees).

    8.02.02 TI's payment shall be net thirty (30) days of each such weekly
                 invoice and reconciliation statement.
 
8.03    DELIVERY.

    8.03.01 Anam shall ship TI Products to TI's designated delivery points on
                 the dates required to meet the cycle time requirements
                 hereunder from the production start dates specified in TI Start
                 Plans (the "Scheduled Shipment Date"), but in no event shall
                 Anam ship TI Products sooner than three (3) days in advance of
                 the Scheduled Shipment Date. Except for those TI Products which
                 are subject to delays caused by holds or storage at the wafer
                 bank, as described in Sections 3.14 and 3.15 respectively, in
                 the event that any TI Products are not shipped in accordance
                 with such delivery dates, Anam agrees to ship via air freight
                 (or as directed by TI) and to pay for all extra costs.

    8.03.02 In addition to the TI packing and shipping instructions, the TI
                 Products shall be packaged in accordance with applicable TI
                 Specifications and Korean Laws and U.S. laws to ensure safe
                 arrival at TI's designated delivery point.




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8.04    PACKING AND SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS.

    8.04.01 Anam will properly pack and describe shipments in accordance with TI
                 Specifications and applicable carrier and legal regulations.
                 Shipments will be made at the lowest possible freight charges.
                 TI may assist Anam by providing freight classifications or
                 classifying material. Anam will insure or declare value on
                 shipments except on parcel post, unless TI specifies otherwise.
                 On shipment where value is declared, Anam will ship prepaid
                 insured for a minimum of the equivalent of Fifty U.S. Dollars
                 (U.S. $50.0) to facilitate tracing. If shipping by air carrier,
                 Anam will ship freight prepaid. Anam shall consolidate the air
                 and surface shipments on single bills of lading insofar as
                 possible so as to avoid premium freight costs unless instructed
                 otherwise by TI.

    8.04.02 In case any shipment does not correspond to normal practice in the
                 industry (e.g., require special handling shipments or air ride
                 suspension, or air shipment over five hundred (500) pounds, or
                 over one hundred twenty (120) inches long or wide or over
                 fifty-six (56) cubic feet, etc.), Anam agrees to notify TI's
                 appropriate traffic department seventy-two (72) hours prior to
                 shipment for special shipping instructions.

    8.04.03 Each box, crate or carton will show TI's full street address and TI
                 Start Plans lot number regardless of how shipped. On air
                 carrier shipments, a packing list shall accompany each
                 container and shall describe the contents of such container. On
                 all other shipments, Anam will provide a packing list to
                 accompany each shipment, referencing the appropriate TI Start
                 Plans lot number and purchase order number. The bill of lading
                 also will reference the TI Start Plan lot number and purchase
                 order number.

    8.04.04 Anam is responsible for packing shipments correctly based on the
                 carrier/mode utilized. Charges for packing and crating shall be
                 deemed part of the Price and no additional charges will be made
                 therefor unless specifically requested by TI on the TI Start
                 Plans. Anam agrees to ship via the carrier specified by TI.

   
8.05 RETURN MATERIALS AUTHORIZATION. TI Products returned to Anam or Amkor
pursuant to Sections 9.02 or 3.11 or as otherwise permitted hereunder shall be
returned freight collect. To the extent reasonably practicable, replacement
service by Anam or Amkor shall be made on an expedited, "courier", basis, to the
extent practicable, not to exceed [*], from the date of return, at no additional
expense to TI. Anam agrees to provide RMA as soon as reasonably possible, but
not exceeding five (5) business days after return by TI.
    

8.06 CUSTOMER CANCELLATION. Upon a cancellation of an order by a TI customer on
the basis of which customer order TI ordered a lot in production hereunder, of a
lot already in production at the Facility, TI shall have the right to cancel
such lot; provided, however that TI shall pay Amkor an amount equal to the Wafer
Termination Amount (as defined in 


   
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Section 2.4.4).

                                   ARTICLE 9.
                      WARRANTIES AND LIABILITY LIMITATIONS
   

9.01 PRODUCT WARRANTY. Anam warrants to TI that the TI Products as delivered to
TI hereunder will conform to the relevant Specifications and shall be free from
any defects in material or workmanship for a period of [*] from the
date of delivery to TI (hereinafter, the "Warranty Period").
    

9.02 PRODUCT WARRANTY REMEDY.

   
    9.02.01 If, within the Warranty Period, any TI Products are in breach of the
                 warranty set forth in Section 9.01, TI shall notify Anam
                 promptly in writing of such breach, and Anam shall promptly, at
                 TI's option, either (i) if Anam still has the capability to
                 manufacture such TI Products, repair or replace such TI
                 Products at no cost to TI or TI's customers, or (ii) credit to
                 TI's account [*]. A Return Materials Authorization ("RMA") form
                 previously issued by Anam must accompany any such returned TI
                 Products. Such return shipment shall be made by TI, F.O.B. TI's
                 shipping dock or such other shipping location as may be
                 designated by TI.
    

     9.02.02 If it is determined that a TI Product returned to Anam in
                 accordance with the foregoing has not breached the warranty set
                 forth in Section 9.01, TI shall reimburse Anam the costs
                 incurred by Anam in connection with Anam's treatment of such TI
                 Product as a product subject to Section 9.02.01, including the
                 return of such TI Product and the testing thereof.

9.03 ANAM AND TI INDEMNITY.

    9.03.01 Anam will hold TI harmless from, and indemnify it against, all costs
                 and damages, up to the total amount paid by TI to Amkor for a
                 particular TI Product to which this indemnity relates, incurred
                 by TI resulting from any claims made by third parties arising
                 out of such TI Products manufactured by Anam, to the extent
                 that such TI Product breached the warranty set forth in Section
                 9.01, provided the liability for such claims is not due to any
                 intentional misconduct or gross negligence by TI (including
                 without limitation, that of any TI employee or agent).

     9.03.02 TI will hold Anam and Amkor harmless from, and indemnify them
                 against, 

   
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               all costs and damages in excess of the total amount paid by TI to
               Anam or Amkor for a particular TI Product to which this indemnity
               relates, incurred by Anam or Amkor as a result of any claim
               against Anam or Amkor by any customer of TI with respect to such
               TI Product; provided, however, that in no case shall TI be
               obligated to hold Anam or Amkor harmless or indemnify Anam or
               Amkor against any claim arising out of the intentional misconduct
               or gross negligence of Anam or Amkor (including without
               limitation, that of any Anam or Amkor employee or agent).

9.04 SOLE WARRANTY.

    9.04.01 WITH RESPECT TO TI PRODUCTS, THE WARRANTY SET FORTH IN SECTION 9.01
            STATES ANAM'S AND AMKOR'S SOLE WARRANTY, AND SECTION 9.02.01 STATE
            TI'S SOLE REMEDIES FOR THE BREACH OF SUCH WARRANTY.

    9.04.02 WITH RESPECT TO TI PRODUCTS, THE WARRANTIES IN THIS ARTICLE 9 ARE
            EXCLUSIVE AND STATED IN LIEU OF, AND ANAM AND AMKOR HEREBY DISCLAIM,
            ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, STATUTORY, OR IMPLIED,
            INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
            FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND, EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN SECTION
            8 ("INDEMNITY BY ANAM") OF THE PHASE 2 TAA, NON-INFRINGEMENT. THE
            PARTIES NEITHER ASSUME NOR AUTHORIZE ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR
            THE PARTIES ANY OTHER LIABILITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE MANUFACTURE
            OR SALE OF SUCH PRODUCTS. THE WARRANTIES SHALL NOT APPLY TO ANY OF
            SUCH PRODUCTS WHICH HAVE BEEN REPAIRED OR ALTERED BY TI, EXCEPT AS
            AUTHORIZED BY ANAM, OR AMKOR, OR WHICH SHALL BE SUBJECTED TO MISUSE,
            NEGLIGENCE, ACCIDENT OR ABUSE BY TI OR ITS CUSTOMERS.

9.05 WARRANTY DISCLAIMER. ANAM AND AMKOR MAKE NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION THAT
THE TI PRODUCTS DELIVERED HEREUNDER ARE, OR WILL BE, SUITABLE FOR USE AS
COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS OR ANY AVIATION, NUCLEAR, OR OTHER
APPLICATION THAT PROTECTS, SUPPORTS, OR SUSTAINS LIFE, WHERE THE FAILURE OF SUCH
COMPONENT TO PERFORM MAY RESULT IN SIGNIFICANT BODILY INJURY, CAUSE THE FAILURE
OF, OR AFFECT THE SAFETY OR EFFECTIVENESS OF SUCH DEVICE, SYSTEM OR APPLICATION.
NOTHING IN THIS SECTION 9.05 SHALL LIMIT THE WARRANTY UNDER SECTION 9.01.

9.06 LIABILITY LIMITATION. ANAM'S AND AMKOR'S TOTAL AGGREGATE LIABILITY TO TI
ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT, INCLUDING UNDER THIS 


                                  
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ARTICLE, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE AGGREGATE AMOUNTS PAID BY TI TO AMKOR HEREUNDER.

EXCEPT FOR TI'S OBLIGATION TO PURCHASE AND PAY FOR TI PRODUCTS, TI'S TOTAL
AGGREGATE LIABILITY TO ANAM AND AMKOR ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS
AGREEMENT, INCLUDING UNDER THIS ARTICLE, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE AGGREGATE AMOUNTS
PAID BY TI TO ANAM HEREUNDER.

IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY PARTY BE LIABLE FOR LOST PROFITS, COST OF PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR ANY OTHER SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, RELIANCE, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, HOWEVER CAUSED AND UNDER ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER
BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) OR OTHERWISE.

THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS SHALL APPLY REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE PARTY AGAINST
WHOM LIABILITY IS ASSERTED HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES
AND NOTWITHSTANDING THE FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY.

                                   ARTICLE 10.
                     AMENDMENT OF CERTAIN PRIOR AGREEMENTS

The Parties agree that (i) Articles 5, 6, 7 and 8 and Sections 2.04 and 2.05 of
the Phase 1 TAA, (ii) Sections III and IV of Annex A of the Phase 1 TAA, and
(iii) the Amendment to the Phase 1 TAA, dated September 29, 1997, each in their
entirety, shall be of no further force or effect and shall be replaced and
superseded by the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Except as stated in
the foregoing, the Phase 1 TAA shall not be considered revised or amended in any
way by this Agreement. The Amkor Marketing Agreement dated as of August 1997
among TI, Anam and Amkor shall be of no further force and effect and shall be
replaced and superseded by Section 10.1.2 and Annexes B and C of the Phase 2
TAA.

                                   ARTICLE 11.
                                      TERM

This Agreement shall be effective upon its execution by the Parties and shall
continue in effect, with respect to Phase 1 Products, throughout the Term of the
Phase 1 TAA and with respect to Phase 2 Products, throughout the Term of the
Phase 2 TAA (as defined therein) and throughout the term of any other TAA
between TI and Anam to the extent those Parties agree.

                                   ARTICLE 12.
                                CONFIDENTIALITY

This Agreement incorporates Article 10 of the Phase 2 TAA in its entirety herein
by reference, and such article shall be considered as part of this Agreement so
long as this Agreement is effective, provided, however, that nothing herein
shall limit the survival of such obligations as set forth therein. Both Anam and
Amkor expressly agree to be bound by Article 10 of the Phase 2 TAA.



                                  
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                                   ARTICLE 13.
                       TERMINATION AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION

13.01 TERMINATION. Where the following grants to a Party the right to terminate
this Agreement, such Party may exercise such right in accordance with this
Article 13. For the purpose of this Article 13, Anam and Amkor on the one hand,
and TI on the other hand, shall each be considered a Party.

         13.01.01  Expiration or Termination of TAA. Unless extended, upon the
                   expiration of the term or the termination of the last
                   effective TAA, this Agreement shall terminate automatically
                   but in accordance with any terms set forth in such TAA; or

         13.01.02  Mutual Agreement of the Parties. The Parties may mutually 
                   terminate this Agreement, in which event the future
                   relationship of the Parties shall be determined by the
                   Parties; or

         13.01.03  An Uncured Material Breach. Subject to Sections 13.02, 13.03
                   and 13.04 of this Agreement, a Party may terminate this
                   Agreement, and at its option, any TAAs, in the event of an
                   uncured material breach hereof by the other Party. A material
                   breach includes without limitation a curable breach that is
                   not cured in accordance with Section 13.03.

13.02 RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES. It is the intent of the Parties that any breach of
this Agreement be resolved in an amicable manner, to the fullest extent
possible, and that any such resolution be reasonable in light of the rights and
obligations of the Parties. If any breach should arise which cannot be resolved
by the personnel of each Party directly involved, the following procedures of
Sections 13.03 through 13.04 inclusive shall apply in each of the circumstances
described below.

13.03 CURE. If either Party (the "Breaching Party") shall at any time breach
this Agreement, without any material causative fault on the part of the other
Party (the "Non-Breaching Party"), by failing to perform any provision of this
Agreement, the Non-Breaching Party may advise of its intention to terminate this
Agreement by providing formal written notice of breach pursuant to Section 14.13
to the Breaching Party specifying the breach. Notice for purposes of the
foregoing provided other than in strict accordance with Section 14.13 will not
be effective. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this Agreement will not be
terminable if: (i) the breach specified in the notice is remedied within the
sixty (60) day period following receipt of the notice by the Breaching Party or
(ii) if the breach reasonably requires more than sixty (60) days to correct, the
Breaching Party has, within thirty (30) days from receipt of the notice of
breach, begun substantial corrective action to cure the breach and submitted a
written remediation plan to the Non-Breaching Party pursuant to Section 14.13
providing a detailed explanation of the steps to be taken to cure the breach as
quickly as practicable, the Breaching Party diligently pursues such corrective
action, and such breach is actually cured within ninety (90) days following
receipt of the notice of breach. If any breach is not cured within the time
permitted, the Non-Breaching Party shall have the right to issue a notice of
termination of this Agreement within 90 days


                                  
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of the expiration of the foregoing cure period by giving written notice thereof
to the Breaching Party. The Non-Breaching Party shall state in its notice of
termination whether it intends to exercise its option to terminate any TAAs.
Upon the giving of such notice of termination this Agreement shall terminate in
accordance with Section 13.06. The Party receiving notice shall have the right
to cure any such breach up to the date of the notice of termination. In the
event of a material breach, the Non-Breaching Party shall have the right to
suspend further implementation or effectuation of its obligations under this
Agreement affected by such breach, and shall not be obligated to resume such
activities until such breach has been cured. This Section 13.03 shall run
concurrently with the conciliation process set forth in Section 13.04 below.

13.04 CONCILIATION PROCESS. At any time during the Term, upon the occurrence of
one or more breaches under this Agreement, the Non-breaching Party shall
promptly deliver written notification to the alleged Breaching Party setting out
in reasonable detail and in clear and concise language the good faith basis for
and the specifics of such breach. Within the applicable cure period provided in
Section 13.03, either Party has the right to demand the following meetings:

         13.04.01 Upon fourteen (14) calendar days' notice, a meeting of the 
                    project coordinators for the purposes of, among other
                    things:

                    (a) assessing the good faith basis for the claimed breach;

                    (b) defining, assessing and prioritizing the
                        alternatives reasonably available to cure
                        such breach or to correct the circumstances
                        or situations that gave rise to such breach
                        so as to make its reoccurrence unlikely; and

                    (c) adopting by unanimous vote, one or more curative or
                        corrective courses of action.

         13.04.02 If, after meeting in accordance with Section 13.04.01, 
                    the project coordinators are unable to resolve the breach, a
                    meeting of an advisory committee consisting of the
                    Presidents of Amkor, Anam and the TI Executive Vice
                    President responsible for the Semiconductor Group and two
                    additional personnel of their choice, one of each from TI
                    and Anam or Amkor for further attempts at resolution, upon
                    fourteen (14) calendar days' notice.

         13.04.03 If, after meeting in accordance with Section 13.04.02, such 
                    advisory committee is unable to resolve the dispute, a
                    meeting of the respective Chief Executive Officer of each of
                    TI and Anam or Amkor for the purpose of attempting to
                    resolve the breach, upon fourteen calendar days' notice.

13.05 REMEDIES, INJUNCTIVE AND OTHER EQUITABLE RELIEF. Upon the failure to cure 
a


                                  
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material breach by either Party of any provision of this Agreement, the
Non-Breaching Party shall have the right to pursue all available remedies at law
or in equity that it may elect, including but not limited to specific
performance or injunctive relief, in order to obtain the benefits which have
been provided pursuant to this Agreement and the TAAs, or to obtain adequate
recourse or compensation in the event the same are not so provided.

13.06 TERMINATION PROCEDURE. Following the issuance of a notice of termination
by the Non-Breaching Party in accordance with Section 13.03, the Parties shall
promptly meet and establish, in good faith, a reasonable transition plan that
will permit for a period not to exceed two years: (i) Anam, subject to the
payment of royalties under any TAA (including Section 5.03.01 of the Phase 2
TAA), to continue to use the technology provided to it under such TAA so that it
will have the ability to continue in the foundry business using TI technology
and at the same time transition to another process technology by the end of such
period, and (ii) TI to continue to purchase TI Products from Amkor in the manner
provided in this Agreement so that TI's supply of products will not be
interrupted in such period while TI transitions to another source for such
products. If during the transition period, Amkor or Anam repeatedly and
materially fails to fulfill TI's reasonable requirements for TI Products, TI may
terminate the transition period upon sixty days' notice.

13.07 FORCE MAJEURE.

     13.07.01 Should either Party be prevented from performing its contractual 
              obligations under this Agreement due to the cause or causes of
              force majeure such as new acts of war or aggression (declared or
              undeclared) by North Korea or other third country or economy,
              fire, storm, flood, typhoon or other severe weather conditions,
              earthquake, strike, student unrest, legal restraints, government
              or like interference, judicial action, accidental damage to
              equipment, as well as any other cause outside the control of that
              Party, that Party shall not be liable to the other Party for any
              delay or failure of performance caused by any of the above
              events. "Force majeure" shall include the failure to obtain such
              license(s) and other approvals, including export licenses, as are
              required by U.S. law or other applicable law for the equipment,
              software, technology and Products to be provided pursuant to the
              terms of this Agreement, except where such failure is due to a
              Party's breach of this Agreement.

     13.07.02 In addition to providing notice in the manner set out in Section
              14.13, the Party affected by Force Majeure shall notify the other
              Party of the occurrence of any of the events set out in Section
              14.16.1 in writing by cable, telex, facsimile, or electronic mail
              within the shortest possible time.

     13.07.03 Should the delay caused by any of the above events continue for 
              more than ninety (90) days, the Parties shall settle the problem
              of further performance of the Agreement through friendly
              negotiations as soon 

                                  
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                           as possible with the objective of restructuring the
                           relationship among them such that the effects of such
                           delay are minimized. If the Parties cannot agree on a
                           mutually acceptable solution within six (6) months of
                           any Party request for such negotiations either Party
                           may terminate this Agreement and any TAAs to the
                           extent permitted by, and in accordance with, Section
                           13.06.

                                   ARTICLE 14.
                                 MISCELLANEOUS

14.01 ANNEX. Annexes A, B and C of this Agreement are an integral part hereof.
All amendments, supplements and alterations to this Agreement shall be made in
written form and signed by the authorized representative of the Parties, and
such shall thereafter form an integral part of this Agreement.

14.02 SEVERABILITY. In the event that any of the provisions of this Agreement,
or portions thereof, or documents referenced herein are held to be unenforceable
or invalid by any court of competent jurisdiction, the validity and
enforceability of the remaining provisions, or portions thereof, shall not be
affected thereby. If the purposes of this Agreement are substantially frustrated
by any events contemplated by this Section 14.02, a Party may terminate this
Agreement in the manner and as if the conditions of Section 13.01.02 existed.

14.03 CONFIDENTIALITY OF THIS AGREEMENT. No Party, without the prior written
consent of the other, shall either issue or cause the issuance of a press
release or public announcement or disclose to any third party the contents of
this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby. Under this requirement a
Party shall be permitted to disclose, under confidentiality and use
restrictions, such terms of this Agreement as are reasonably required to be
disclosed in response to reasonable requests made by governmental authorities or
potential investors or lenders not affiliated with any semiconductor developer
or manufacturer in the ordinary course of seeking governmental approvals or for
obtaining debt or equity financing, bank credit or the like.

Notwithstanding the foregoing or anything to the contrary set forth in the TAAs,
each party may disclose the existence of this Agreement and the general fact
that the Parties have entered into a technology transfer agreement and this
Agreement.

14.04 HEADINGS. The headings of the Articles and Sections of this Agreement are
for reference purposes only and shall not be deemed to affect in any way the
meaning or interpretation of the Articles to which they refer.

14.05 WAIVER. The failure on the part of any Party to exercise or enforce any
rights conferred on it hereunder shall not be deemed to constitute a waiver of
any rights nor operate to bar the exercise or enforcement of any rights at any
time or at times thereafter.

14.06 FURTHER ACTIONS. The Parties agree to execute and deliver to each other
all


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additional instruments, to provide all information, and to do or refrain from
doing all further acts and things as may be necessary or as may be reasonably
requested by any Party hereto, more fully to vest in, and to assure each Party
of, all rights, powers, privileges, and remedies herein intended to be granted
to or conferred upon such Party.

14.07 ASSIGNMENT. A Party shall not assign or delegate this Agreement or any
right or duty under this Agreement or portion thereof (including an assignment
or delegation by operation of law, other than in connection with a
reincorporation) without the prior written consent of the other Parties.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, TI may assign this Agreement or any obligation
hereunder to any Subsidiary of TI upon written notice to Anam. In such event, TI
shall guarantee such Subsidiary's performance of its obligations under this
Agreement and such assignment obligation shall not release TI of any of its
obligations hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Amkor and Anam may assign
or delegate their rights and duties hereunder among themselves or to their
respective Affiliates, provided that such assignment or delegation does not
cause TI to incur any additional obligations or costs. In the event of such
delegation or assignment, Amkor and Anam shall guarantee such Affiliate's
performance of their obligations under this Agreement and such assignment
obligation shall not release Amkor or Anam of any of their obligations
hereunder. Amkor and Anam shall be jointly and severally liable for the
obligations and liabilities of either of them under this Agreement. Any
attempted assignment or delegation, other than the delegation expressly
permitted in this Section 14.07, shall be null and void.

14.08 AMKOR-ANAM AGREEMENT. Amkor and Anam represent and warrant to TI that they
will enter into and cause to remain in effect an agreement providing for, inter
alia, Amkor and its Affiliates to sell all of Anam's wafer manufacturing
capacity to third parties, including TI as contemplated by this Agreement.

14.09 NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES. Except as specifically set forth or referred
to herein, nothing express or implied in this Agreement is intended to or shall
be construed to confer upon or to give any person other than the Parties hereto
and their successors or assigns, any rights or remedies under or by reason of
this Agreement.

14.10 ENGLISH. All correspondence of which any Party is a recipient or sender
shall be in English. All documents which are issued in Korea pursuant to this
Agreement shall be provided to TI in English translation.

14.11 INSURANCE. Anam shall obtain and maintain throughout the Term such kinds
and amounts of insurance as are reasonable and customary in the trade, including
but not limited to insurance covering product liability, theft, fire, worker's
compensation, etc.

14.12 INTEGRATION. This Agreement, and the Phase 1 TAA and Phase 2 TAA, contain
the entire understanding and agreement among the Parties with respect to the
subject matter hereof and thereof and supersedes all prior oral and written
understandings and agreements relating thereto, and may not be modified,
discharged or terminated except by the written consent of the Parties. In the
event of any conflict between this Agreement and either the Phase 1 TAA or the
Phase 2 TAA, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail.


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14.13 NOTICES. All notices, orders and other communications related to the
operations and transactions contemplated by this Agreement shall be transmitted
to the appropriate Party in the manner set forth in the sections governing such
notices, orders or communications, or as otherwise may be agreed. Any formal
communications pursuant to this Agreement, including without limitation notices
under Article 13 shall be served on each Party in writing via facsimile
transmission (confirmed by registered letter), registered letter, telex or
prepaid cable to the following persons at the following addresses and fax
numbers:

         if to TI:
                           Mr. Kevin Ritchie
                           13353 Floyd Road,  M/S 344
                           Dallas, Texas  75243
                           Fax:  972 995-5086

         with a copy to:

                           General Counsel
                           7839 Churchill Way  M/S 3999
                           Dallas, Texas  75251
                           Fax:  972 917-4418

         if to either Anam or Amkor, both to:

                           Dr. Kwang O. Park
                           222, Dodang-dong
                           Wonmi-gu, Buchon
                           Kyunggi-do, Korea 420-130
                           Fax:  032 683-8104
         and
                           Mr. Eric R. Larson
                           MK Plaza
                           720 Park Boulevard  #230
                           Boise, ID  83706
                           Fax:  208 345-8199

         with copies to:

                           Mr. Ki Chang Lee, Esq.
                           Hanol Law Offices
                           14th Floor, Oriental Chemical Building
                           50 Sokong-Dong, Chung-Ku
                           Seoul, Korea  100-718
                           Fax: 82 32 598 4888


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                  and

                           Kevin Heron, Esq.
                           General Counsel
                           Amkor Technology, Inc.
                           1345 Enterprise Drive
                           West Chester, Pa 19380
                           Fax:  610 431-7189

                           Selwyn B. Goldberg, Esq.
                           Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati
                           650 Page Mill Rd.
                           Palo Alto, Ca 94304
                           Fax:  650 496-4006

14.14 GOVERNING LAW. This Agreement shall be governed by, construed and enforced
in accordance with the laws of Texas, U.S.A., as applicable to contracts made
and fully performed in Texas. The United Nations Convention on the International
Sales of Goods shall not apply to this Agreement or any transactions
contemplated by this Agreement. Anam and Amkor hereby irrevocably consent to the
jurisdiction of the courts of the State of Texas and of Federal courts of the
U.S.A. located in the State of Texas.

14.15 REMEDIES. The Parties acknowledge that no specified remedies, such as
liquidated damages, are provided for in this Agreement for breaches of several
of the obligations hereunder, such as the minimum purchase, forecasting,
manufacturing and cycle time performance obligations. The Parties agree to
review each Party's historical performance hereunder from time to time during
the Term and discuss the appropriateness of agreeing on specified remedies in
light of such performance. The Parties contemplate that the first such review
shall take place in or around October 1998. The absence of any specified
remedies herein shall in no event limit either Party's rights in law or in
equity for breaches by the other.



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14.16 COUNTERPARTS. This Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts,
in English, each of which shall be enforceable by or against the Parties
executing such counterparts, and all of which together shall constitute one
instrument.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, and intending to be legally bound hereby, TI, Anam and Amkor
have caused their duly authorized representatives to execute this Agreement.

ANAM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.                      TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED


By: /s/ IN KIL HWANG                           By: /s/ K. BALA
    -------------------------                      --------------------------
Name:   In Kil Hwang                           Name:   K. Bala
     ------------------------                       -------------------------
                                               Title: Senior Vice President,
Title:  President and CEO                             SC Group
      -----------------------                         -----------------------
Date:   2/3/98                                 Date:
      -----------------------                         -----------------------


AMKOR ELECTRONICS, INC.

By:  /s/ ERIC LARSON
     ------------------------
Name:    Eric Larson
     ------------------------
Title:   President, AWFS
      -----------------------
Date:    January 30, 1998
      -----------------------


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                                     ANNEX A


   
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                                     ANNEX B
                      PERCENTAGE COMPLETION TABLE EXAMPLE:


   
                                      [*]
    

   
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                                     ANNEX C

                                   C12 DEVICES


LC541
LC545
LC546
LC548
F452654
F452659



                                        8

   1
                                                                   EXHIBIT 10.24

                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                   1998 STOCK OPTION PLAN FOR FRENCH EMPLOYEES


        1. Purposes of the Plan. The purposes of this 1998 Stock Option Plan for
French Employees are:

                -       to attract and retain the best available personnel for
                        positions of substantial responsibility,

                -       to provide additional incentive to French Employees, and

                -       to promote the success of the Company's business and the
                        business of its French subsidiary.

               Options under the Plan shall be granted at the discretion of the
Administrator and as reflected in the terms of Option Agreements, and are
intended to qualify for preferred treatment under French tax laws.

        2. Definitions. As used herein, the following definitions shall apply:

               (a) "Administrator" means the Board or any of its Committees as
shall be administering the Plan.

               (b) "Applicable Laws" means the legal requirements relating to
the administration of stock option plans under French corporate, securities, and
tax laws, any stock exchange or quotation system on which the Common Stock is
listed or quoted and the applicable laws of any country or jurisdiction where
Options are, or will be, granted under the Plan.

               (c) "Board" means the Board of Directors of the Company.

               (d) "Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

               (e) "Committee" means a committee of Directors appointed by the
Board in accordance with Section 4 of the Plan.

               (f) "Common Stock" means the common stock of the Company.

               (g) "Company" means Amkor Technology, Inc., a Delaware 
corporation.

               (h) "Director" means a member of the Board.


                                       -1-

   2



               (i) "Disability" means total and permanent disability, as defined
under Applicable Laws.

               (j) "Employee" means any person employed by a Subsidiary in a
salaried position, who does not own more than 10% of the voting power of all
classes of stock of the Company, or any Parent or Subsidiary, and who is a
resident of the Republic of France.

               (k) "Fair Market Value" means, as of any date, the dollar value
of Common Stock determined as follows:

                      (i) If the Common Stock is listed on any established stock
exchange or a national market system, including without limitation the Nasdaq
National Market of the Nasdaq Stock Market, its Fair Market Value shall be the
average quotation price (or the average closing bid if no sales were reported)
for the last 20 days preceding the date of determination for such stock as
quoted on such exchange or system and reported in The Wall Street Journal or
such other source as the Administrator deems reliable;

                      (ii) If the Common Stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Stock
Market (but not on the Nasdaq National Market thereof) or regularly quoted by a
recognized securities dealer but selling prices are not reported, its Fair
Market Value shall be the mean between the high bid and low asked prices for the
Common Stock for the last 20 days preceding the date of determination; or

                      (iii) In the absence of an established market for the 
Common Stock, the Fair Market Value thereof shall be determined in good faith by
the Administrator.

               (l) "Option" means a stock option granted pursuant to the Plan.

               (m) "Option Agreement" means a written agreement between the
Company and an Optionee evidencing the terms and conditions of an individual
Option grant. The Option Agreement is subject to the terms and conditions of the
Plan.

               (n) "Optioned Stock" means the Common Stock subject to an Option.

               (o) "Optionee" means a person eligible to participate in the Plan
pursuant to Section 5 and who holds an outstanding Option.

               (p) "Plan" means this Amkor Technology, Inc. 1998 Stock Option
Plan for French Employees.

               (q) "Share" means a share of the Common Stock, as adjusted in
accordance with Section 12 of the Plan.


                                       -2-

   3

               (r) "Subsidiary" means any participating subsidiary of the
Company located in the Republic of France.

        3. Stock Subject to the Plan. Subject to the provisions of Section 12 of
the Plan, the maximum aggregate number of Shares that may be optioned and sold
under the Plan is 250,000 Shares, plus an annual increase to be added on each
anniversary date of the adoption of the Plan equal to the lesser of (i) the
number of Shares needed to restore the maximum aggregate number of Shares which
may be optioned and sold under the Plan to 250,000, or (ii) a lesser amount
determined by the administrator. However, at no time shall the total number of
Options outstanding which may be exercised for newly issued Shares of Common
Stock exceed that number equal to one-third of the Company's voting stock. The
Shares may be authorized, but unissued, or reacquired Common Stock. If any
Optioned Stock is to consist of reacquired Shares, such Optioned Stock must be
purchased by the Company prior to the date of grant of the corresponding Option
and must be reserved and set aside for such purpose.

               If an Option expires or becomes unexercisable without having been
exercised in full, the unpurchased Shares which were subject thereto shall
become available for future grant under the Plan (unless the Plan has
terminated).

        4. Administration of the Plan.

               (a) Procedure. The Plan shall be administered by the Board or a
Committee.

               (b) Powers of the Administrator. Subject to the provisions of the
Plan, and in the case of a Committee, subject to the specific duties delegated
by the Board to such Committee, the Administrator shall have the authority, in
its discretion:

                      (i)  to determine Fair Market Value;

                      (ii) to select the persons to whom Options may be granted
hereunder;

                      (iii) to determine whether and to what extent Options are
granted hereunder;

                      (iv) to determine the number of Shares to be covered by
each Option granted hereunder;

                      (v)  to approve forms of agreement for use under the Plan;

                      (vi) to determine the terms and conditions, not
inconsistent with the terms of the Plan, of any award granted hereunder. Such
terms and conditions may include, but are not limited to, the exercise price,
the time or times when Options may be exercised (which may be based on
performance criteria), any vesting acceleration or waiver of forfeiture
restrictions, and any restriction or limitation regarding any Option or the
Shares relating thereto, based in each case on such factors as the
Administrator, in its sole discretion, shall determine;


                                       -3-

   4

                      (vii)  to construe and interpret the terms of the Plan;

                      (viii) to prescribe, amend and rescind rules and 
regulations relating to the Plan;

                      (ix) to modify or amend each Option (subject to Section
14(c) of the Plan);

                      (x)  to authorize any person to execute on behalf of the 
Company or a Subsidiary any instrument required to effect the grant of an Option
previously granted by the Administrator;

                      (xi) to determine the terms and restrictions applicable to
Options; and

                      (xii) to make all other determinations deemed necessary or
advisable for administering the Plan.

               (c) Effect of Administrator's Decision. The Administrator's
decisions, determinations and interpretations shall be final and binding on all
Optionees and any other holders of Options.

               (d) Reporting to the Shareholders' Meeting. The Company's annual
proxy statement shall state the number of shares subject to, the exercise price
of and number of Shares acquired upon exercise of Options granted hereunder.

        5. Eligibility. Options may be granted only to Employees; provided,
however, that the President Directeur General, the Directeur General and other
directors who are also Employees of a participating Subsidiary may be granted
Options. An individual who has been granted an Option may, if otherwise
eligible, be granted additional Options.

        6. Limitations. Neither the Plan nor any Option shall confer upon any
Optionee any right with respect to continuing the Optionee's employment
relationship with the Company.

        7. Term of Plan. The Plan shall become effective as of the date of its
adoption by the Board. It shall continue in effect until five years from the
date of its adoption, unless terminated earlier under Section 14 of the Plan.

        8. Term of Option. The term of each Option shall be as stated in the
Option Agreement; provided, however, that the maximum term of an Option shall
not exceed ten (10) years from the date of grant of the Option.

                                       -4-

   5

        9.     Option Exercise Price and Consideration.

               (a) Exercise Price. The exercise price for the Shares to be
issued pursuant to exercise of an Option shall be one hundred percent (100%) of
the Fair Market Value on the date the Option is granted. The exercise price
shall not be modified while the Option is outstanding.

               (b) Exercise and Vesting Dates. Options granted hereunder may be
exercised to the extent they have vested. Options granted hereunder shall vest
in accordance with the following vesting schedule: Fifty percent (50%) of the
Shares subject to this Option shall vest twenty-four months after the Vesting
Commencement Date (the "Initial Exercise Date"), and 1/24 of the remaining
Shares subject to the Option shall vest each month thereafter, subject to
Optionee=s Continuing Status as an Employee on such dates.

               (c) Restriction on Sale. The Shares subject to this Option may
not be transferred, assigned or hypothecated in any manner otherwise than by
will or by the laws of descent or distribution before the date three years after
the Initial Exercise Date.

               (d) Form of Consideration. The Administrator shall determine the
acceptable form of consideration for exercising an Option, including the method
of payment. Such consideration may consist of:

                      (i)   cash or check (denominated in U.S. Dollars);

                      (ii)  wire transfer (denominated in U.S. Dollars);

                      (iii) consideration received by the Company under a 
cashless exercise program implemented by the Company in connection with the
Plan;

                      (iv) any combination of the foregoing methods of payment.

        10. Exercise of Option.

               (a) Procedure for Exercise; Rights as a Shareholder. Any Option
granted hereunder shall be exercisable according to the terms of the Plan, but
may not be exercised for a fraction of a Share. An Option shall be deemed
exercised when:

                      (i) the Subsidiary or the Company receives written notice 
of exercise (in accordance with the Option Agreement and in the form attached
hereto as Exhibit A) from the person entitled to exercise the Option,
accompanied by full payment for the Shares with respect to which the Option is
exercised;


                                       -5-

   6

                      (ii) the Subsidiary or the Company receives a written
subscription agreement to the Shares (in accordance with the Option Agreement
and in the form attached hereto as Exhibit B) from the person entitled to
exercise the Option.

                      Full payment may consist of any consideration and method 
of payment authorized by the Administrator and permitted by the Option Agreement
and the Plan, and shall be deemed to be definitively made upon receipt of the
payment by the Subsidiary. Shares issued upon exercise of an Option shall be
issued in the name of the Optionee or, if requested by the Optionee, in the name
of the Optionee and his or her spouse. Until the Shares are issued (as evidenced
by the appropriate entry on the books of the Company or of a duly authorized
transfer agent of the Company), no right to vote or receive dividends or any
other rights as a shareholder shall exist with respect to the Optioned Stock,
notwithstanding the exercise of the Option. The Company shall issue to the
Optionee (or cause to be issued) such Shares promptly after the Option is
exercised and after full payment, as indicated above, is received by the
Company. No adjustment will be made for a dividend or other right for which the
record date is prior to the date the Shares are issued, except as provided in
Section 12 of the Plan.

                      Exercising an Option in any manner shall decrease the 
number of Shares thereafter available, both for purposes of the Plan and for
sale under the Option, by the number of Shares as to which the Option is
exercised.

               (b) Termination of Employment Relationship. In the event that an
Optionee's status as an Employee terminates (other than upon the Optionee's
death or Disability), the Optionee may exercise his or her Option, but only
within thirty (30) days, and only to the extent that the Optionee was entitled
to exercise it at the date of termination (but in no event later than the
expiration of the term of such Option as set forth in the Option Agreement). If,
at the date of termination, the Optionee is not entitled to exercise his or her
entire Option, the Shares covered by the unexercisable portion of the Option
shall revert to the Plan. If, after termination, the Optionee does not exercise
his or her Option within the time specified by the Administrator, the Option
shall terminate, and the Shares covered by such Option shall revert to the Plan.

               (c) Disability of Optionee. In the event that an Optionee's
status as an Employee terminates as a result of the Optionee's Disability, the
Optionee may exercise his or her Option at any time within six (6) months from
the date of such termination, but only to the extent that the Optionee was
entitled to exercise it at the date of such termination (but in no event later
than the expiration of the term of such Option as set forth in the Option
Agreement). If, at the date of termination, the Optionee is not entitled to
exercise his or her entire Option, the Shares covered by the unexercisable
portion of the Option shall revert to the Plan. If, after termination, the
Optionee does not exercise his or her Option within the time specified herein,
the Option shall terminate, and the Shares covered by such Option shall revert
to the Plan.


                                       -6-

   7

               (d) Death of Optionee. In the event of the death of an Optionee
while an Employee, the Option may be exercised at any time within six (6) months
following the date of death by the Optionee's estate or by a person who acquired
the right to exercise the Option by bequest or inheritance, but only to the
extent that the Optionee was entitled to exercise the Option at the date of
death. If, at the time of death, the Optionee was not entitled to exercise his
or her entire Option, the Shares covered by the unexercisable portion of the
Option shall revert to the Plan. If, after death, the Optionee's estate or a
person who acquired the right to exercise the Option by bequest or inheritance
does not exercise the Option within the time specified herein, the Option shall
terminate, and the Shares covered by such Option shall immediately revert to the
Plan.

        11. Non-Transferability of Options. An Option may not be sold, pledged,
assigned, hypothecated, transferred, or disposed of in any manner other than by
will or by the laws of descent or distribution and may be exercised, during the
lifetime of the Optionee, only by the Optionee.

        12. Adjustments Upon Changes in Capitalization, Dissolution, Merger,
Asset Sale or Change of Control.

               (a) Changes in Capitalization. Subject to any required action by
the shareholders of the Company, the number of shares of Common Stock covered by
each outstanding Option, and the number of shares of Common Stock which have
been authorized for issuance under the Plan but as to which no Options have yet
been granted or which have been returned to the Plan upon cancellation or
expiration of an Option, as well as the price per share of Common Stock covered
by each such outstanding Option, shall be proportionately adjusted for any
increase or decrease in the number of issued shares of Common Stock resulting
from a stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend, combination or
reclassification of the Common Stock, or any other increase or decrease in the
number of issued shares of Common Stock effected without receipt of
consideration by the Company; provided, however, that conversion of any
convertible securities of the Company shall not be deemed to have been "effected
without receipt of consideration." Such adjustment shall be made by the Board,
whose determination in that respect shall be final, binding and conclusive.
Except as expressly provided herein, no issuance by the Company of shares of
stock of any class, or securities convertible into shares of stock of any class,
shall affect, and no adjustment by reason thereof shall be made with respect to,
the number or price of shares of Common Stock subject to an Option.

               (b) Dissolution or Liquidation. In the event of the proposed
dissolution or liquidation of the Company, the Administrator shall notify the
Optionee at least fifteen (15) days prior to such proposed action. To the extent
it has not been previously exercised, the Option shall terminate immediately
prior to the consummation of such proposed action.

               (c) Merger or Asset Sale. In the event of a merger of the Company
with or into another corporation, or the sale of substantially all of the assets
of the Company, each outstanding Option shall be assumed or an equivalent Option
shall be substituted by the successor corporation or a Parent or Subsidiary of
the successor corporation, unless the successor corporation refuses to

                                       -7-

   8

assume the Option or to substitute an equivalent option, in which case the
Optionee shall have the right to exercise the Option as to all of the Optioned
Stock, including Shares as to which it would not otherwise be exercisable. If an
Option is exercisable in lieu of assumption or substitution in the event of a
merger or sale of assets, the Administrator shall notify the Optionee that the
Option shall be fully exercisable for a period of thirty (30) days from the date
of such notice, and the Option will terminate upon the expiration of such
period. For the purposes of this paragraph, the Option shall be considered
assumed if, following the merger or sale of assets, the Option confers the right
to purchase, for each Share of Optioned Stock subject to the Option immediately
prior to the merger or sale of assets, the consideration (whether stock, cash,
or other securities or property) received in the merger or sale of assets by
holders of Common Stock for each Share held on the effective date of the
transaction (and if holders were offered a choice of consideration, the type of
consideration chosen by the holders of a majority of the outstanding Shares);
provided, however, that if such consideration received in the merger or sale of
assets was not solely common stock of the successor corporation or its Parent,
the Administrator may, with the consent of the successor corporation and the
participant, provide for the consideration to be received upon the exercise of
the Option, for each Share of Optioned Stock subject to the Option, to be solely
common stock of the successor corporation or its Parent equal in fair market
value to the per share consideration received by holders of Common Stock in the
merger or sale of assets.

        13. Date of Grant. The date of grant of an Option shall be, for all
purposes, the date on which the Administrator makes the determination granting
such Option, or such other later date as is determined by the Administrator.
Notice of the determination shall be provided to each Optionee within a
reasonable time after the date of such grant.

        14. Amendment and Termination of the Plan.

               (a) Amendment and Termination. The Administrator may at any time
amend, alter, suspend or terminate the Plan.

               (b) Shareholder Approval. The Company shall obtain shareholder
approval of any Plan amendment to the extent necessary and desirable to comply
with Applicable Laws. Such shareholder approval, if required, shall be obtained
in such a manner and to such a degree as is required by the Applicable Laws.

               (c) Effect of Amendment or Termination. No amendment, alteration,
suspension or termination of the Plan shall impair the rights of any Optionee,
unless mutually agreed otherwise between the Optionee and the Administrator,
which agreement must be in writing and signed by the Optionee and a
representative of the Administrator.


                                       -8-

   9

        15. Conditions Upon Issuance of Shares.

               (a) Legal Compliance. Shares shall not be issued pursuant to the
exercise of an Option unless the exercise of such Option and the issuance and
delivery of such Shares shall comply with Applicable Laws, including, without
limitation, the requirements of any stock exchange or quotation system upon
which the Shares may then be listed or quoted, and shall be further subject to
the approval of counsel for the Company with respect to such compliance.

               (b) Investment Representations. As a condition to the exercise of
an Option, the Company may require the person exercising such Option to
represent and warrant at the time of any such exercise that the Shares are being
purchased only for investment and without any present intention to sell or
distribute such Shares if, in the opinion of counsel for the Company, such a
representation is required under Applicable Laws.

        16.    Liability of Company.

               (a) Inability to Obtain Authority. The inability of the Company
to obtain authority from any regulatory body having jurisdiction, which
authority is deemed by the Company's counsel to be necessary to the lawful
issuance and sale of any Shares hereunder, shall relieve the Company of any
liability in respect of the failure to issue or sell such Shares as to which
such requisite authority shall not have been obtained.

               (b) Grants Exceeding Allotted Shares. If the Optioned Stock
covered by an Option exceeds, as of the date of grant, the number of Shares
which may be issued under the Plan without additional shareholder approval, such
Option shall be void with respect to such excess Optioned Stock, unless
shareholder approval of an amendment sufficiently increasing the number of
Shares subject to the Plan is timely obtained in accordance with Section 14(b)
of the Plan. In the event more than one Option is granted which exceeds, as of
the date of grant, the number of Shares which may be issued under the Plan
without additional shareholder approval, such Options shall be void as set forth
in the preceding sentence on a pro rata basis.

        17. Reservation of Shares. The Company, during the term of this Plan,
will at all times reserve and keep available such number of Shares as shall be
sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the Plan.

OPTIONEE                                AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                                        By:
- --------------------------------           -------------------------------------
Signature

                                        Title:
- --------------------------------              ----------------------------------
Print Name

                                       -9-

   10

                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                   1998 STOCK OPTION PLAN FOR FRENCH EMPLOYEES

                             STOCK OPTION AGREEMENT


Unless otherwise defined herein, the terms defined in the 1998 Stock Option Plan
for French Employees shall have the same defined meanings in this Option
Agreement.

I.      NOTICE OF STOCK OPTION GRANT

        Optionee's Name and Address:
                                    ------------------------------------

                                    ------------------------------------

                                    ------------------------------------

                                    ------------------------------------

        You have been granted an option to purchase Common Stock, subject to the
terms and conditions of the Plan and this Stock Option Agreement, as follows:


        Date of Grant
                                                  -----------------------

        Exercise Price per Share                  $
                                                  -----------------------

        Total Number of Shares Granted
                                                  -----------------------

        Total Exercise Price                      $
                                                  -----------------------

        Term/Expiration Date:
                                                  -----------------------


        Vesting Schedule:

        This Option may be exercised, in whole or in part, in accordance with
the following schedule: Fifty percent (50%) of the Shares subject to this Option
shall vest twenty-four months after the Vesting Commencement Date (the "Initial
Exercise Date"), and 1/24 of the remaining Shares subject to the Option shall
vest each month thereafter, subject to Optionee=s Continuing Status as an
Employee on such dates.



   11

        Termination Period:

        This Option may be exercised, to the extent vested, for thirty (30) days
after termination of the Optionee's employment relationship, or for six (6)
months in the case of a termination of the Optionee's employment relationship as
a result of the death or Disability.

        Restriction on Sale:

        The Shares subject to this Option may not be transferred, assigned or
hypothecated in any manner otherwise than by will or by the laws of descent or
distribution before the date three years after the Initial Exercise Date.


II.     AGREEMENT

        1. Grant of Option. The Board of the Company hereby grants to the
Optionee, an option (the "Option") to purchase a number of Shares, as set forth
in the Notice of Grant, at the exercise price per share set forth in the Notice
of Grant (the "Exercise Price"), subject to the terms and conditions of the
Plan, which is incorporated herein by reference. Subject to Section 14(c) of the
Plan, in the event of a conflict between the terms and conditions of the Plan
and the terms and conditions of this Option Agreement, the terms and conditions
of the Plan shall prevail.

        2.     Exercise of Option.

               (a) Right to Exercise. This Option is exercisable during its term
in accordance with the Vesting Schedule set out in the Notice of Grant and the
applicable provisions of the Plan and this Option Agreement.

               (b) Method of Exercise. This Option is exercisable by: (i)
delivery of an exercise notice to the Subsidiary, in the form attached hereto as
Exhibit A (the "Exercise Notice"), which shall state the election to exercise
the Option and the number of Shares in respect of which the Option is being
exercised (the "Exercised Shares"), (ii) delivery of a subscription agreement to
the Subsidiary, in the form attached as Exhibit B (the "Subscription
Agreement"), (iii) delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price as to all Exercised
Shares to the Subsidiary and (iv) such other represen tations and agreements as
may be required by the Company or the Subsidiary pursuant to the provisions of
the Plan. Until issuance of such Shares (as evidenced by the appropriate entry
on the books of the Company or of a duly authorized transfer agent of the
Company), no right to vote or receive dividends or any other rights as a
shareholder shall exist with respect to the Optioned Stock, notwithstanding the
exercise of the Option. The Company shall issue to the Optionee (or cause to be
issued) such Shares promptly after the Option is exercised. No adjustment will
be made for a dividend or other right for which the record date is prior to the
date issuance of such Shares, except


                                       -2-

   12

as provided in Section 12 of the Plan. The Exercise Notice and Subscription
Agreement shall be signed by the Optionee and shall be delivered in person or by
certified mail to the Secretary of the Subsidiary. This Option shall be deemed
to be exercised upon receipt by the Subsidiary of such fully executed Exercise
Notice and Subscription Agreement accompanied by such aggregate Exercise Price.

               No Shares shall be issued pursuant to the exercise of this Option
unless such issuance and exercise complies with all relevant provisions of law
and the requirements of any stock exchange upon which the Shares are then
listed. Assuming such compliance, for income tax purposes the Exercised Shares
shall be considered transferred to the Optionee on the date the Option is
exercised with respect to such Exercised Shares.

        3. Method of Payment. Payment of the aggregate Exercise Price shall be
by any of the following, or a combination thereof, at the election of the
Optionee:

               (a)    cash or check (denominated in U.S. Dollars);

               (b)    wire transfer (denominated (in U.S. Dollars);

               (c) consideration received by the Company under a cashless
exercise program implemented by the Company in connection with the Plan.

        4. Non-Transferability of Option. This Option may not be transferred in
any manner otherwise than by will or by the laws of descent or distribution and
may be exercised during the lifetime of Optionee only by the Optionee. The terms
of the Plan and this Option Agreement shall be binding upon the executors,
administrators, heirs, successors and assigns of the Optionee.

        5. Term of Option. This Option may be exercised only within the term set
out in the Notice of Grant, and may be exercised during such term only in
accordance with the Plan and the terms of this Option Agreement.

OPTIONEE ACKNOWLEDGES AND AGREES THAT NOTHING IN THIS AGREEMENT, NOR IN THE
COMPANY'S STOCK OPTION PLAN, WHICH IS INCORPORATED HEREIN BY REFERENCE, SHALL
CONFER UPON OPTIONEE ANY RIGHT WITH RESPECT TO CONTINUATION OF EMPLOYMENT BY THE
COMPANY OR THE SUBSIDIARY.


                                       -3-

   13

        By your signature and the signature of the Company's representative
below, you and the Company agree that this Option is granted under and governed
by the terms and conditions of the Plan and this Option Agreement. Optionee has
reviewed the Plan and this Option Agreement in their entirety, has had an
opportunity to obtain the advice of counsel prior to executing this Option Agree
ment and fully understands all provisions of the Plan and Option Agreement.
Optionee hereby agrees to accept as binding, conclusive and final all decisions
or interpretations of the Administrator upon any questions relating to the Plan
and Option Agreement.


OPTIONEE                                AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.


                                        By:
- --------------------------------           -------------------------------------
Signature

                                        Title:
- --------------------------------              ----------------------------------
Print Name


                                       -4-

   14

                                    EXHIBIT A

                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                   1998 STOCK OPTION PLAN FOR FRENCH EMPLOYEES

                                 EXERCISE NOTICE



[________________________________]



Attention:  General Secretary


        1. Exercise of Option. Effective as of today, _______________, 199__,
the undersigned ("Optionee") hereby elects to purchase _________ Shares under
and pursuant to the Plan and the Stock Option Agreement dated ___________ (the
"Option Agreement"). The purchase price for the Shares shall be $__________, as
required by the Option Agreement.

        2. Delivery of Payment. Optionee herewith delivers to the Company the
full purchase price for the Shares.

        3. Representations of Optionee. Optionee acknowledges that Optionee has
received, read and understood the Plan and the Option Agreement and agrees to
abide by and be bound by their terms and conditions.

        4. Rights as Shareholder. Until issuance of the Shares (as evidenced by
the appropriate entry on the books of the Company or of a duly authorized
transfer agent of the Company), no right to vote or receive dividends or any
other rights as a shareholder shall exist with respect to the Optioned Stock,
notwithstanding the exercise of the Option.

        5. Tax Consultation. Optionee represents that Optionee has consulted
with any tax consultants Optionee deems advisable in connection with the
purchase or disposition of the Shares and that Optionee is not relying on the
Company for any tax advice.

        6. Entire Agreement; Governing Law. The Plan and Option Agreement are
incorporated herein by reference. This Agreement, the Plan and the Option
Agreement constitute the entire agreement of the parties and supersede in their
entirety all prior undertakings and agreements of the



   15

Company and Optionee with respect to the subject matter hereof, and such
agreement is governed by the laws of California and the United States of America
except for that body of laws pertaining to conflict of laws.


Submitted by:                                      Accepted by:

OPTIONEE                                           AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.


                                        By:
- --------------------------------           -------------------------------------
Signature

                                        Title:
- --------------------------------              ----------------------------------
Print Name

Address:
        -----------------------

- -------------------------------

- -------------------------------


                                       -2-

   16

                                    EXHIBIT B

                             AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                   1998 STOCK OPTION PLAN FOR FRENCH EMPLOYEES

                             SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT


[_____________________________]
        [address]

Attention:  General Secretary

               1.     Amount and Terms of the Subscription

               In conformity with the Plan, an Option was granted according to
the Stock Option Agreement dated _________________ (the "Option Agreement").

               _______ Shares shall be issued to the benefit of the undersigned
(the "Subscriber") in accordance with the applicable laws of the United States
of America and the State of California and within the limits of the authorized
capital of the Company.

               The Shares acquired may be paid up by:

               (a) cash or check (denominated in U.S. Dollars);

               (b) wire transfer (denominated in U.S. Dollars);

               (c) consideration received by the Company under a cashless
exercise program implemented by the Company in connection with the Plan.

               2.     Subscription Agreement

                I, the undersigned, Last name
                                             ----------------------------------
                                    First name
                                             ----------------------------------
                                    Residence
                                             ----------------------------------

                subscribe to _____________ Shares.


                                       -1-

   17



        Supporting my subscription I shall pay the total amount of the purchase
price of the Shares following one or more of the methods described in I. above.


The Subscriber                              AMKOR TECHNOLOGY, INC.

                                            By:
- -----------------------------                  --------------------------------
Signature

                                            Title:
- -----------------------------                  --------------------------------
Print Name

Address:
        --------------------

- ----------------------------

- ----------------------------



                                       -2-

   1
                                  EXHIBIT 21.1


                         Subsidiaries of the Registrant

Guardian Assets, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its wholly owned subsidiaries
(A) AK Industries, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Amkor-Anam, Inc., each
a Texas corporation, (B) Amkor Wafer Fabrication Services SARL, a corporation
organized under the laws of France, (C) Amkor Receivables Corporation, a
corporation organized under the laws of Delaware, and (D) Amkor International
Holdings, a corporation organized under the laws of the British Cayman Islands,
and its wholly owned subsidiaries (x) Amkor/Anam Euroservices S.A.R.L., a
corpora